The World of Atom (Part I)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 1: Atomism in Antiquity (Lucretius ca. 99 – 55 B.C.)
Atoms are very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. 

Chapter 2: Vortices and Particles (Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650)
Atoms, or elementary particles, are infinitely divisible.

Chapter 3: Particles in the Atmosphere (Robert Boyle 1627 – 1691)
Air compresses and stretches like spring. 

Chapter 4: Matter & Motion (Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703)
The particles are in incessant motion, those of different mass having different speeds.

Chapter 5: A Wave Theory of Light (Christian Huygens 1629 – 1695)
Light is a continuous wave rather than a discrete particle.

Chapter 6: Newton on Particles and Kinetics (Newton 1642 – 1727)
Particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force.

Chapter 7: A Kinetic Theory of Gases (Daniel Bernoulli 1700 – 1782)
Heat increases the speed of particles, and thus converts to mechanical energy.

Chapter 8: The Atom as a Center of Force (Boscovich 1711 – 1787)
Atoms are not hard, rigid, massive spheres. They are point particles enveloped by force.

Chapter 9: Atomic Chemistry Before Dalton (Bryan Higgins 1737-1820, William Higgins 1769 – 1825)
There are different substances or elements of matter.


An atom is a point mass, surrounded by a volume of energy.


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