Author Archives: vinaire

I am originally from India. I am settled in United States since 1969. I love mathematics, philosophy and clarity in thinking.

Gravity & Inertia

Reference: Faraday: On the Conservation of Force

It appears that each particle in this universe has an innate impulse that generates natural acceleration. This natural acceleration is resisted by the property of inertia of the particle, and the tendency is towards a balance. When a balance is reached, the particle ends up with a constant velocity, while the acceleration due to innate impulse and inertia are exactly balanced. Therefore, higher is the inertia of the body, the greater is the resistance to acceleration, the more quickly the balance is reached, and the lower is the constant velocity. This is obvious on a cosmic scale when we compare the velocity of light to the velocity of matter.

When earth is revolving around the sun, the innate impulse of earth for linear acceleration is balanced by its inertia, and that keeps the earth in its orbit. If the inertia was any less, then earth will be flying away from the sun. If inertia were greater, then earth will be crashing into the sun. It appears that inertia decreases as earth comes closer to the sun, and earth has a tendency to move away. Similarly, inertia increases as earth moves away from the sun, and earth has a tendency to come closer.

This leads to the interesting conclusion that inertia and gravity have an inverse relationship. It is inertia that converts into the force of gravity and vice versa. This satisfies Faraday’s principle of Conservation of Force.

Matter & Void

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The first thing we observe about the concepts of matter and void is that there is assumed to be a sharp discontinuity at the interface between them. Since objectivity follows the law of continuity, we expect matter not to stop abruptly, but to thin out gradually, until there is complete absence of matter and all substance (void). We, therefore, need to examine the interface between matter and void more closely.



We use a more general term “substance” for matter because, matter appears substantial to us to the degree it impacts our senses. Matter is a phenomenon that we sense through our five physical senses. Then we use the sixth mental sense to combine the input from those physical senses to arrive at deeper understanding. This has led us to the discovery of the atomic nature of matter.

Matter has a lessening impact from solids to gases. That means matter thins out as its state changes from solids to gases. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the atoms of matter moving farther apart lessening its density or concentration. This then requires that we take a closer look at the atom to see where it ends, and the void begins.



In ancient times atoms were visualized to be matter particles that were very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. Newton (1642–1727) theorized that such particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force. Therefore, a particle, such as, atom could be represented by a mathematical point called center of mass.

The modern atomic theory was born at the beginning of 19th century. Dalton (1766–1844) theorized that atoms of the same element are alike, but atoms of different elements are different; atoms of different elements combine in certain definite ratios. The idea of atoms being hard, solid and impenetrable particles, continued to be held.

However, some scientists disagreed. Boscovich (1711–1787) theorized that atoms cannot be hard, rigid, massive spheres because they cannot change their velocity instantaneously upon collision, as it violated the law of continuity. He visualized atoms as point particles enveloped by force.

Faraday (1791–1867) found that the traditional model of atom as hard, solid and impenetrable particles, led to contradictions in explaining electrical conduction. To Faraday, the Boscovich’s model explained electrical conduction. It also explained “action at a distance” better than the idea of aether. He saw atoms as centers of force from which “tubes of force” extended connecting one atom to another even at infinite distance. He saw “force” as a substance that fills all space to which gravitation extends. To Faraday, atoms appeared to be solid because force was very concentration at their location. Faraday’s arguments were straightforward and persuasive as found here in a letter written by him: “A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter”.

According to current atomic models, every atom is composed of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. More than 99.94% of an atom’s mass is concentrated in the nucleus. Electrons are considered to be particles that are 1840 times lighter than the nuclear particles.


Electronic Substance

Physics treats electrons as particles, but in a mathematical sense only. In truth, electrons do not have center of mass, so they cannot be differentiated from each other as real particles. The consideration of electrons as “particles” comes from discrete sub-atomic interactions that electrons participate in.

Even physics considers electrons to have a wave-like nature. It talks about “electron clouds” within the atom that fill over 99% of the atomic volume. This writer finds it more appropriate to consider an atom to consist of “electronic substance” rather than electrons. The nucleus itself extends as electronic substance with no gap in between. This compares more closely to Boscovich’s model that was supported by Faraday. The electronic substance is the same thing as the “force” of Boscovich and Faraday.

Therefore, the only particle within the atom is the nucleus. The nuclear substance is more concentrated form of electronic substance. The standard model of particle physics documents the discrete sub-atomic interactions, and not particles in space.


Beyond the Atom

So far, we see matter as nuclear substance that thins out as electronic substance. Mathematically, the electrons may extend to any distance from atoms as wave functions. In Faraday’s model, the force (electronic substance) extends out and connects to other atoms regardless of the distance between them. As a result, the electronic substance thins out in space between the atoms.

The space between the atoms is not empty. This is so with all space in general. It is filled with particle-less radiation that consists of light and the cosmic microwave background. This radiation is not wave in some mysterious substance called aether. It is a fast moving, extremely thin substance that has wave-like properties. Please see Faraday’s letter for his excellent arguments on this subject: “Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.”

Physics treats particle-less radiation mathematically, as electromagnetic radiation, and considers it to be made up of discrete quanta. In reality, this radiation is a continuum. The idea of quantum is based on the discovery that the energy of radiation is proportional to its frequency. This discovery showed that radiation could not be a wave because the energy of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude. This only confirms the atomic view forwarded by Boscovich and Faraday. The “force” thins out from atom into broad space. In other words, “discrete” matter reduces into a “continuum” of thick electronic substance that thins out as radiation.

But even the apparent discreteness of matter is entirely due to discrete energy interactions with our senses. Similarly, the apparent discreteness of quantum is entirely due to discrete energy interactions with measuring instruments.

In reality, matter, or substance, is a continuum in space.

Where this thinning out of matter ends and void begins may only be speculated.

There is no firm boundary where matter ends, and void begins.


Tertium Organum

The following is a commentary on the chapters of the book Tertium Organum by P D Ouspensky:

Tertium Organum

Chapter 1: Knowledge

Chapter 2: Perception

Chapter 3: Space

Chapter 4: Time

Chapter 5: Change

Chapter 6: Reality

Chapter 7: Dimensions

Chapter 8: Human Beingness

Chapter 9: Perception of Dimensions

Private: Tertium Organum (2)


The Bhagavad Gita

Reference: Religion

The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna.

A quick reference to translations of a verse of Gita from different sources may be obtained at



0. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Introduction



98. Sanskrit Dictionary 1

99. Sanskrit Dictionary 2

100. Glossary of Spiritual Terms


Glossary of Spiritual Terms

Reference: The Bhagavad Gita

The purpose of this Glossary is to express ancient Vedic knowledge using modern scientific language. The “translation” may not be exactly right at first, but, hopefully, it shall improve as better input is received.


The Vedas start with homage to Agni. Agni implies energy in all its forms. It is animated by an innate impulse. Energy is the basic substance of the universe. Everything physical, spiritual, real, imaginary, postulated or considered, is made of energy.

Atman is the innate impulse that animates a being. Atman carries samskaras (karmic impressions). When atman becomes embodied after birth, it is called jivatman. In jivatman the karmic impressions become activated and they influence the viewpoint, identity and behavior of the individual being. After death, the disembodied atman simply carries karmic impressions in a potential state. It has no individual identity or beingness (see The Bhagavad Gita, verse II:28). Life after life, karmic impressions come about and are also discharged. As net karmic impression become less, atman rises toward the state of paramatman (supreme atman). When net karmic impressions reduce to zero, the atman converges into the state of paramatman. Also see BRAHMA.

A being is an energy form animated by an innate impulse.

Bhagavān literally means “fortunate”, “blessed”, and hence “illustrious”, “divine”, “venerable”, “holy”, etc. Please see Etymology and meaning.
“He who understands the creation and dissolution, the appearance and disappearance of beings, the wisdom and ignorance, should be called Bhagavān.” — Vishnu Purana, VI.5.78

Brahma is the innate impulse manifested as energy in the form of the whole universe.

In modern language one would say that the highest metaphysical reality is the innate impulse, which is the characteristic of all energy. This impulse, on a universal scale, is understood as Brahma (the universal viewpoint). But, on the scale of an entity, it is understood as Atman (the individual viewpoint). There is quite a distance from Atman (or Paramatman) to Brahma in terms of broadness of the viewpoint.

Gross Body

Jeevatma (embodied atman)

The basic substance of the universe is energy, which is animated by an innate impulse. The innate impulse is evident in the propagation of light. Per the Law of conservation, energy is neither created nor destroyed. It only transitions from one form to another. Everything physical, spiritual, real, imaginary, postulated or considered is made of energy.

God is the experience of the innate impulse that underlies all energy.

The viewpoint, identity and individuality of jivatman (embodied atman)

ISHVARA (ईश्वर)
The composite word, Ishvara literally means “owner of best, beautiful”, “ruler of choices, blessings, boons”, or “chief of suitor, lover”. As a concept, Ishvara in ancient and medieval Sanskrit texts, variously means God, Supreme Being, Supreme Soul, lord, king or ruler, rich or wealthy man, god of love, deity Vishnu… [in Vedas,] the contextual meaning, however as the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini explains, is neither god nor supreme being. Please see Etymology.

It is how the universe appears to a person

State of freedom from all samskaras (karmic impressions)


One day of Brahma equal to 1000 Yugas, equal to 4320 million years. See Hindu units of time.

Maya consists of filters generated by karmic impressions that cloud one’s vision.

A presence, which is free of assumptions, bias and fixed ideas


Reality and unreality are the opposite ends of the scale of Is-ness, where is-ness is the sense of reality of the person. His is-ness on this scale improves as his viewpoint broadens.

SAMĀDHI (समाधि)
Samādhi means concentration of the thoughts, profound or abstract meditation, intense contemplation of any particular object (so as to identify the contemplator with the object meditated upon); this is the eighth and last stage of yoga; with Buddhists samādhi is the fourth and last stage of dhyāna or intense abstract meditation. Being “established in God” would mean the same thing as समाधि.

Karmic impressions brought about by one’s actions and their consequences

The bliss of pure thought energy

Thought energy is the fundamental energy on which the spectrum of radiative energy and matter rest. The thought energy resides in the mind, which then transitions into physical energy of the body.

The universal viewpoint uses the whole universe as the context for its contemplation, and it is free of all impressions and filters. It is much broader than the human viewpoint. The “I” or “Me” used by Krishna refers to this universal viewpoint. It is the clearest expression of BRAHMA as the innate impulse that constitutes the fabric of the universe. PARAMATMAN, from this viewpoint, is manifested as all forms in the universe and not just the human form. Of course, the universal viewpoint is neither created or destroyed.

Ultimate authority resides in universal principles, that are personified as Gods in Hinduism. The universal viewpoint is focused on the universal principles, which, also, are neither created or destroyed.

Unreality manifests itself in the form of inconsistencies, disharmonies and discontinuities. You resolve these things and the unreality disappears. It does not continue. Only the reality continues.

Vidhata means “inherent principles of existence.” Duality is a natural consequence of these principles. Any imbalance straightens out by itself.

Viewpoint is the frame of reference that a person is using. It is made up of that person’s considerations.