The World of Atom (Part VI)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 26: The Discovery of X-rays – Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845 – 1923)
Cathode rays falling on the glass surface produces X-rays. The X-rays exhibit the properties of light waves of very short wavelength. 

Chapter 27: The Discovery of Radioactivity – Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852 – 1908)
Uranium salts emit radiation without any external excitation.

Chapter 28: The Discovery of the Electron – J. J. Thomson (1856 – 1940)
The substance of cathode rays is charge itself. Its charge to mass ratio is 2000 times greater than hydrogen ions, and the speed is many thousands times higher too.

Chapter 29: The Discovery of Polonium and Radium – Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906), Marie Sklodovska Curie (1867 – 1934)
The Curies isolated the radioactive elements Uranium, Polonium and Radium.

Chapter 30: The Discovery of α-and β-rays from Uranium – Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937)
Rutherford discovered the natural emission of α-and β-rays from Uranium.

Chapter 31: The Discovery of γ-rays – Paul Villard (1860 – 1934)
Paul Villard discovered the γ-rays as a natural emission from Radium.

Chapter 32: The Transformation of the Elements – Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937), Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956)
Radioactivity is a manifestation of subatomic change.

Chapter 33: The Quantum Theory of Radiation – Max Planck (1858 – 1947)
Radiational Energy is proportional to frequency, hence radiation (light) is not a disturbance propagating in aether.

Chapter 34: Mass Changes with Velocity – Walter Kaufmann (1871 – 1947)
The ratio e/m decreases with increased velocity of electrons. 

Chapter 35: The Electron Theory of Matter – Henrik Anton Lorentz (1853 – 1928)
Electrons are material particles that contract in the direction of motion.

Chapter 36: Einstein’s Legacy – Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)
Motion affects the measurements of space and time. Electromagnetic radiation condenses into quanta (particles) with increasing frequency. There is equivalence between energy and matter. A new theory of gravitation.



  1. There is a frequency spectrum to Electromagnetic radiation.
  2. There are spontaneous subatomic reactions.
  3. These reactions emit subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation.
  4. There are particles of charge quantized like particles of mass.
  5. Atomic structure becomes unstable at higher atomic mass.
  6. Electromagnetic energy is proportional to “frequency” and not to amplitude as in the case of a wave. This makes EM a substance and not a disturbance in substance.
  7. Electromagnetic radiation increasingly displays particle-like behavior at higher “frequencies”.
  8. There is intrinsic motion in atoms and molecules.
  9. The geometry of space-time and the laws of nature are interdependent. That means space and time are directly related to energy.
  10. Space and time form a space-time continuum of motion.
  11. Mass and energy are equivalent to each other.
  12. Inertial Mass and gravitational mass are equivalent, and they vary with motion.
  13. An inertial frame in a gravitational field cannot be distinguished from an accelerated frame in a field-free space.
  14. Gravity is a property of all particles from electron and photon to neutrino.
  15. A freely moving body will move in a “straight line” characteristic of the geometry of the space in which it is moving.



  1. Matter, electricity and EM radiation are different forms of the same substance.
  2. From matter to electricity to EM is a spectrum of decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength.
  3. As frequency of substance decreases, there is a gradual
  4. Increase in wavelength (expansion of space)
  5. Decrease in duration (expansion of time).
  6. Increase in intrinsic motion.
  7. Decrease in inertia and gravity.
  8. Increase in the curvature of motion.
  9. Space represents the extents of substance, and time represents the duration of the same substance.
  10. The intrinsic motion of substance is balanced by innate inertia. As inertia increases the motion decreases. A body of infinite inertia is at absolute rest.
  11. A force applied to a body increases its motion and reduces its inertia.
  12. That reduction in inertia is practically undetectable (it reduces by a factor of v2/c2).
  13. Atoms are vortices in a river of EM radiation. At the center of atom is a material nucleus and at its periphery is EM.
  14. Force is the property of intrinsic inertia of substance. The force becomes more intense as the inertia (substance) becomes more condensed.
  15. The gravitational force is the least intense, and the nuclear force is the most intense form of force.
  16. The presence of space means the presence of substance or field of certain consistency. As the consistency of field increases, the space curves increasingly.


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