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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 16

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Purohit Swami

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Chapter 16

श्रीभगवानुवाच
अभयंसत्त्वसंशुद्धिःज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।
दानंदमश्चयज्ञश्चस्वाध्यायस्तपआर्जवम्।।16.1।।

16.1 “Lord Shri Krishna continued: Fearlessness, clean living, unceasing concentration on wisdom, readiness to give, self-control, a spirit of sacrifice, regular study of the scriptures, austerities, candour,

अहिंसासत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागःशान्तिरपैशुनम्।
दयाभूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वंमार्दवंह्रीरचापलम्।।16.2।।

16.2 harmlessness, truth, absence of wrath, renunciation, contentment, straightforwardness, compassion towards all, uncovetousness, courtesy, modesty, constancy,

तेजःक्षमाधृतिःशौचमद्रोहोनातिमानिता।
भवन्तिसम्पदंदैवीमभिजातस्यभारत।।16.3।।

16.3 Valour, forgiveness, fortitude, purity, freedom from hate and vanity; these are his who possesses the Godly Qualities, O Arjuna!

दम्भोदर्पोऽभिमानश्चक्रोधःपारुष्यमेवच।
अज्ञानंचाभिजातस्यपार्थसम्पदमासुरीम्।।16.4।।

16.4 Hypocrisy, pride, insolence, cruelty, ignorance belong to him who is born of the godless qualities.

दैवीसम्पद्विमोक्षायनिबन्धायासुरीमता।
माशुचःसम्पदंदैवीमभिजातोऽसिपाण्डव।।16.5।।

16.5 Godly qualities lead to liberation; godless to bondage. Do not be anxious, Prince! Thou hast the Godly qualities.

द्वौभूतसर्गौलोकेऽस्मिन्दैवआसुरएवच।
दैवोविस्तरशःप्रोक्तआसुरंपार्थमेश्रृणु।।16.6।।

16.6 All beings are of two classes: Godly and godless. The Godly I have described; I will now describe the other.

प्रवृत्तिंचनिवृत्तिंचजनानविदुरासुराः।
नशौचंनापिचाचारोनसत्यंतेषुविद्यते।।16.7।।

16.7 The godless do not know how to act or how to renounce. They have neither purity nor truth. They do not understand the right principles of conduct.

असत्यमप्रतिष्ठंतेजगदाहुरनीश्वरम्।
अपरस्परसम्भूतंकिमन्यत्कामहैतुकम्।।16.8।।

16.8 They say the universe is an accident with no purpose and no God. Life is created by sexual union, a product of lust and nothing else.

एतांदृष्टिमवष्टभ्यनष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः।
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणःक्षयायजगतोऽहिताः।।16.9।।

16.9 Thinking thus, these degraded souls, these enemies of mankind – whose intelligence is negligible and whose deeds are monstrous – come into the world only to destroy.

काममाश्रित्यदुष्पूरंदम्भमानमदान्विताः।
मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः।।16.10।।

16.10 Giving themselves up to insatiable passions, hypocritical, self-sufficient and arrogant, cherishing false conception founded on delusion, they work only to carry out their own unholy purposes.

चिन्तामपरिमेयांचप्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः।
कामोपभोगपरमाएतावदितिनिश्िचताः।।16.11।।

16.11 Poring anxiously over evil resolutions, which only end in death; seeking only the gratification of desire as the highest goal; seeing nothing beyond;

आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाःकामक्रोधपरायणाः।
ईहन्तेकामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसञ्चयान्।।16.12।।

16.12 Caught in the toils of a hundred vain hopes, the slaves of passion and wrath, they accumulate hoards of unjust wealth, only to pander to their sensual desire.

इदमद्यमयालब्धमिमंप्राप्स्येमनोरथम्।
इदमस्तीदमपिमेभविष्यतिपुनर्धनम्।।16.13।।

16.13 This I have gained today; tomorrow I will gratify another desire; this wealth is mine now, the rest shall be mine ere long;

असौमयाहतःशत्रुर्हनिष्येचापरानपि।
ईश्वरोऽहमहंभोगीसिद्धोऽहंबलवान्सुखी।।16.14।।

16.14 I have slain one enemy, I will slay the others also; I am worthy to enjoy, I am the Almighty, I am perfect, powerful and happy;

आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मिकोऽन्योऽस्तिसदृशोमया।
यक्ष्येदास्यामिमोदिष्यइत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः।।16.15।।

16.15 I am rich, I am well-bred; who is there to compare with me? I will sacrifice, I will give, I will pay – and I will enjoy. Thus blinded by Ignorance,

अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्तामोहजालसमावृताः।
प्रसक्ताःकामभोगेषुपतन्तिनरकेऽशुचौ।।16.16।।

16.16 Perplexed by discordant thoughts, entangled in the snares of desire, infatuated by passion, they sink into the horrors of hell.

आत्मसम्भाविताःस्तब्धाधनमानमदान्विताः।
यजन्तेनामयज्ञैस्तेदम्भेनाविधिपूर्वकम्।।16.17।।

16.17 Self-conceited, stubborn, rich, proud and insolent, they make a display of their patronage, disregarding the rules of decency.

अहङ्कारंबलंदर्पंकामंक्रोधंचसंश्रिताः।
मामात्मपरदेहेषुप्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः।।16.18।।

16.18 Puffed up by power and inordinate conceit, swayed by lust and wrath, these wicked people hate Me Who am within them, as I am within all.

तानहंद्विषतःक्रूरान्संसारेषुनराधमान्।
क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेवयोनिषु।।16.19।।

16.19 Those who thus hate Me, who are cruel, the dregs of mankind, I condemn them to a continuous, miserable and godless rebirth.

असुरींयोनिमापन्नामूढाजन्मनिजन्मनि।
मामप्राप्यैवकौन्तेयततोयान्त्यधमांगतिम्।।16.20।।

16.20 So reborn, they spend life after life, enveloped in delusion. And they never reach Me, O Prince, but degenerate into still lower forms of life.

त्रिविधंनरकस्येदंद्वारंनाशनमात्मनः।
कामःक्रोधस्तथालोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयंत्यजेत्।।16.21।।

16.21 The gates of hell are three: lust, wrath and avarice. They destroy the Self. Avoid them.

एतैर्विमुक्तःकौन्तेयतमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः।
आचरत्यात्मनःश्रेयस्ततोयातिपरांगतिम्।।16.22।।

16.22 These are the gates which lead to darkness; if a man avoid them he will ensure his own welfare, and in the end will attain his liberation.

यःशास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्यवर्ततेकामकारतः।
नससिद्धिमवाप्नोतिनसुखंनपरांगतिम्।।16.23।।

16.23 But he who neglects the commands of the scriptures, and follows the promptings of passion, he does not attain perfection, happiness or the final goal.

तस्माच्छास्त्रंप्रमाणंतेकार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ।
ज्ञात्वाशास्त्रविधानोक्तंकर्मकर्तुमिहार्हसि।।16.24।।

16.24 Therefore whenever there is doubt whether thou shouldst do a thing or not, let the scriptures guide thy conduct. In the light of the scriptures shouldst thou labour the whole of thy life.”

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SUBJECT CLEARING STEP 4—The Discipline of Meditation

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

In meditating over a key word (STEP 3), it is very important that you DO NOT try to remember something by guessing again and again. You simply let the mind present things to you. If the meaning of a word does not come up, you do not keep guessing at it. You right away look it up in a dictionary. You should not be putting undue pressure on the mind in meditation.

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Visualization

When you are having difficulty visualizing a definition, then look up that definition again. Maybe there is a word in that definition that you do not understand; or, maybe you need a better explanation. So, you consult another dictionary or reference, until you have the details and examples you need.

Once you have proper data you should be able to visualize the definition easily. Letting the visualization come up without much effort is very important. There is an exercise for it that you can do. See Visualization Exercise.

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Non-interference

When meditating on the word from different angles, let the questions and anomalies come up by themselves. You do not avoid, resist, suppress or deny any thoughts, emotions, and even sensations. You simply be a witness and let the mind associate and unwind on its own.

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Integrity of Perception

You maintain the integrity of perception by following the 12 rules given below. These rules are linked to exercises that help you practice that rule.

  1. Observe without Desires
  2. Observe without Assuming
  3. Observe what is Missing
  4. Observe the Incomprehensible
  5. Observe all Senses
  6. Let the Mind Un-stack
  7. Experience Fully
  8. Do not suppress
  9. Associate Data freely
  10. Observe beyond Name and Form
  11. Contemplate thoughtfully
  12. Let it be effortless

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Attention

Whenever you find your attention getting fixated or stuck there is some anomaly underlying that phenomenon. Simply meditate on that point of fixation applying the rules above. Wait for the anomaly to come up. Broaden the context in which you are viewing, as much as possible, and fully discern any association without influencing it.

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Discipline

Once this discipline in meditation is established discernment occurs in leaps and bounds.

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Also see:

  1. The Law of Mindfulness
  2. Self-Learning and Assimilation

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DIANETICS: Prenatal Experience and Birth

Reference: Hubbard 1950: Dianetics TMSMH

These are some comments on the chapter “Prenatal Experience and Birth” from  DIANETICS: THE MODERN SCIENCE OF MENTAL HEALTH.

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Comments on
Prenatal Experience and Birth

It has long been believed that mother influences the child even before it is born. Dianetics have discovered the exact role prenatal experience and birth play in aberration and psycho-somatic ills. 

Underlying aberrations and psycho-somatic ills is unconsciousness. During unconsciousness the mental matrix is dissociated from the normal perceptions. The perceptions recorded during the period of unconsciousness do not get assimilated in the mental matrix, but stay in a holding area. They then cause later aberrations and psycho-somatic ills.

Unconsciousness prevents incoming perceptions from getting assimilated in the mental matrix.

Unconsciousness is caused by major illness, accident or injury. Usually the brain is affected by a lack of blood flow or oxygen. There might be infection, blood clots, swelling or damage to the brain. Levels of impaired consciousness include confusion, disorientation, delirium, lethargy, stupor, and coma. Narco-synthesis is a treatment for psychiatric disturbances that uses narcotics. Narcotics are drugs that cause unconsciousness. 

Unconsciousness is caused by major illness, accident, injury or drugs.

The narcotics depress awareness by dissociating the mental matrix from normal perceptions. Under their influence the aberrative circuits are bypassed and the assimilated portion of the mental matrix may be accessed. Hubbard figured out a way to reach very early incidents using narco-synthesis and could uncover their content. But the patient could not assimilate the contents of those incidents unless they were very early. It seemed that the assimilation of later engrams depended on the assimilation of earlier engrams. 

Perceptions from earlier periods of unconsciousness are easier to assimilate than those from later periods of unconsciousness.

When an engram could not be assimilated, an earlier similar engram was looked for. When birth was accessed and recounted, assimilation took place. That meant that there were real perceptions from birth that existed in the patient. In some cases, when birth could not be assimilated, earlier similar painful incidents were looked for and were found to exist in the prenatal area. We now know that a great deal of recoding takes place in the child when he is in the womb.

Periods of unconsciousness happen as early as during the prenatal period. Birth itself can be such a period.

Dianetics believes that the recordings exists in the cells since cell is the basic building block of life organisms. However, modern studies show that engrams are more likely to exist in the electromagnetic aura within and around the body. The Dianetics reactive bank is the sum total of the unassimilated perceptions that are situated in this aura.

The mental matrix and the reactive bank most likely exists as an electromagnetic field of thought.

The electromagnetic aura is a natural extension of a cell. Dianetics has discovered that impressions exist in this aura as far back as the sperm and zygote. An engram is an impression that contains enough disturbance not to get assimilated in the mental matrix. For practical purposes the mental matrix may be considered to be the electromagnetic aura itself. 

The mental matrix is the seat of awareness. An unassimilated perception represents a point of unconsciousness.

The natural programming in the mind is the result of assimilated perceptions. The unassimilated perceptions of engrams impose another layer of programming that causes aberrations and psychosomatic ills. The engrams parasitically use the circuits of the mental matrix. Therefore, the language contained in prenatal engrams may not cause aberrations and illness until the child has learned the language.

Failed abortion attempts are the most important factor in aberration. 

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DIANETICS AXIOMS 111 to 120

The next ten axioms of Dianetics are also presented here. These axioms were put together by Hubbard to demonstrate the preciseness of Dianetics. Revisions are proposed based on consistency with Buddhism.

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DN AXIOM 111: Self-determinism consists of maximal affinity, reality and communication.

Self-determinism exists when evolution occurs naturally. There is maximal affinity, reality and communication in this case.

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DN AXIOM 112: Affinity is the cohesion of THETA.

Affinity manifests itself as the recognition of similarity of efforts and goals amongst organisms by those organisms.

THETA is the electromagnetic field of thought in and around the life organisms. 

DN AXIOM 112 (Proposed): Affinity is the continuity of Theta among organisms.

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DN AXIOM 113: Reality is the agreement upon perceptions and data in the physical universe.

All that we can be sure is real is that on which we have agreed is real.

Agreement is the essence of reality.

It is not agreement but consistency throughout that makes it real. 

DN AXIOM 113 (Proposed): Reality is the consistency of perceptions among organisms.

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DN AXIOM 114: Communication is the interchange of perception through the material universe between organisms or the perception of the material universe by sense channels.

DN AXIOM 114 (Proposed): Communication is the harmony of interactions among organisms.

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DN AXIOM 115: Self-determinism is the THETA control of the organism.

DN AXIOM 115 (Proposed): Self-determinism is the organism operating per the natural laws.

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DN AXIOM 116: A self-determined effort is that counter-effort which has been received into the organism in the past and integrated into the organism for its conscious use.

DN AXIOM 116 (Proposed): A self-determined effort depends upon the complete assimilation of all perceptions.

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DN AXIOM 117: The components of self-determinism are affinity, communication and reality.

Self-determinism is manifested along each dynamic.

DN AXIOM 117 (Proposed): The components of self-determinism are continuity, consistency and harmony.

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DN AXIOM 118: An organism cannot become aberrated unless it has agreed upon that aberration, has been in communication with a source of aberration and has had affinity for the aberrator.

The organism does not have arbitrary will. It is discontinuity, inconsistency and disharmony of misalignment that generates aberration within it.

DN AXIOM 118 (Proposed): An organism cannot become aberrated unless discontinuity, inconsistency and disharmony is generated within it.

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DN AXIOM 119: Agreement with any source, contra- or prosurvival, postulates a new reality for the organism.

Agreement really means becoming aligned with something. That something may not be consistent with the natural laws.

DN AXIOM 119 (Proposed): Alignment with any non-optimum source makes the organism inconsistent.

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DN AXIOM 120: Nonsurvival courses, thoughts and actions require nonoptimum effort.

This axiom is referring to the tendencies to generate misalignment. 

DN AXIOM 120 (Proposed): Misalignments proceeds from a non-optimum source.

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Summary of Axioms

Self-determinism has to do with affinity (continuity), reality (consistency) and communication (harmony). Perfect conditions occur when all perceptions are assimilated. The organism then operates naturally. Aberration comes about when the organism aligns itself with some non-optimum source, which generates discontinuity, inconsistency and disharmony within it.

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SUBJECT CLEARING STEP 3—Meditating on a Key Word

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

As mentioned on STEP 2, when you take up a key word, the first action is to meditate upon it. 

The whole purpose of meditating on a key word is to bring up dormant questions and anomalies, and resolve whatever does not make sense.

Full resolution will depend on how far you are able to assimilate data in your mental matrix.

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Conceptual Understanding

The first step is to make sure you have a conceptual understanding of the key word. So, you look up the origin of that word in a dictionary, or type on Google, “Origin of the word _____” to get the concept underlying that word. For example, the concept underlying the word STUDY is ‘zeal, painstaking application’.

You then look up the definitions of the word in a dictionary, or type on Google, “Meaning of the word _____” to get those definitions. You visualize those definitions one at a time as you read them. Visualize some examples of each definition until you get full conceptual understanding of the key word. Continue meditating on the key word until you have examined its concept from all different angles.

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Word Chain

If you are having difficulty in visualizing a definition, then there may be a word in that definition that you need to look up. As you continue, you may end up with a word chain.

A word chain could be a phenomenon of not having a good understanding of the language. You may simply work your way through the word chain. This will improve your vocabulary in that language. To speed up you may need some understanding of the grammar of that language. Therefore, LANGUAGE and GRAMMAR may themselves become important subjects for you to clear later.

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Key Words

After forming a conceptual understanding continue meditating on the key word from different angles. As you do so you may come up with a question, or an anomaly (a discontinuity, inconsistency or disharmony). You now focus on answering that question, or resolving that anomaly. Your attention may simply move to other key words in that subject. For example, while meditating on the word “education” your attention may shift to the word “discipline”. 

Add these additional key words to your Key Word List in the sequence they come to your attention. Make sure you have a working understanding of these key words, and then continue meditating on the original key word you are on.

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Subject List

The broader is the subject that you are clearing, the more likely it is to come up with key words that should be treated as separate subjects on their own. For example, when you are clearing the subject “human condition” your attention may shift to words like BODY and MIND that could be treated as subjects in themselves. You may then clear these words broadly as to their purpose, and then add them on your list of subjects to clear.

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Line of Inquiry

In meditating over a key word, and its underlying concept, it is important to keep close to your main line of inquiry. Therefore, you may clear other words only to the degree that you are able to continue with your main line of inquiry. But set those words aside for detailed consideration later.

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Questions and Anomalies

As questions and anomalies come up during your meditation, you may find that you need to study some textual material from Wikipedia or a text book. Just make sure that, when studying these materials, you do not go by a word that you do not understand. Just apply your judgment on how far you need to clear up words that are not on your main line of inquiry. But always set aside words you need to follow up later by adding them to your Key Word List, or to the Subject List.

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Key Word List

Make sure that you keep adding and rearranging the key words in your list in the sequence in which the concepts seem to be developing—both forward and backwards. Focus on clearing up those key words first that represent more fundamental concepts. You may find yourself jumping back to more basic key words. This is ok.

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Also see

  1. Mind: The Matrix Model
  2. Word Clearing
  3. Visualization
  4. Self-Learning and Assimilation

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SUBJECT CLEARING STEP 2—Preparing a Key Word List

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

Once you have selected the subject to work on, the next action is to prepare a key word list. 

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Key Word List

You start the key list with the title of the subject. When your subject is Mathematics, start the key word list with the word MATHEMATICS. When your subject is some personal trauma, start the key word list with the word TRAUMA. When your subject is a personal confusion, start the key word list with the word CONFUSION.

If you are familiar with the subject you may already know some key words, and the sequence in which the underlying concepts developed in the subject. For example, you may arrange the key words of ‘Mathematics’ as follows.

Mathematics, counting, number, digit, place value, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and so on. 

If you are not familiar enough with the subject, or if the subject is too broad, you may make a list of about ten key words, in the order they come to your mind. For example, you may start with key words for ‘Human Condition’ as follows.

Human, condition, human condition, dukkha, misery, shame, blame, regret, greed, self-absorbed

As a person works with such a list, he would simply know what word he wants to look up next. If that word is not on the list, he adds it in the sequence he is actually looking up the words. This way the Key Word list builds up.

I refer to those working on Subject Clearing as Self Learners (SL). Right now I have three SLs, whose Key Word Lists currently appear as follows:

SL #1:  

HUMAN, CONDITION, HUMAN CONDITION, PARENTHOOD, FATHER, EGO, SELF, DUKKHA, GREED, attachment, misery, shame, blame, regret, longing, self-absorbed, love, forgiveness

As you can see the list has changed from what it was originally. The words highlighted on this list have been looked up. They are arranged in the sequence that they were looked up.

SL#2:

HUMAN, CONDITION, HUMAN CONDITION, BODY, MIND, SPIRIT, DEATH, BELONGING, MINDFULNESS, SUPPRESSION, emotion, aberration, health, sex, money, possessions, entertainment, activity, hobbies, food, drink, friends, neighbors, relationships, nationalities, religions, pets, animals, insects, creatures, life, planets, solar system, universe, big bang, family, group, school, village, town, city, country, team (sport), company, organization, church, religion

Some of these words may qualify as new subjects to be handled separately, but they may be left on the list when it is sufficient to know the overall purpose of the subject represented by that word.

SL#3:

TRAUMA, MINDSET, THINKING, CIRCUIT, THOUGHT, DESIRE, mindfulness, material, spiritual, expectancy, hope, happiness, conditioning, beingness, affinity, suppression, guidance

So, in case of a broad subject like ‘Human Condition’, or for ‘personal trauma’ and ‘personal confusion’, the key word list may develop differently for different people. That is just fine. The whole idea is to address the word or concept where the attention sticks. You may start with about 10 words. More words shall get added or dropped as you continue.

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The Next Word

After you have meditated over about 10 words or so, look them over as a group and see if they can be rearranged in some sequence that makes more sense. Some pattern may emerge and that may guide you to the next word that you should take up. Repeat this action whenever you are not sure what word you want to take up next.

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Discovery

Once in a while after you have meditated over a large number of words, you might want to review the whole list and see which concepts are more basic than others. Then rearrange the words according to the sequence in which these concepts seem to have developed. When you do this, you might become aware of concepts missing in that sequence. This might lead to some discovery.

Keep in mind that the more fundamental are the concepts you are looking up, the more fundamental are the discoveries possible.

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Building up the Key Word List

Part of subject clearing is reading about the subject in the Wikipedia, or studying a book related to that subject, or discussing it with a close friend. The whole idea is to gain proper understanding of what is involved in that subject. This may lead to adding new Key Words to the list.

Ultimately, there is going to be a nice long Key Word List on the subject. You may rearrange it in the sequence that the concepts seem to have evolved. You may then store it for future research. You may also share it with a friend who is clearing that subject.

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Also see Key Word Clearing.

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