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BOOK: A Scientific Approach to Meditation

BOOK: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

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Mass, Energy and Time

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Substance has the characteristic of mass that is directly related to its substantiality. In fact, the substantiality may be expressed in terms of the density of mass. The mass density may be plotted on a continuous scale meaning that it is continuous in value. It is not an integer multiple of some ultimate amount that is indivisible.

Mass is the measure of substantiality of substance.

The intrinsic motion of substance is expressed as its energy. The agitation of gas molecules is an example of intrinsic motion. Another example is the Brownian motion. The intrinsic motion appears naturally between two substances of different mass densities. An example is the extremely rapid motion of electrons around the nucleus of an atom. Another example is the speed of light relative to earth. These motions are intrinsic. There are no external force generating such motion. 

Energy is the measure of intrinsic motion of substance.

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Substantiality and Motion

Matter is highly substantial, and it endures at any location for a long time. Its intrinsic motion, therefore, is very small. Light, on the other hand has little substantiality, and it barely endures at any location. Its intrinsic motion, therefore, is very high. This sums up to the following observation.

The higher is the substantiality (mass density) of substance, the lower is its intrinsic motion (energy).

In other words, higher is its intrinsic motion, lower is the substantiality of substance. This means that near infinite speed of light must be accompanied by infinitesimal substantiality. Therefore, light must have insignificant but finite mass density.

Einstein’s assertion that light has no mass may be interpreted as follows:

  1. The mass density of light is insignificant and negligible compared to the mass density of matter, or
  2. Light does not have the property of “center of mass”. 

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Mass and energy

Per the discussion above, intrinsic motion is inverse of mass density. In other words, energy is inversely related to mass density. This seems to contradict Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2, which seems to relate energy directly to mass.

This contradiction, however, resolves when we look at this equation in terms of unit conversion. Using this equation, we can express mass in energy units, and energy in mass units. It shows that infinitesimal amount of mass density is equivalent to a significant amount of energy because of the large multiplier c2.

Therefore, when mass expands into energy, the amount of that energy is significantly large, and when energy condenses into mass, the amount of that mass is insignificantly small.

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Time

The discussion above also provides us with a new understanding of time as the “duration of substance.” The higher is the mass density of substance, the longer is the time for which it endures at any location, and the lower is its intrinsic motion. Therefore,

Time is directly proportional to mass density, and inversely proportional to intrinsic motion.

Time has the intrinsic nature of duration that depends on how dense substance is at any location. The fourth dimension at any location, therefore, is mass density.

Each location has three dimensions of space and a fourth dimension of mass density (duration).

Locations of infinite mass density shall have infinite duration and they shall act as points of absolute rest. Thus, points of infinite density shall act as reference points for surrounding motion. That is why we find black holes at the center of galaxies.

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Particle, Continuum and Atom

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Particle and continuum are the subcategories of substance. Their extents are defined by space. Both are absent in the void. Current physics has no proper definitions for them.

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The Particle

The idea of particle refers to things that have separate and distinct identities, so they exist as discrete entities. A material body is a discrete entity that may be broken down into smaller particles. The smallest particles of matter are called atoms. In modern physics, these “atoms” are characterized by a set of elementary particles. 

A particle is distinguished by its “center of mass”. Mass constitutes all matter. The distribution of mass is rigid and homogenous throughout volume of classical atom. A rigid arrangement of atoms then constitutes a material body. This rigidity produces a “center of mass” such that forces acting on the body may be reduced to a single resultant force acting on that center. Moments due to the forces may also be reduced to a single resultant torque at that center. This allows a rigid material body to be treated as a “point particle”. 

In classical mechanics, the distinct identity of a particle comes from its “center of mass”. 

A material bodies may be treated as a particle, or as a system of particles. The particles are distributed discretely in space.

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The Continuum

When there is no center of mass, there is nothing to distinguish one particle from another. The substance then exists as a continuum in space. Light is such a substance. Light is not made up of discrete particles. This seems to contradict the idea of photons advanced by Einstein.

This contradiction is resolved when we realize that photons are “energy particles” as stated by Einstein, because a certain amount of light is required to generate the interaction by which photons are detected. This is what happens in the photoelectric phenomenon. Discrete interactions do not necessarily imply that light is discrete in space.

This is similar to chemical fluids reacting in definite proportions. We may say that such reactions are discrete in terms of energy, but that does not imply that fluids are discrete in space. When many such interactions take place, we may say that we have energy particles. But, where configuration in space is concerned, it is not necessarily discrete.

The continuum of substance has no “center of mass”, but it has a density that can be sensed. 

In case of light, the density is defined by the frequency. This frequency defines Einstein’s energy quanta. Different continua of substances are distinguished by different densities.

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The Atom 

Both particle and continuum states exist within the atom. The nucleus at the center of the atom is only 0.01% of the atom. It may be treated as a point particle. But the rest 99.99% of the atom is made up of the electronic region that has a mass density 1840 times less than that of the nucleus. This large electronic region flows rapidly around the tiny nucleus like a two-dimensional whirlpool, similar to the shape of a galaxy. 

Electrons cannot be distinguished as particles because they do not contain center of mass. Electrons, therefore, form a continuum in space. But electrons are energy particles because a certain amount of fluid-like electrons must collect in a detector before a click is heard.

The same reasoning applies to all other quantum particles. Each of them is a fluid-like continuum in space that has a particular mass density. But each also acts like an energy particle when taking part in an interaction.

In an atom beyond the nucleus there is mass but no “center of mass”. It is just continuum.

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The Belief in Physics

There seems to be an assumption in physics that energy particles cannot form a continuum in space, that they must have discrete existence. This belief goes back to atomism, which considers atoms to be indivisible.

Newton’s corpuscular theory of light considered corpuscles of light to be infinitely divisible. In other words, Newton looked at light as a fluid-like continuum from which any amount could be drawn for energy interaction. A quantum has a specific value determined from how it interacts, but that value is part of a continuum.

This book looks at quanta in the sense of infinitely divisible corpuscles and not as indivisible atoms.

A quantum is an energy particle. Its value depends on the energy of the interaction used to detect it. But, as far as composition goes, quanta is a continuum in space that is infinitely divisible, and which has certain mass density.

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Matter, Void and Space

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

In this essay, we define some common concepts from the viewpoint of physics. The most common concept is MATTER.  Matter is something that can be sensed. The opposite of matter is VOID that cannot be sensed. Matter and void, thus, form a duality.

MATTER – VOID

But there is SPACE that is neither matter nor void. Space is not void because we can sense it. Space is not matter because it still exists as a perfect vacuum when all matter is removed. Space, thus, forms a region between matter and void.

MATTER – SPACE – VOID

In other words, space consists of things that can be sensed but which are not matter. We identify such things as light and gravity. The objective definitions are:

Matter is that which is substantial enough to be sensed.

Space is absence of matter, but it still consists of light and gravity that can be sensed.

Void is the absence of matter, space and anything else that can be sensed.

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Substance

We use the word SUBSTANCE as a broad category for things that are physically substantial such that they can be sensed. Matter, light and gravity fall under this category of substance. Traditionally, matter has been viewed as a substance, but not light and gravity. This has been a source of much confusion. Newton looked at light as a substance, but that was seriously questioned by the wave theory. Today we are not sure if light is a particle or a wave.

This confusion is resolved when we categorize light as a substance because it can be sensed. The same argument goes for gravity. The nature of light and gravity as substance is clarified further in subsequent chapters.

In this book, we extend the definition of substance to matter, light and gravity because they are substantial enough to be sensed. 

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Space

Space consists of matter, light and gravity. In other words, space consists of substance. Descartes had argued that space is “the sense of extension”. This was explained by Einstein in “Relativity and the Problem of Space” as follows:

Descartes argued somewhat on these lines: space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space. 

Matter has space which it occupies. Similarly, light and gravity also have spaces that they occupy. Space is sensed only because of the substance that occupies it. When there is no substance, there is no space. Beyond space is the void that cannot be sensed.

In this book we define space as the sense of extension of substance (matter, light and gravity). 

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Current Physics

The above definitions differ from those used in current physics as follows.

(1) Current physics confines itself to matter, light (electromagnetic radiation) and gravity but it does not categorize them as substance. Therefore, there is no general category in current physics for things that can be physically sensed.

(2) Current physics considers quantum particles to be the ultimate constituents of matter, light and gravity, but it does not look at them as substance either. Therefore, physics goes deep into abstraction where boundaries are blurred between things that can be sensed and those that are merely imagined.

(3) Current physics does not differentiate between space and void because it does not look at space as the extension of things that can be sensed. It treats space as an abstract continuum that can curve and bend like rigid matter. 

(4) In short, current physics reduces matter to the idea of discrete particles, and void to the idea of a malleable continuum. The duality of matter and void is no longer as distinct as it once used to be. 

This brings up the lack of clear definition in current physics for the word particle. This is taken up in the next chapter.

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The Reality of Mind

Reference: A Scientific Approach to Meditation

When the mind operates from the viewpoint of emptiness, it sees things as they are. This is the objective reality. We perceive objective reality directly through our physical perceptions of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. The mind then assimilates these perceptions ensuring consistency, harmony and continuity. The enduring aspects of this assimilation, based on generations of experience, become wisdom or common sense.

The degree of mental assimilation depends on consistency, harmony and continuity.

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Objectivity

The objectivity depends on seeing things as they are. The word objective is derived from object that has the sense of “something perceived”. Objective reality is not only made tangible through the physical perceptions, but also made logically consistent by the mental perception. The objective reality is that which has been tested and verified and cannot be argued with. It is the same for all people when all known inconsistencies have been resolved.

The subjectivity is different for different people and it may be argued with. The word subjective is derived from subject that has the sense of “open to inspection”. Subjective reality depends on individual viewpoint. It is characterized by inconsistencies among viewpoints that still need to be resolved. As inconsistencies are resolved the subjective reality becomes increasingly objective.

There is, however, a misconception that all perceptions processed through the mind are subjective. The fact is that perceptions are assimilated to different degrees in the mind. Completely assimilated perceptions are objective. As the degree of assimilation reduces, so does the objectivity. The conclusion then become increasingly subjective.

Objectivity depends on the assimilation of perceptions in the mind. To the degree perceptions are not assimilated there is subjectivity.

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The Basis of Mind

Reference: A Scientific Approach to Meditation

The mind deals with phenomena. A phenomenon is anything that you become aware of.  A phenomenon can be physical, mental, spiritual, real or imaginary. To assess the nature of a phenomenon completely you must view it from a point beyond phenomena.

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Emptiness

That viewpoint which is beyond all phenomena is the viewpoint of emptiness. The Heart Sutra in Buddhism defines EMPTINESS as no Birth no Death, no Being no Non-being, no Defilement no Purity, no Increasing no Decreasing.  

The viewpoint of emptiness is just that. It is totally fresh. It is completely clean. There are no preconceived notions, no fixed ideas, and no bias. In short, the concept of emptiness is not viewed through any filters. It is simply what it is.

From a scientific viewpoint, emptiness is like the zero of a scale on which all phenomena may be plotted. Emptiness itself is not a phenomenon, just like zero is not a value. Thus, emptiness provides a reference point from which it is possible to give an objective meaning to any phenomena.

The purpose of a reference point is to align everything that follows. In the absence of a reference point things devolve into confusion. It is common to assume an arbitrary reference point just to avoid the immediate confusion, even when it can’t resolve everything.

GOD is such a reference point. It is there to resolve the confusion of physical reality. But it cannot resolve the reality of itself. To understand the reality of GOD a more basic reference point is needed.

Emptiness is that basic reference point. It has the property of being inherently understood because it denotes the absence of all phenomena. No other reference point is required to understand emptiness.

The basis of mind is emptiness. To see things as they are, the mind must view them from the reference point of emptiness.

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