A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Reference: Research in Physics

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BOOK: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

(This is a work in progress)

Preface

This Physics Book

PART 1

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

I : THE FOUNDATIONS OF ATOMIC THEORY

  • Atomism in Antiquity (Lucretius ca. 99 – 55 B.C.)
  • Vortices and Particles (Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650)
  • Particles in the Atmosphere (Robert Boyle 1627 – 1691)
  • Matter & Motion (Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703)
  • A Wave Theory of Light (Christian Huygens 1629 – 1695)
  • Newton on Particles and Kinetics (Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727)
  • A Kinetic Theory of Gases (Daniel Bernoulli 1700 – 1782)
  • The Atom as a Center of Force (Roger Joseph Boscovich 1711 – 1787)
  • Atomic Chemistry Before Dalton (Bryan Higgins 1737-1820, William Higgins 1769 – 1825)

THEORY
The atom is a vortex in a sea of energy substance. The atomic substance is gradually condensing, until it becomes a spinning mass at the center. The atoms are ceaselessly in motion relative to one another.

II : THE FOUNDATIONS OF ATOMIC CHEMISTRY

  • The Birth of Atomic Theory (John Dalton 1766 – 1844)
  • The Volume Combination of Gases (Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac 1778 – 1850)
  • Atoms and Molecules – Avogadro’s Law (Amedeo Avogadro 1776 – 1856)
  • The Search for Primordial Material (William Prout 1785 – 1850)

THEORY
The atom is a spinning nucleus surrounded by a vortex of energy substance. All its mass is concentrated in the nucleus of negligible volume. All its volume comprises of the energy vortex of negligible mass. All different atoms have masses that are multiples of the mass of hydrogen atom. These atoms combine in simple and definite ratios.

III : THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER

  • Atoms in Motion (John Herapath 1790 – 1868)
  • “Active Molecules” – Brownian Motion (Robert Brown 1773 – 1858)
  • The Tragedy of a Genius (John James Waterston 1811 – 1883)
  • The Conservation of Energy–The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (James Prescott Joule 1818 – 1889)
  • The Range of Molecular Speeds in a Gas (James Clerk Maxwell 1831 – 1879)

THEORY
The atomic and molecular particles have intrinsic motion. This is expressed as inherent kinetic energy. This energy manifests as momentum, heat, chemical activity, and electrical force. It gives rise to the properties of pressure, temperature, volume  and density of gases. The total momentum and energy are conserved.

IV : NEW CONFIRMATION OF CHEMICAL ATOMIC THEORY

  • Polyatomic Molecules (Stanislao Cannizzaro 1826 – 1910)
  • The Periodic Table of the Elements (Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev 1834 – 1907)

THEORY
Atoms have atomic weights that are multiples of a basic quantity. The properties of the elements are related to their atomic weights in a periodic manner. Therefore, the atoms have a definite internal structure.

V : BEYOND THE ATOM

  • Atoms and Electricity (Michael Faraday 1791 – 1867)
  • Electromagnetic Theory (James Clerk Maxwell 1831 – 1879)
  • Cathode Rays – A “Fourth State of Matter” (William Crookes 1832 – 1919)
  • A Remarkable Regularity in the Hydrogen Spectrum (Johann Jacob Balmer 1825 – 1898)
  • The Luminiferous Ether Receives a Mortal Blow (Albert A. Michelson 1852 – 1931, Edward W. Morley 1838 – 1923)

THEORY
Charge within the atom acts as the transitional phase between its nuclear mass and surrounding energy. It is responsible for the chemical force that locks atoms together. It can flow out into vacuum as cathode rays. Atoms extend out in space as electromagnetic vortex of energy and force that fills the space. The regularity of atomic structure is visible in atomic spectra that is produced when atoms absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation, such as light. Light is electromagnetic substance and not a disturbance in some ethereal medium.

VI : THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS

  • The Discovery of X-rays (Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen 1845 – 1923)
  • The Discovery of Radioactivity (Antoine Henri Becquerel 1852 – 1908)
  • The Discovery of the Electron (J. J. Thomson 1856 – 1940)
  • The Discovery of Polonium and Radium (Pierre Curie 1859 – 1906, Marie Sklodovska Curie 1867 – 1934)
  • The Discovery of α-and β-rays from Uranium (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937)
  • The Discovery of γ-rays (Paul Villard 1860 – 1934)
  • The Transformation of the Elements (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937, Frederick Soddy 1877 – 1956)
  • The Quantum Theory of Radiation (Max Planck 1858 – 1947)
  • Mass Changes with Velocity (Walter Kaufmann 1871 – 1947)
  • The Electron Theory of Matter (Henrik Anton Lorentz 1853 – 1928)
  • Einstein’s Legacy (Albert Einstein 1879 – 1955)

THEORY
Nuclear matter is surrounded by charge that exists as a vortex in the sea of electromagnetic radiation. All are different form of substance in that they all possess momentum and inertia. The electromagnetic radiation has extremely small momentum and inertia, and it is not reducible to discrete particles. The charge has greater moment and inertia and appears as discrete fluid-like vortices. Nuclear matter has the highest momentum and inertia and appears as solid discrete point particles.

The substance forms a spectrum from space (extremely thin consistency) to matter (very thick consistency).  X-rays appear with excitations in the deep electronic region. γ-rays are spontaneously emitted from the nuclear region. The latter is accompanied by changes in the nuclear structure. A small amount of matter is equivalent to a very large amount of radiation in terms of energy. The acceleration of charge increases its inertia, which appears as “increase in mass.”

Atoms absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation in amounts proportional to the consistency of the radiation. Quantum refers to the consistency of radiation and the energy of interaction. The radiation is continuous in space. As the consistency of substance increases, it increasingly curves upon itself. It appears to shrink in extent until it appears like a particle. It loses linear velocity, and increases in duration. This was seen as “shrinking of space” and “dilation of time.”

The intrinsic motion of radiation is balanced by its innate inertia. This appears as a constant speed; for example, the speed of light. The speed of light is so large that it appears to be constant from material frames of references. This leads to the correction factor employed by the special theory of relativity. The equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass leads to the theory of gravitation of the general theory of relativity.

VII : NEW IDEAS AND NEW MEASUREMENTS

  • The “Thomson” Atom (J. J. Thomson 1856 – 1940)
  • The Determination of Avogadro’s Number (Jean Perrin 1870 – 1942)
  • The α-Particle and Helium (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937)
  • Atoms of Electricity (Robert Andrews Millikan 1868 – 1953)

THEORY
A neutral atom consists of both positive and negative charges in equal amounts. The charges in atom do not neutralize because they are part of a stable whirlpool-like configuration. A unit charge at the level of atom may be determined just like the unit mass. The electronic charge may be added or removed to produce negative and positive ions respectively.

VIII : TWO FAR-REACHING DISCOVERIES

  • The Discovery of Cosmic Rays (Viktor F. Hess 1883 – 1964)
  • The Cloud Chamber (Charles Thomson Rees Wilson 1869 – 1959)

THEORY
The outer space is not empty of substance.

IX : THE NUCLEAR ATOM

  • Strange Results from α-Particle Scattering (Hans Geiger 1882 – 1945, Ernest Marsden 1889 – 1970)
  • The Nuclear Atom (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937)
  • Atomic Structure (Niels Bohr 1885 – 1962)
  • The Quantum Theory is Tested (James Franck 1882 – 1964, Gustav Hertz 1887 – 1975)
  • The discovery of Isotopes (Frederick Soddy 1877 – 1956)
  • The Positive Rays (J. J. Thomson 1856 – 1940)
  • Transmutation of an Element (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937)
  • The Diversity of Atoms (Francis William Aston 1877 – 1945)

THEORY
The atom consists of a small massive nucleus surrounded by a large volume of rapidly revolving electrons. The  electrons have momentum but no mass. They form discrete stationary orbits around the nucleus that have variations in consistency and energy. Exchanges among these stationary orbits generate the spectral lines. The nucleus is made up of protons but there is a mass defect as protons combine. There are isotopes and artificial transmutation can be induced.

X : X-RAYS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE RIDDLE OF MATTER

  • Interference Phenomena (Max von Laue 1879 – 1960, Walter Friedrich 1883 – 1968, Paul Knipping 1883 – 1935)
  • Bragg’s Law (William Henry Bragg 1862 – 1942, William Lawrence Bragg 1890 – 1971)
  • Atomic Number (Antonius Van der Broek 1870 – 1926)

THEORY
The number of charges in an element’s atomic nucleus is exactly equal to the element’s place on Mendeleev’s periodic table. 

XI : ATOMIC THEORY DEVELOPS

  • Atomic Number (Henry G. J. Mosley 1887 – 1915)
  • Quantum Theory of Radiation and Atomic Processes (Albert Einstein 1879 – 1955)
  • The Compton Effect (Arthur H. Compton 1892 – 1962)
  • Space Quantization (Otto Stern 1888 – 1969, Walter Gerlach 1889 – 1979)
  • Electron Spin (Samuel A. Goudsmit 1902 – 1978, George E. Uhlenbeck 1900 – 1988)
  • The Exclusion Principle (Wolfgang Pauli 1900 – 1958)
  • Secondary Radiation (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 1888 – 1970)
  • Statistical Mechanics (S. N. Bose 1894 – 1974)

THEORY
The structure of the atom is increasingly the result of mathematical consistency among experimental observations. The mathematical model defines the structure of the substance that is transitioning from mass of the nucleus into the surrounding vortex of energy.

XII : WAVE MECHANICS

  • The Principle of Least Action (William Rowan Hamilton 1805 – 1865)
  • The Wavelengths of Particles (Prince Lois V. de Broglie 1892 – 1987)
  • A Wave Equation for Particles (Erwin Schrodinger 1887 – 1961)
  • Statistics and Waves (Max Born 1882 – 1970)
  • The Uncertainty Principle (Werner Karl Heisenberg 1901 – 1976)
  • The Barrier around the Nucleus (George Gamow 1904 – 1968)
  • Electron Waves (Clinton J. Davisson 1881 – 1958, George Paget Thomson 1892 – 1975)
  • The Electron and Relativity (Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac 1902 – 1984)
  • “Holes” in the Dirac Theory (J. Robert Oppenheimer 1904 – 1967)
  • Complementarity (Niels Bohr 1885 – 1962)

THEORY
The mathematical development seems to confirm that electrons are a wavelike flow that has variable consistency. Even the nucleus is a pattern of a very condensed flow.

XIII : NEW PARTICLES AND ATOMIC ACCELERATORS

  • The positive Electron – The First Particle of Antimatter (Carl D. Anderson 1905 – 1991)
  • The discovery of the Deuteron (Harold Clayton Urey 1893 – 1981)
  • Discovery of the Neutron (James Chadwick 1891 – 1974)
  • Fermi’s Contributions (Enrico Fermi 1901 – 1954)
  • Artificial Nuclear Disintegration (John Cockcroft 1897 – 1967, Ernest Walton 1903 – 1995)
  • The Electrostatic Generator (Robert Jemison Van De Graaff 1901 – 1967)
  • The Cyclotron (Ernest O. Lawrence 1901 – 1958), Milton S. Livingston 1905 – 1986)
  • The Discovery of Induced Radioactivity (Jean F. Joliot 1900 – 1958, Irene Curie Joliot 1897 – 1956)
  • Prediction of the Meson (Hideki Yukawa 1907 – 1981)

THEORY
The inside of the nucleus has no charge. It mainly consists of “neutrons.” As the energy levels decrease in the direction of increasing radius the neutron becomes a positively charged proton. Therefore, “protons” seem to exist on the surface of the nucleus. As energy level decreases further with increasing radius, the charge switches polarity, and we have negatively charged electrons. A sharp gradient of decrease in mass exists from proton to electron. Beyond electrons we have the fluid energy of electromagnetic radiation. The charged layer made up of protons and electrons is like a softening solid becoming partially fluid. Therefore, in nature, solid mass is separated from fluid energy by a semi-fluid layer of charge. The solid mass, the electrifying charge, and the fluid energy exist in perfect balance.

XIV : NEWER DEVELOPMENTS IN ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR THEORY

  • Mesons (Cecil Frank Powell 1903 – 1969)
  • The Antiproton (Emilio Segrè 1905 – 1989, Owen Chamberlain 1920 – 2006)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Moment (Isidor I. Rabi 1898 – 1988)
  • Hydrogen and the Elementary Particles (Willis E. Lamb, Jr. 1913 – 2008)
  • Magnetic Moment of the Electron (Polykarp Kusch 1911 – 1993)
  • High Energy Physics (Hans Bethe 1906 – 2005, Julian Schwinger 1918 – 1994, Richard Feynman 1918 – 1988)
  • The Nuclear Shell (Johannes D. Jensen 1907 – 1973)
  • Radiocarbon Dating (Willard F. Libby 1908 – 1980)

THEORY
The nucleus forms the extremely small core of the atomic vortex. The rotating orbital within the nucleus are similar to the orbitals in the electronic region, but they are extremely small and tight.

XV : NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND NUCLEAR ENERGY

  • Nuclear Theory (Werner K. Heisenberg 1901 – 1976)
  • Energy Production in Stars (Hans A. Bethe 1906 – 2005)
  • Fission (Lise Meitner 1878 – 1968, Otto R. Frisch 1904 – 1968, Niels Bohr 1885 – 1962)
  • Chain-Reacting Pile (Enrico Fermi 1901 – 1954)
  • Power from Fusion (Ernest W. Titterton 1914 – 1990)

THEORY
Nuclear reactions generate the radiation of stars similar to the sun. Future research on nucleus requires closer study of the stars.

XVI : HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

  • Parity and Its Ill Fortune (C. N. Yang b. 1922, T. D. Lee b. 1926)
  • Nuclei and Nucleons (R. Hofstadter 1915 – 1990)
  • Elementary Particles (H. A. Boorse 1904 – 2003, L. Motz 1909 – 2004)

THEORY
The atom is a vortex of condensing substance.

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PART II

Chapters

  1. Physics, Anomalies and Assumptions
  2. Matter & Void
  3. Matter, Space and Time
  4. Absolute & Relative Motion
  5. Feynman on Quantum Behavior
  6. The Wave-Particle Duality
  7. Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta
  8. The Universal Frame of Reference
  9. Newtonian Relativity
  10. Einstein’s Relativity
  11. The Lorentz Transformation
  12. The Spectrum of Substance
  13. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  14. The Wave Function

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APPENDIX

  1. Faraday: Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter
  2. Faraday: Thoughts on Ray Vibrations
  3. Faraday: On the Conservation of Force
  4. Faraday & Maxwell

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GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY OF PHYSICS

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NOTES

  1. This Research
  2. Physics, Objectivity and Subjectivity
  3. Human Interface of Physics
  4. The Space-Time
  5. Objective & Subjective Reality
  6. Physics & Reality
  7. The Logic of Reality
  8. The Logic of Substance
  9. The Logic of Field
  10. The Logic of Motion
  11. What is Quantum Field Theory?
  12. Quantum & Consistency
  13. Gravitational Radiation

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Comments

  • Saeed Ahmed  On September 4, 2019 at 10:09 AM

    Hi Vinaire, are you still expecting feedbacks on your book?

    • vinaire  On September 4, 2019 at 11:58 AM

      Sure. These chapters are just drafts. I keep on refining them.

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