The World of Atom (Part I)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 1: Atomism in Antiquity (Lucretius ca. 99 – 55 B.C.)

Atoms are very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. 

Chapter 2: Vortices and Particles (Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650)

Atoms, or elementary particles, are infinitely divisible.

Chapter 3: Particles in the Atmosphere (Robert Boyle 1627 – 1691)

Air compresses and stretches like spring. 

Chapter 4: Matter & Motion (Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703)

The particles are in incessant motion, those of different mass having different speeds.

Chapter 5: A Wave Theory of Light (Christian Huygens 1629 – 1695)

Light is a wave rather than a particle.

Chapter 6: Newton on Particles and Kinetics (Newton 1642 – 1727)

Particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force.

Chapter 7: A Kinetic Theory of Gases (Daniel Bernoulli 1700 – 1782)

Heat converts to mechanical energy in that it increases the speed of particles. 

Chapter 8: The Atom as a Center of Force (Boscovich 1711 – 1787)

Atoms are not hard, rigid, massive spheres. They are point particles enveloped by force.

Chapter 9: Atomic Chemistry Before Dalton (Bryan Higgins 1737-1820, William Higgins 1769 – 1825)

There are different substances or elements of matter.

POSTULATE: An atom is a point mass, surrounded by a volume of energy.


The entire universe seems to be formed out of some primary substance that exists as a continuum. The thinnest form of this primary substance appears as space (Descartes 1596 – 1650). In this space appear atomic eddies of primary substance that coagulate rapidly toward their center.

We may call this the “whirlpool” model of the atom. In this model, the primary substance gradually condenses as it gets closer to the center, until it becomes very dense at the center. Instead of being a rigid, impenetrable ball, the atom has a spinning, gradually condensing, whirlpool like flat structure. Fractals of this structure may be seen throughout the cosmos in the form of solar systems and galaxies.

According to Boscovich (1711 – 1787) atoms cannot be hard, rigid, massive spheres because they cannot change their velocity instantaneously upon collision. This objection is overcome when we look at atoms as a condensing whirlpool rather than a solid impenetrable ball.

Our planet, its atmosphere, and the deep space around it, are all made up of this primary substance. The deep space consists of the continuum of primary substance but rarely of coagulating eddies or atoms. The atmosphere around our planet, however, is full of atoms that combine as molecules and are separated by the background continuum of primary substance.

Christian Huygens (1629 – 1695) forwarded the wave theory of light that is present in the background. The wave property of light essentially declares it to be a continuum. The wave theory, however, sees light as a “disturbance” rather than as a substance. This seems to be a major inconsistency. If we look at light as a substance that is moving at great speed it explains both the wave and particle like properties. The wave-like property comes from its flimsiness and great speed, and its particle-like property comes from its finite density. The structure of light may also describe the background continuum of primary substance.

Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) used lines of force to describe the nature of light and the primary substance. Later Maxwell (1831 – 1879) attributed electromagnetic characteristics to light but he did not acknowledge it as a substance.

The 16th century scientists were greatly interested in the study of the atmosphere made of molecules separated by the background continuum of primary substance. They found that the air compresses and stretches like spring. The springiness of air comes from a balance of attractive and repulsive forces among its molecules. These molecules have a whirlpool-structure similar to atoms. The molecules move freely maintaining a certain distance among each other. When this distance is decreased there is repulsion, but when it is increased there is attraction. In this way, air and other gases act like elastic fluids.

The density of the background primary substance is negligible compared to the density of the molecules. Therefore, the density of air is essentially described by the number of molecules in a certain volume. Compression of air means the decrease in the average distance among the air molecules. This results in a decrease in volume and increase in density. It also results in repulsion among molecules, which appears as increased pressure. Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691) discovered the law that the pressure of a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its volume at a constant temperature.

Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703), on the other hand, stressed upon the intrinsic motion of the molecules and that this motion was different for molecules of different masses. From the perspective of the “whirlpool” model, most of the mass of an atom or molecule is concentrated at the center but it also fans out outward while decreasing in density and increasing in motion. The outer edges of molecules merge into the background of still lower density just like eddies merge into the surrounding flow. The centers of these molecules, therefore, move at much slower speeds than the surrounding primary substance.

It should be noted here that the conservation laws of momentum and energy do point to some relationship between mass and velocity. The difference is that this relationship takes on a new dimension for the whirlpool model postulated herein. In this case, the idea of “particle” at atomic level is replaced by the idea of “continuum of variable cohesive density”.

In the kinetic theory of gases, the molecules have intrinsic motion. Their velocity changes with temperature but not with pressure. Therefore, it would seem that mass must also change with temperature. This “change in mass” may appear as change in equilibrium forces among the molecules.

A body when pushed in any direction resists that push. This resistance is called inertia of the body as considered by Newton (1642 – 1727). It means that the body is already moving at its natural speed, and any deviation from that speed is resisted. But this must also mean that after a body is deviated from its natural speed by the application of force, it must then return to that speed when the external force is removed. This logical argument differs from Newton’s first law of motion. It, however, admits that the external force somehow reduces the mass of the body imperceptibly to increase its speed.

In the whirlpool model of the atom the density is increasing toward the center. This may appear as a “force of gravity” acting toward the center. This is more perceptible in the fractals of the whirlpool model as solar systems and galaxies. This view is consistent with Newton’s ideas.


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