## Chapter 14: Atoms in Motion (John Herapath 1790 – 1868)

According to Herapath the relationship among temperature, pressure, and density applied to the supposed aethereal medium also. He basically came up with the kinetic theory of gases on his own. His particles moved by an intrinsic motion with perfect freedom. Herapath substituted Newton’s repulsive forces among the particles of gases by their intrinsic motion. He theorized that gas heats up on sudden compression and cools down on sudden expansion because of change in velocity of the particles.

We now view the aethereal medium as energy at the lowest part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It gradually condenses as one moves up the spectrum until it becomes solid, as in the nucleus of the atom. The concepts of temperature, pressure and density are then postulated for energy in general, such as, light. Energy condenses with increase in frequency. That means the extents of energy (space) becomes smaller, and its duration (time) becomes larger. In other words, the speed (distance/time) decreases, when density increases as we move up the energy spectrum. In the electromagnetic radiation range, the speed may decrease, and density may increase, only very slightly. However, in the sub-atomic range, the changes in the density and speed of energy start to accelerate.

## Chapter 15: “Active Molecules” – Brownian Motion (Robert Brown 1773 – 1858)

Brownian motion is an effect arising from the imbalance of molecular impacts on a free microscopic particle. In this sense, molecules have a primitive form of life as they have self-propelled motion. An inherent motion of the molecules underlies the Kinetic theory of gases.

Today we know that this inherent motion depends on the density of energy from light to matter. The lighter is the density the greater is the speed. We may postulate that an accelerating particle is lessening in its density by some infinitesimal amount.

## Chapter 16: The Tragedy of a Genius (John James Waterston 1811 – 1883)

Waterston was the first to introduce the conception that heat and temperature are to be measured by vis viva (kinetic energy). He showed that under equal pressure and volume, the root mean square velocity is inversely proportional to mass density. Waterston, thus, not only corrected the relationship of temperature to velocity but also gave the first statement of the law of equipartition of energy in a mixture at thermal equilibrium.

A molecule of a gas is made up of a nucleus and its surrounding energy. The mass is supplied by the nucleus and volume is supplied by the surrounding energy. Impacts occur because of the nuclei only. In the absence of nuclei there will only be energy vortices with highest energy consistency (of 1/1840 of the nuclei) in the center. These vortices will spread out very far apart and their velocity will be much higher.

## Chapter 17: The Conservation of Energy–The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (James Prescott Joule 1818 – 1889)

Joule firmly established the idea that mechanical energy could be transformed into internal energy and thus produce the same effect as “heating” a body, and that a fixed ratio existed between mechanical work and thermal units. Heat is properly defined as energy in transit due solely to a temperature difference.  Joule saw that chemical energy in battery is converted to electrical energy in the circuit and that this in turn is converted into heat. This ultimately established the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Light fills a vast expanse and moves swiftly within that expanse. As energy condenses up the spectrum, its expanse and velocity reduce, while its consistency increases. Since the energy is conserved, this is equivalent to motion being stored as inertia. It may be postulated that infinitesimal changes in inertia occur as motion changes, and that motion of substance may be manipulated by regulating its inertia.

## Chapter 18: The Range of Molecular Speeds in a Gas (James Clerk Maxwell 1831 – 1879)

Maxwell brilliantly deduced the distribution of molecular speeds in a gas at equilibrium at any temperature. This great step forward in the understanding of the behavior of the elementary particles of gases represents one of the major advances in the progress of the atomic theory of matter. Besides, Maxwell provided a formula for the coefficient of viscosity of a gas which showed this quantity to be independent of pressure, a most unexpected and surprising result.

These mathematical derivations are just as valid for the vortex model of the atom. Similar to the velocity distribution, there would also be a mass density distribution. Just like the velocity is not uniform throughout the volume of gas,  its mass density (consistency) is not expected to be uniform in that volume either. This directly relates to the viscosity of gas, which, like velocity, will depend on the absolute temperature of the gas and not on pressure.

.

POSTULATES:

NOTE: These postulates are consistent with previous postulates.

1. Molecules have self-propelled motion, which underlies the various properties of gases.
2. These substantial properties indicate the presence of substance.
3. The total substance is conserved.

.