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BOOK: A Scientific Approach to Meditation

BOOK: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

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Particle, Quantum and Mass

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

We all are familiar with the idea of a particle of matter. At chemical level the smallest particle is considered to be an atom. An atom is a particle of matter. It has mass.

The idea of quantum was born out of the study of black body radiation in an effort to explain the radiation spectra.

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Black Body Radiation

The above graph shows the relationship of Spectral radiance to wave-length of the radiation. Spectral radiance is the radiance of a surface per unit wavelength. It is also called “specific intensity”. It provides the specific rate of energy transfer.

The Classical theory assumes that vibrational modes can increase infinitely. It predicts an energy output that diverges towards infinity as wavelength approaches zero. Measurements of the spectral emission of actual black bodies reveals that the emission agrees with the classical theory at large wavelengths but diverges at low wavelengths; reaching a maximum and then falling, so the total energy emitted is finite.

Max Planck found a mathematical expression fitting the experimental data satisfactorily. But he had to assume that the energy of the oscillators in the cavity could only change its energy in a minimal increment, E, that was proportional to the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave. In other words, energy could be released only in packets (quanta) that were proportional to the frequency. Such quanta become fewer at high frequencies (low wavelengths), and, as a result, spectral radiance decreases.

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Maxwell’s omission

Fifty years prior to Planck, Faraday had expressed in his lecture on Ray Vibrations that radiation could be expressed as vibrating lines of force. Such lines of force could increase in numbers (intensity), but also in density. The energy output was determined by both intensity and density. Maxwell modeled Faraday’s lines of force (or field) mathematically to come up with his theory of Electromagnetism. Maxwell, however, accounted for the intensity only. He omitted the density because he did not associate any substance with the lines of force.

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The Quantum

These lines of force are not just mathematical entities as treated by Maxwell. They not only have substance, but also have densities. Per Classical theory the energy output per vibrational degree of freedom is the same. If the energy output depends on both the number as well as the density of the lines of force, it is easy to see that intensity shall decrease as density increases. The density is proportional to the frequency. We may relate Planck’s quantum to the density of radiation.

Radiation is a substance that has density. Planck’s quantum can be explained in terms of density of radiation.

As density, the quantum is a continuum, similar to frequency. It does not occur in jumps.

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The Photoelectric effect

In explaining the photoelectric effect Einstein says,

“If every energy quantum of the incident light transfers its energy to electrons independently of all other quanta, the velocity distribution of the electrons, that is, the quality of the resulting cathode radiation, will be independent of the intensity of the incident light; on the other hand, ceteris paribus, the number of electrons leaving the body should be proportional to the intensity of the incident light.”

These observations are consistent with experimental results and prove that energy transferred to electrons is proportional to the frequency of incident light and not its intensity. The concept of quanta is thus real. It is not just a mathematical device as was assumed by Planck.

Einstein, therefore, concludes:

“According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localised in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole.”

The ever increasing volume affects the intensity of but not the density, which depends on the frequency of light. This density, like mass, contributes to the momentum, which expels the electron. This density (quanta) is the characteristic of light, which is uniformly spread out in space. It is not “localised in space” as assumed by Einstein.

Light is thinned out in space (less intensity), but it maintains the same density (quanta) throughout the space.

Quantum does not occur in discrete “jumps” in space either. Quantum provides the dimension of density for the substance of radiation.

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The Quantum Particle

As outlined in Einstein’s 1905 paper on light quanta, a light quantum has particle-like property. But this characteristic of particle comes from density and not from any discrete appearance.  Just like a matter of different densities can have discrete appearance of any size, similarly, radiation of different densities can have discrete appearance. This discrete appearance may be called particle, but it does not have a fixed size.

Compared to matter, radiation has extremely small density. If you take a “point particle” of matter and spread its mass over several square miles, it would appear as a field of certain minimal density. This is a quantum. Thus a quantum is unique only in terms of its density, and not in terms of its discrete size.

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Wave-Particle Dilemma

The key difference between a matter particle and a quantum particle is that a matter particle has a structure, and, therefore, it has a center of mass.  A quantum particle, on the other hand has no structure. It is kind of sloshing around, and the disturbance within it is traveling at the speed of light. So it has no center of mass.

Therefore, a quantum particle behaves like a mass particle around obstacles that ar much larger than it. But it acts like a wave around obstacles that are smaller than it. This representation puts to rest the wave-particle dilemma.

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Summary

Light is a substance. As a substance it has density. It does not require an external medium (aether) to travel because light is its own medium. The light quantum refers to the density of light, which is proportional to its frequency.  

The interesting fact is that mathematics can be accurate, while it may have inaccurate interpretation. An accurate interpretation of mathematics shall be consistent with reality. If certain mathematics cannot be interpreted then the understanding of the underlying phenomenon is missing.

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SCN 8-8008: Right-Wrong

Reference: SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008

This paper presents Section 29 from the book SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008 by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Church of Scientology (1952).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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Right-Wrong

Rightness is conceived to be survival. Any action which assists survival along the maximal number of dynamics is considered to be a right action. Any action which is destructive along the maximal number of dynamics is considered to be wrong. Theoretically, how right can one be? Immortal! How wrong can one be? Dead!

Rightness and wrongness and the idea of survival are based on viewpoint. Wrong comes about because outcome is not as was expected. One then starts to look at agreements or principles that have been violated. This always leads to conflict and trouble when it is all subjective. Objectivity requires spotting and resolving inconsistencies.

Resolving inconsistencies is right. Ignoring inconsistencies is wrong. Focus should be on evolution, and not just on survival.

After a certain point on the tone-scale is reached by the preclear, he will tend instinctively to seek out and do right actions, but ordinarily homo sapiens is thoroughly engrossed in being wrong. Social politeness, with its violation of the Code of Honour, is quite non-survival. It might also be said, How wrong can one be? Human!

A person will instinctively be right when he is looking from an objective viewpoint.

The accident prone and no-responsibility case in general is so intent on being wrong that he is incapable of conceiving right.

Every person is being right from their subjective viewpoint.

All jurisprudence is built upon the principle that sanity is the ability to differentiate right from wrong. Jurisprudence does not, however, give a definition of either rightness or wrongness. Thus, for the first time with this principle, rules of evidence and other matters in law can be established with some accuracy.

The principle of dynamics can also be interpreted subjectively and does not ensure rightness. It is only the ability to be objective that ensures rightness.

Absolute rightness, like absolute wrongness, is unobtainable. Rightness and wrongness are alike relative states.

One may approach absolute rightness only by approaching the objective viewpoint.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The idea of rightness and wrongness comes from a subjective viewpoint. It doesn’t even cross one’s mind when one is looking form an objective viewpoint.

From an objective viewpoint one is simply interested in spotting and resolving inconsistencies. Concepts like survival and dynamics help, but they are also subject to inconsistencies.

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Matter, Light, Substance and Innate Force

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

It appears that matter is a substance like wood. Momentum refers to the amount of motion there is, such as, in a moving log. Kinetic Energy is the work done in stopping the moving log.

When two billiard balls collide, their motion changes, and work is done in changing that motion. But, according to the conservation laws, the net change in motion is zero, and the net work done is zero also. If the motion of a ball has increased, the motion of the other ball has decreased. If one ball did work on the other then the other ball did work back on the first one.

We started out with some substance in a closed system, and that substance has remained the same in spite of the interactions within that system. That is the case with our universe.

Here the word “substance” means that which is substantial and undergoes changes, but the total motion and energy remain the same.

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The Innate Force

We all have experienced that if something does not resist then we cannot push it. We cannot change its motion or energy. In other words, we cannot even detect it. We can detect substance because we can interact with it through our sense channels and with other instruments of detection. The primary characteristic of substance is that it is substantial enough to be interacted with and, thus, detected.

Therefore, the core of substance is the resistance it puts to being pushed. A substance always reacts to force by returning force. If there is no force returned in any shape or form, then there is no substance. Once there is force there is also motion and energy, but that is secondary. The force defines the substance. This innate force in matter was called INERTIA by Newton.

Anything that can be detected is a substance with innate force.

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Is Light a Substance?

Nobody questions matter being substance. When we stub our toe by dropping a brick on it, we know that brick has substance. Is light a substance? We can detect light by our eyes and with other instruments. There is change in motion and energy. Underlying that change there is force. Light has innate force.

But if light is substance, it is very different from matter. It obeys laws of nature which are very different from the laws that matter obeys. Still light has innate force. We may not call it inertia because the word “inertia” is used in the context of matter only.

Light can be detected; therefore, it is a substance with innate force.

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Past Views of Light

In Newton’s time, the recognized substance was matter. He saw light as made up of particles (corpuscular theory) but these particles did not follow the laws of mechanics like matter particles did. Therefore, he did not associate inertia or innate force with them.

Einstein also viewed light to be made up of particles, which he called light quanta. He implied these particles to be packets of energy that had discrete existence in space. These particles carried enough momentum to expel electrons from the surface of certain metals. We may say that Einstein implied light to be a substance and associated innate force with it.

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Summary

Light has momentum and energy. It must have resistance when it is pushed because its speed is finite. If light had no resistance its speed would be infinite. Therefore, light must be a substance with a very small amount of innate force. The current physics does not look at light that way. That is a big misunderstanding.

We may say that there are two types of substances: atomic and non-atomic.

Matter is an atomic substance. Light is a non-atomic substance. Both are detected by their innate force or inertia.

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SCN 8-8008: Survival

Reference: SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008

This paper presents Section 28 from the book SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008 by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Church of Scientology (1952).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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Survival

One of the first principles in the MEST universe, and that principle which, when discovered, resolved the problems of the mind, is the lowest common denominator of all MEST universe existence; the goal of life in the MEST universe is survival and only survival.

“Survival” as a common denominator has the connotation of anxiety. A more appropriate rendition of the common denominator of existence is “evolution”.  That is the main thrust in this universe. Life and death are part of that thrust. Nothing survives forever except for the universe as a whole. The activity associated with the common denominator of existence is “resolution of inconsistencies”.

MEST universe existence means existence of the body. Body is animated by a spiritual force. There is thinking ability that guides the actions of the body.

Survival equates behaviour in homo sapiens or in any life form. It also covers the wide field of ethics. The principle of survival was never intended to embrace theta itself for this has, of course, immortality and does not even necessarily move in MEST time.

Survival is same as the behavior and also the thinking behind it. The goal is to evolve. One moves towards that goal as one resolves inconsistencies. Survival is phenomena that can be fully viewed from the datum of emptiness (no phenomena).

Hubbard’s theta is a phenomenon because it has characteristics that are described in detail. It is, therefore, not excluded from the equation of survival. It is also “MEST” at a different level, just like field, in physics, is a substance at a different level.

Survival is nothing if not dependent upon havingness, action and beingness. It is most ordinarily viewed as the attempt in a life form to persist in a state of existence as long as possible.

Hubbard associates survival with a life form that has self-animation. But life is a spectrum of motion. Simple motion simply exists as studied in physics. Complex motion provides the appearance of decision-making, as studied in artificial intelligence. Extreme complexity of motion appears naturally as life.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The underlying purpose of all life is to evolve and this is accomplished by becoming aware of as many inconsistencies as you can; and resolving as many of them as you can. You may survive or die in the attempt.

You could be considered a unit made up of body, mind and spirit, but you are connected to everything around you. There is a system and you are the key part of it. If you are fully aware of all the laws that apply to this system then you can be in control of it.

This system consists of a spectrum of motion from the simplest to the most complex. As you resolve the inconsistencies, and discover the laws and understand them better, you gradually become in control of the whole system.

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Einstein 1920: The Experimental Confirmation of the General Theory of Relativity

Reference: Einstein’s 1920 Book

This paper presents Appendix 3 from the book RELATIVITY: THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL THEORY by A. EINSTEIN. The contents are from the original publication of this book by Henry Holt and Company, New York (1920).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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The Experimental Confirmation of the General Theory of Relativity

Please see Appendix 3 at the link above.

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FINAL COMMENTS

A scientific theory is the view evolved from a continuous assimilation of observations of the physical universe into the mental matrix. The initial stages of a scientific theory are constructed out of a process of arrangement from a large number of single observations. Guided by empirical data, the investigator intuitively develops a system of thought, which, in general, is built up logically from a small number of fundamental assumptions, the so-called axioms.

But there may be several theories corresponding to the same complex data. These theories may differ from one another to a considerable extent, while agreeing on deductions that are capable of being tested. General theory of relativity differs fundamentally from Newtonian mechanics, but there have been only a few testable deductions that are different.

Newton’s theory gives an angle of 360° for the period (from perihelion to perihelion). General relativity, however, provides a slightly different result. The result from general relativity is confirmed by actual observations for the motion of the perihelion of mercury.

Light rays bend near the sun due to its gravity, such that a star behind the sun can be seen at a somewhat greater distance from the centre of the sun than corresponds to its real position. This phenomenon of the change in the angle of light was confirmed quite accurately by experimental evidence.

The completely objective observer is the universe. In other words, the universe provides the absolute reference system K0 that is absolutely at rest. We measure the motion of all the parts of the universe against the backdrop of the universe.

Einstein’s rotating disc is the whirlpool model. As one moves away from the center of the disc the linear velocity increases and inertia decreases. In other words, both time and space expand. The inertia provides the gravitational potential.

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