Author Archives: vinaire

I am originally from India. I am settled in United States since 1969. I turned 65 in June 2011. I am working as Production Systems Analyst. I love mathematics, philosophy and clarity in thinking.

Matter and Light

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

It appears that matter is a substance like wood. Momentum refers to the amount of motion there is, such as, in a moving log. Kinetic Energy is the work done in stopping the moving log.

When two billiard balls collide, their motion changes, and work is done in changing that motion. But, according to the conservation laws, the net change in motion is zero, and the net work done is zero also. If the motion of a ball has increased, the motion of the other ball has decreased. If one ball did work on the other then the other ball did work back on the first one.

We started out with some substance in a closed system, and that substance has remained the same in spite of the interactions within that system. That is the case with our universe.

Here the word “substance” means that which is substantial and undergoes changes, but the total motion and energy remain the same.

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The Innate Force

The primary characteristic of substance is that it is substantial enough to be detected. It is possible to detect substance because it interacts with our sense channels and with other instruments of detection. In that interaction there is change in motion and energy. We all have experienced that we cannot push something which does not put any resistance. We cannot change its motion or energy. In other words, we cannot detect it.

Therefore, the core of substance is the resistance it puts to force. A substance always reacts to force by returning force. If there is no force in any shape or form, there is no substance, motion or energy. More fundamental to motion and energy is the concept of force. It is this force that defines the substance. This innate force in matter was defined as INERTIA by Newton.

At the core of substance is an innate force.

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Is Light Substance?

Nobody questions matter being substance. When we stub our toe by dropping a brick on it, we know that brick has substance. Is light a substance? We can detect light by our eyes and with other instruments. There is change in motion and energy. Underlying that change there is force. Light has innate force.

But if light is substance, it is very different from matter. It obeys laws of nature which are very different from the laws that matter obeys. Still light has innate force. We may not call it inertia because that word is used for matter. We may simply refer to it as “innate force” of light.

Light has innate force; therefore, light is a substance.

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Past Views of Light

Newton extended the corpuscular theory of light. He viewed light to be made up of particles. Obviously, particles are particles of some substance. We may say that Newton implied light to be substance but he didn’t associate inertia (innate force) with it.

Einstein also viewed light to be made up of particles, which he called light quanta. He implied these particles to be packets of energy that had discrete existence in space. These particles carried enough momentum to expel electrons from the surface of certain metals. The prerequisite of energy is substance. We may say that Einstein implied light to be a substance and associated innate force with it.

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Summary

Light has momentum and energy. It must have resistance when it is pushed because its speed is finite. If light had no resistance its speed would be infinite. Therefore, light must be a substance with a very small amount of innate force or “inertia”. The current physics does not look at light that way. That is a big misunderstanding.

We may say that there are two types of substances: atomic and non-atomic. Matter is an atomic substance. Light is a non-atomic substance Both are detected by their innate force or inertia.

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SCN 8-8008: Survival

Reference: SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008

This paper presents Section 28 from the book SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008 by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Church of Scientology (1952).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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Survival

One of the first principles in the MEST universe, and that principle which, when discovered, resolved the problems of the mind, is the lowest common denominator of all MEST universe existence; the goal of life in the MEST universe is survival and only survival.

“Survival” as a common denominator has the connotation of anxiety. A more appropriate rendition of the common denominator of existence is “evolution”.  That is the main thrust in this universe. Life and death are part of that thrust. Nothing survives forever except for the universe as a whole. The activity associated with the common denominator of existence is “resolution of inconsistencies”.

MEST universe existence means existence of the body. Body is animated by a spiritual force. There is thinking ability that guides the actions of the body.

Survival equates behaviour in homo sapiens or in any life form. It also covers the wide field of ethics. The principle of survival was never intended to embrace theta itself for this has, of course, immortality and does not even necessarily move in MEST time.

Survival is same as the behavior and also the thinking behind it. The goal is to evolve. One moves towards that goal as one resolves inconsistencies. Survival is phenomena that can be fully viewed from the datum of emptiness (no phenomena).

Hubbard’s theta is a phenomenon because it has characteristics that are described in detail. It is, therefore, not excluded from the equation of survival. It is also “MEST” at a different level, just like field, in physics, is a substance at a different level.

Survival is nothing if not dependent upon havingness, action and beingness. It is most ordinarily viewed as the attempt in a life form to persist in a state of existence as long as possible.

Hubbard associates survival with a life form that has self-animation. But life is a spectrum of motion. Simple motion simply exists as studied in physics. Complex motion provides the appearance of decision-making, as studied in artificial intelligence. Extreme complexity of motion appears naturally as life.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The underlying purpose of all life is to evolve and this is accomplished by becoming aware of as many inconsistencies as you can; and resolving as many of them as you can. You may survive or die in the attempt.

You could be considered a unit made up of body, mind and spirit, but you are connected to everything around you. There is a system and you are the key part of it. If you are fully aware of all the laws that apply to this system then you can be in control of it.

This system consists of a spectrum of motion from the simplest to the most complex. As you resolve the inconsistencies, and discover the laws and understand them better, you gradually become in control of the whole system.

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Einstein 1920: The Experimental Confirmation of the General Theory of Relativity

Reference: Einstein’s 1920 Book

This paper presents Appendix 3 from the book RELATIVITY: THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL THEORY by A. EINSTEIN. The contents are from the original publication of this book by Henry Holt and Company, New York (1920).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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The Experimental Confirmation of the General Theory of Relativity

Please see Appendix 3 at the link above.

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FINAL COMMENTS

A scientific theory is the view evolved from a continuous assimilation of observations of the physical universe into the mental matrix. The initial stages of a scientific theory are constructed out of a process of arrangement from a large number of single observations. Guided by empirical data, the investigator intuitively develops a system of thought, which, in general, is built up logically from a small number of fundamental assumptions, the so-called axioms.

But there may be several theories corresponding to the same complex data. These theories may differ from one another to a considerable extent, while agreeing on deductions that are capable of being tested. General theory of relativity differs fundamentally from Newtonian mechanics, but there have been only a few testable deductions that are different.

Newton’s theory gives an angle of 360° for the period (from perihelion to perihelion). General relativity, however, provides a slightly different result. The result from general relativity is confirmed by actual observations for the motion of the perihelion of mercury.

Light rays bend near the sun due to its gravity, such that a star behind the sun can be seen at a somewhat greater distance from the centre of the sun than corresponds to its real position. This phenomenon of the change in the angle of light was confirmed quite accurately by experimental evidence.

The completely objective observer is the universe. In other words, the universe provides the absolute reference system K0 that is absolutely at rest. We measure the motion of all the parts of the universe against the backdrop of the universe.

Einstein’s rotating disc is the whirlpool model. As one moves away from the center of the disc the linear velocity increases and inertia decreases. In other words, both time and space expand. The inertia provides the gravitational potential.

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Einstein 1920: Minkowski’s Four-Dimensional Space (“World”)

Reference: Einstein’s 1920 Book

This paper presents Appendix 2 from the book RELATIVITY: THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL THEORY by A. EINSTEIN. The contents are from the original publication of this book by Henry Holt and Company, New York (1920).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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Minkowski’s Four-Dimensional Space (“World”)

Please see Appendix 2 at the link above.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The math of Minkowski’s World is based on the following consideration:

The fourth dimension is generally interpreted as the dimension of time. But from the earlier comments it appears that it should be interpreted as the dimension of the DURATION of substance. This is the dimension of inertia.

The first three dimensions are generally interpreted as the dimensions of space. But it now appears that they should be interpreted as the dimensions of the EXTENTS of substance. These are the dimensions of the substance as quanta, which are taken as an abstract point for matter.

We may say that x, y, and z are the dimensions of what we have been considering as a dimensionless point in space for matter.

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Einstein 1920: Simple Derivation of the Lorentz Transformation

Reference: Einstein’s 1920 Book

This paper presents Appendix 1 from the book RELATIVITY: THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL THEORY by A. EINSTEIN. The contents are from the original publication of this book by Henry Holt and Company, New York (1920).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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Simple Derivation of the Lorentz Transformation

Please see Appendix 1 at the link above.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The math of Lorentz transformation is based on the consideration that the velocity of light is constant regardless of the velocity of the observer. This means that the space-time characteristics of the observer must change depending on his velocity, such that, from the viewpoint of light the velocity of the observer is zero. This produces the following equations.

When the velocity of the observer is negligible compared to the velocity of light, we have the familiar Galilean transformation. But when the velocity becomes a sizable fraction of the velocity of light the denominator in the above equations becomes less than 1, and the space-time characteristics expand.

When the velocity of the observer is very close to the velocity of light, the space time characteristics have expanded to near infinite. We may relate this to the electromagnetic spectrum. At the frequencies of light, the space-time characteristics are really magnified. At the frequency of electron inside the atom, the space-time characteristics have shrunk. When one reaches the frequency of the nucleus of atom, we have solidity due to extreme shrinkage of space-time characteristics. This is the frequency we are most familiar with. It is the frequency of the material universe.

The frequency spectrum extends from light to matter. It is a spectrum of substance that is manifested in the dimension of inertia. Inertia is how substantive the substance is. It is measured as the “duration” of substance. This is the fourth dimension and not some abstract notion of time.

The Lorentz transformation was not interpreted this way. The special theory of relativity hinted at it but did not relate it to the electromagnetic spectrum. But now we can say that the greatest contribution of the special theory of relativity is to bring this dimension of inertia to our awareness.

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