Author Archives: vinaire

I am originally from India. I am settled in United States since 1969. I love mathematics, philosophy and clarity in thinking.

Patanjali Yoga Sutras 3:21—3:40

Reference: THE SANSKRIT CHANNEL
Reference: The Sun of Sanskrit Knowledge

Chapter 3: Vibhooti Pada (On practice)
Verses 3:21- 3:40

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कायरूपसंयमात्तद्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुःप्रकाशासम्प्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम्॥२१॥
Kāyarūpasaṁyamāttadgrāhyaśaktistambhe cakṣuḥprakāśāsamprayoge’ntardhānam ||21||

Through samyama on one’s physical form, suspending the energy thus generated, an uncoupling it with the light perceived through the eyes, one attains the ability to suspend vision. (21)

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सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमादपरान्तज्ञानमरिष्टेभ्यो वा॥२२॥
Sopakramaṁ nirupakramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamādaparāntajñānamariṣṭebhyo vā ||22||

Through samyama over the two types of karma=‘Actions’, which are sopakrama=‘Which are immediately manifest’, and nirupakrama=‘Which are not immediately manifest’, one attains to the knowledge beyond the end of life, and of the bad omens and signs. (22)

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मैत्र्यादिषु बलानि॥२३॥
Maitryādiṣu balāni ||23||

Through samyama over qualities like friendliness, one is imbued with many strengths. (23)

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बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनि॥२४॥
Baleṣu hastibalādīni ||24||

Through samyama over these strengths one attains to the strength like that of an elephant and so on. (24)

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प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात्सूक्ष्मव्यवहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम्॥२५॥
Pravṛttyālokanyāsātsūkṣmavyavahitaviprakṛṣṭajñānam ||25||

Through samyama over the origin and purview of action, one attains to the knowledge of that which is SUkShma=’Subtle’, vyavahita=‘Hidden’, and viprakRShTa=‘Distant’. (25)

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भुवनज्ञानं सूर्ये संयमात्॥२६॥
Bhuvanajñānaṁ sūrye saṁyamāt ||26||

Through samyama over sUrya=’Sun’, one attains to the knowledge of the entire World. (26)

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चन्द्रे ताराव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२७॥
Candre tārāvyūhajñānam ||27||

Through samyama over chandra=‘Moon’, one attains to the knowledge of the layout of the stars. (27)

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ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम्॥२८॥
Dhruve tadgatijñānam ||28||

Through samyama over dhruva=‘Pole Star’, one attains to the knowledge of the movement of the stars. (28)

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नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२९॥
Nābhicakre kāyavyūhajñānam ||29||

Through samyama over nAbhi-chakra=’Naval Chakra’, which is the maNipUraka, one attains to the knowledge of the layout of the physical body. (29)

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कण्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासानिवृत्तिः॥३०॥
Kaṇṭhakūpe kṣutpipāsānivṛttiḥ ||30||

Through samyama over KaNTha-kUpa=‘Pit of the Throat’, which is the vishuddhi chakra, hunger and thirst are stopped. (30)

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कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम्॥३१॥
Kūrmanāḍyāṁ sthairyam ||31||

Through samyama over kUrmanADi, which is one of the major energy pathways in the body, one attains to stability. (31)

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मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम्॥३२॥
Mūrdhajyotiṣi siddhadarśanam ||32||

Through samyama over the light in the center of the forehead, visions of the siddhas manifest. (32)

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प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम्॥३३॥
Prātibhādvā sarvam ||33||

Or, all these attainments may happen in a flash of spontaneous illumination. (33)

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हृदये चित्तसंवित्॥३४॥
Hṛdaye cittasaṁvit ||34||

Through samyama on hRdaya=‘Heart’, which corresponds to the anAhata chakra, one understands the true nature of chitta=‘Mind’. (34)

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सत्त्वपुरुषयोरत्यन्तासङ्कीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषो भोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात्पुरुषज्ञानम्॥३५॥
Sattvapuruṣayoratyantāsaṅkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo bhogaḥ parārthatvātsvārthasaṁyamātpuruṣajñānam ||35||

bhoga=‘Experience’ is a generic state, which is an outcome of utter non-unity between sattva=‘Fundamental essence of nature’ and puruSha=’True sense of Self’. By shifting this outward focus of the self inwards, and through samyama over it, one attains to the true knowledge of puruSha. (35)

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ततः प्रातिभश्रावणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते॥३६॥
Tataḥ prātibhaśrāvaṇavedanādarśāsvādavārtā jāyante ||36||

And from there arise brightened senses of shrAvaNa=‘Hearing’, vedana=’Touch’, Adarsha=Sight’,AsvAda=‘Taste’ and vArtta=’Smell’. (36)

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ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः॥३७॥
Te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ||37||

These enhanced senses are obstacles when one is in the state of samAdhi, and are attainments when one is out of it. (37)

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बन्धकारणशैथिल्यात्प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः॥३८॥
Bandhakāraṇaśaithilyātpracārasaṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ||38||

By relaxing one’s bondage with the physical body, and enhancing one’s mobility within, one’s chitta=‘Mind’ can enter another physical body. (38)

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उदानजयाज्जलपङ्ककण्टकादिष्वसङ्ग उत्क्रान्तिश्च॥३९॥
Udānajayājjalapaṅkakaṇṭakādiṣvasaṅga utkrāntiśca ||39||

By mastering udAna=‘The buoyant aspect of prANa’, one can move untouched over jala=‘Water’, panka=’Sludge’, kaNTaka=‘Thorns’ etc. (39)

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समानजयाज्ज्वलनम्॥४०॥
Samānajayājjvalanam ||40||

By mastering SamAna=‘The assimilative aspect of prANa’, one attains to radiance. (40)

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Patanjali Yoga Sutras 3:1—3:20

Reference: THE SANSKRIT CHANNEL
Reference: The Sun of Sanskrit Knowledge

Chapter 3: Vibhooti Pada (On practice)
Verses 3:1- 3:20

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देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा॥१॥

Deśabandhaścittasya dhāraṇā ||1||

dhAraNA=‘Concentration’ is binding the chitta=‘Mind’ fixedly in one place. (1)

Dharana means confinement of the mind to one place, whether physical, mental, objective, subjective or visionary. When the mind is concentrated on one place, perception of that place becomes intense.

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तत्रप्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्॥२॥

Tatra pratyayaikatānatā dhyānam ||2||

In such state of concentration, steady one-pointedness of being is dhyAna=‘Meditation’. (2)

Dharana turns into dhyana when there is no break or interruption in one’s concentration, and it has become continuous. In dhyana, you are conscious of just an idea, a sound, or any object, subtle or gross, which is called pratyaya, but there is also the consciousness of “I”—that I am in dhyana.  

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तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः॥३॥

Tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṁ svarūpaśūnyamiva samādhiḥ ||3||

That state, where only the essence of the being shines forth as if there is no form, is called as samAdhi=‘Equanimity’. (3)

Dhyana turns into samadhi when the consciousness of self disappears, and only an unbroken, continuous concentration on the object of focus remains. This object becomes clearer and clearer, as the filters in the mind fall away with deeper stages of samadhi. 

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त्रयमेकत्र संयमः॥४॥

Trayamekatra saṁyamaḥ ||4||

All these three at once, is called as samyama. (4)

Samyama (संयम)means “control of the senses, self-control.” It consists of dhāranā (concentration), dhayāna (meditation) and samadhi (absorption). The application of samyama to different objects or thoughts gives rise to psychic powers called vibhootis. In this state, one is able to see things as they are in real time without any filters of the mind or self.

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तज्जयात्प्रज्ञालोकः॥५॥

Tajjayātprajñālokaḥ ||5||

Through the mastery of samyama, one enters the realm of prajnA=‘Pure Perception’. (5)

Prajna (प्रज्ञा) refers to intuition; revelation; intuitive knowledge. You acquire it, as you master samyama.

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तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः॥६॥

Tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ||6||

The application of this prajnA is done in stages. (6)

Samyama (self-control) results in higher consciousness that should be applied to the subtle states of vitarka, vichara, ananda and asmita when considering a subject. It is like pulling the string to discover the ultimate truth or principle in a subject.

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त्रयमन्तरङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः॥७॥

Trayamantaraṅgaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ||7||

These three components of yoga are inward oriented, compared to the previous five, among the eight components of yoga. (7)

The first five parts of yoga (yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara) belong to our personal habits; they are considered external disciplines. But dharana, dhyana and samadhi together constitute the internal disciplines.

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तदपि वहिरङ्गं निर्वीजस्य॥८॥

Tadapi vahiraṅgaṁ nirvījasya ||8||

But even these are considered outward compared to the state of nirbIja-SamAdhi=’State of Causeless Equanimity’. (8)

But, with respect to nirbeeja samadhi, the discipline of samyama is still external. In other words, nirbeeja samadhi is the innermost state beyond the eight parts of yoga. It has no object at all.

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व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥

Vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacittānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ ||9||

As a result of the practice of control over the mind, inherent tendencies of thought-generation and thought-suppression alternate rapidly during the moments of control. (9)

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तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥

Tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt ||10||

This process becomes a calm flow, by internalizing it through repeated practice.(10)

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सर्वार्थतैकाग्रतयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः॥११॥

Sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ ||11||

As a result of the decline of sarvArtha=‘Interest in All Worldly Nature’ and the onset of aikAgrya=‘One-Pointedness’, the state of samAdhi=‘Equanimity’ sets into the chitta=‘Mind’. (11)

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ततः पुनः शान्तोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः॥१२॥

Tataḥ punaḥ śāntoditau tulyapratyayau cittasyaikāgratāpariṇāmaḥ ||12||

And then again, as a result of the onset of the aikAgrya=‘One-Pointedness’ of chitta=‘Mind’, various states-of-being that rise and fall, become equanimous. (12)

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एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः॥१३॥

Etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharmalakṣaṇāvasthāpariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ||13||

Due to these, the internal transformations of dharma=‘Nature’, lakShaNa=‘Behavior’, and avasthA=‘Conditions’ occur at the very level of bhUta=‘Elements’ and indriya=‘Senses’. (13)

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शान्तोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी॥१४॥

Śāntoditāvyapadeśyadharmānupātī dharmī ||14||

dharmI=‘A Subject of Change’ undergoes transformation which follow the rise, fall or constancy of one’s dharma=‘Nature’. (14)

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क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यत्वे हेतुः॥१५॥

Kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyatve hetuḥ ||15||

Any difference in the sequence of practices, results in a difference in the sequence of transformations. (15)

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परिणामत्रयसंयमादतीतानागतज्ञानम्॥१६॥

Pariṇāmatrayasaṁyamādatītānāgatajñānam ||16||

Once these three transformations occur, one attains to the knowledge of the beyond, that is not yet in one’s reach. (16)

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शब्दार्थप्रत्ययानामितरेतराध्यासात्सङ्करस्तत्प्रविभागसंयमात्सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम्॥१७॥

Śabdārthapratyayānāmitaretarādhyāsātsaṅkarastatpravibhāgasaṁyamātsarvabhūtarutajñānam ||17||

By separating the jumbled up nature of sound, meaning and perception, and focusing on these three, one attains to the knowledge of the sounds pertaining to all creation. (17)

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संस्कारसाक्षात्करणात्पूर्वजातिज्ञानम्॥१८॥

Saṁskārasākṣātkaraṇātpūrvajātijñānam ||18||

By realizing one’s latent tendencies, one attains to the knowledge of previous lifetimes. (18)

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प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम्॥१९॥

Pratyayasya paracittajñānam ||19||

By realizing the nature of one’s thoughts, one attains to the knowledge of other minds as well. (19)

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न च तत्सालम्बनं तस्याविषयीभूतत्वात्॥२०॥

Na ca tatsālambanaṁ tasyāviṣayībhūtatvāt ||20||

But that knowledge doesn’t convey the object of thought in one’s mind, since they do not have a separate existence of their own. (20)

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SADHGURU 2016: A LEGENDARY YOGI

Reference: Inner Engineering (Content)

This paper presents the summary of Part two, chapter 2.7.1 from the book, INNER ENGINEERING By Sadhguru. The contents are from the first edition (2016) of this book published in the United States by Spiegel & Grau, an imprint of Random House, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York.

The summary of the original material (in black) is accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.

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A LEGENDARY YOGI

“Raghavendra Rao, the yoga teacher I met as a boy, led a life that would be considered superhuman by conventional standards. He was known as Malladihalli Swami because he hailed from the village of Malladihalli, which is in the southwestern Indian state of Karnataka. He was known to do 1,008 surya namaskars a day. Later, after he was ninety years of age, he brought the number down to 108 (not because he wasn’t capable, but because there was no time). That was his spiritual practice. In addition to being a yoga master, he was a wonderful Ayurvedic doctor. He was one of the few nadi vaidyas—traditional physicians who diagnose your ailment by feeling your pulse. He would not only tell you what disease you had today, but could predict what ailment was likely to afflict you in the next ten to fifteen years, and would teach the requisite remedial practices. One day in a week, he would be available in his ashram as an Ayurvedic doctor. Wherever he was, he would travel back to the ashram on Sunday evening to be there on Monday morning. If he sat down at four o’clock in the morning, he was there right through the day till seven or eight o’clock in the evening. Volunteers would come in shifts to help him, but he himself sat through the whole day. For every patient who came, he had a joke to tell. People would forget they had come for treatment. It was less like a doctor-patient interaction and more of a festival!

“This happened when he was about eighty-three years of age: One Sunday, late at night, he was at a railway station about forty-six miles from his ashram. He was with two companions, and they discovered that there was a railway strike. This meant no trains and no other means of transport. His commitment to his work was such that he left his two companions on the platform and just ran forty-six miles overnight on the railway tracks! At four o’clock in the morning he was at the ashram, ready to treat his patients. People at the ashram did not even realize that he had come running. Only when his other two friends reached there did they tell the others what Swamiji had done! That is how incredibly he lived. He lived up to the age of a hundred and six and taught yoga until his dying day.”

The above is the original text (as denoted by quotation marks) from the book. It narrates a wonderful story about Sadhguru’s boyhood Yoga Teacher. It highlights the dedication of that Yoga teacher to keep his schedule as an Ayurvedic doctor one day a week despite all his other work. On one occasion, the circumstances were such that he had to run forty-six miles overnight to keep his schedule the next morning. He did that at about eighty-three years of age.

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SADHGURU 2016: In Sync with the Sun

Reference: Inner Engineering (Content)

This paper presents the summary of Part two, chapter 2.7 from the book, INNER ENGINEERING By Sadhguru. The contents are from the first edition (2016) of this book published in the United States by Spiegel & Grau, an imprint of Random House, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York.

The summary of the original material (in black) is accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.

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In Sync with the Sun

The surya namaskar is a familiar sequence of yoga postures. It is neither just a physical exercise nor sun worship. Its objective is to organize the solar energies within you. The bodily cycles come in sync with the sun’s cycles. This produces an innate physical and psychological equilibrium that can be an enormous asset in one’s daily life. 

The word “cyclical” denotes repetition. Anything that is physical, from the atomic to the cosmic, is cyclical.  Between the menstrual cycle, which is the shortest cycle (a twenty-eight-day cycle), and the cycle of the sun, which is over twelve years, there are many other kinds of cycles. Yogic practice is always aimed at enabling you to ride the cycle, so you have the right kind of foundation for consciousness. The physical body is a fantastic stepping-stone for higher possibilities.

Samsar (संसार) is the repetitive nature of cyclical movements in this world. Being rooted in cyclical nature gives a certain firmness and steadiness to life. But once life has reached the level of evolution, it aspires to transcendence. It is left to individual human beings either to remain trapped in the cyclical, or to use these cycles to go beyond the cyclical entirely. Surya namaskar is an important tool that empowers human beings to break free from the compulsive patterns of their lives. 

Surya namaskar is an important tool that empowers human beings to break free from the compulsive patterns of their lives. 

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SADHGURU 2016: Sadhana (2-2:6:1)

Reference: Inner Engineering (Content)

This paper presents the summary of Part two, chapter 2.6.1 from the book, INNER ENGINEERING By Sadhguru. The contents are from the first edition (2016) of this book published in the United States by Spiegel & Grau, an imprint of Random House, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, New York.

The summary of the original material (in black) is accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.

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Sadhana

“The body responds the moment it is in touch with the earth. That is why spiritual people in India walked barefoot and always sat on the ground in a posture that allowed for maximum area of contact with the earth. In this way, the body is given a strong experiential reminder that it is just a part of this earth. Never is the body allowed to forget its origins. When it is allowed to forget, it often starts making fanciful demands; when it is constantly reminded, it knows its place. This contact with the earth is a vital reconnection of the body with its physical source. This restores stability to the system and enhances the human capacity for rejuvenation greatly. This explains why there are so many people who claim that their lives have been magically transformed just by taking up a simple outdoor activity like gardening.

“Today, the many artificial ways in which we distance ourselves from the earth—in the form of pavements and multistoried structures, or even the widespread trend of wearing high heels—involves an alienation of the part from the whole and suffocates the fundamental life process. This alienation manifests in large-scale autoimmune disorders and chronic allergic conditions.

“If you tend to fall sick very easily, you could just try sleeping on the floor (or with minimal organic separation between yourself and the floor). You will see it will make a big difference. Also, try sitting closer to the ground. Additionally, if you can find a tree that looks lively to you, in terms of an abundance of fresh leaves or flowers, go spend some time around it. If possible, have your breakfast or lunch under that tree. As you sit under the tree, remind yourself: “This very earth is my body. I take this body from the earth and give it back to the earth. I consciously ask Mother Earth now to sustain me, hold me, keep me well.” You will find your body’s ability to recover is greatly enhanced.

“Or if you have turned all your trees into furniture, collect some fresh soil and cover your feet and hands with it. Stay that way for twenty to thirty minutes. This could help your recovery significantly.”

The contact with the earth is a vital reconnection of the body with its physical source. This restores stability to the system and enhances the human capacity for rejuvenation greatly. That is why spiritual people in India walked barefoot and always sat on the ground in a posture that allowed for maximum area of contact with the earth.

DRILL: If you tend to fall sick very easily, try sleeping with minimal separation between yourself and the floor. Also, try sitting closer to the ground. You will see it will make a big difference. 

DRILL: Go spend some time around a tree that looks lively to you, in terms of an abundance of fresh leaves or flowers. If possible, have your breakfast or lunch under that tree.

DRILL: When you sit under a tree, remind yourself: “This very earth is my body. I take this body from the earth and give it back to the earth. I consciously ask Mother Earth now to sustain me, hold me, keep me well.”

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