The World of Atom (Part VI)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 26: The Discovery of X-rays (Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen 1845 – 1923)

The discovery of X-rays was made accidentally by Roentgen on November 2, 1895, while he was experimenting with a Crooke’s tube covered by a shield of black cardboard. The source of X-rays was cathode rays falling on the glass surface of the tube. The X -rays exhibit the properties of light waves of very short wavelength. They can easily pass through the paper and wood. Other substances are transparent to it by different degrees. The denser the substance, the less transparent it is. X-rays are not identical with cathode rays because they cannot be deflected by a magnetic field. X-rays ionize air and other gases, which can then discharge electrified bodies.

X-rays are electromagnetic in nature like light and the cathode rays. Their wavelength is much shorter than that of light, but much longer than that of cathode rays.

Chapter 27: The Discovery of Radioactivity (Antoine Henri Becquerel 1852 – 1908)

Becquerel was studying phosphorescence in Uranium salts when he discovered radiation that penetrated paper opaque to light. Unlike phosphorescence and X-rays, this radiation continued to be emitted without any external excitation. But like X-rays, it discharged electrified bodies and went through bodies opaque to light. The enfeeblement of these radiations in passing through various screens was less than the enfeeblement of X-rays.

This radiation was different from X-rays and was referred to as radioactivity. It required further study.

Chapter 28: The Discovery of the Electron (J. J. Thomson 1856 – 1940)

J. J. Thomson investigated the nature of the cathode rays that appeared when the gas discharge occurred at low pressure. It was known that the cathode-ray beam carried negative charges, but Thomson demonstrated in 1897 that cathode rays and negative charges are one and the same thing. Since the mass to charge ratio for the cathode rays was about 2000 times lighter than the lightest atom of hydrogen known, he concluded that the negative charges of cathode rays were subatomic particles. These were later named electrons.

Electrons are supposed to be bodies smaller than atoms, but they are the same size as atoms but without a nucleus. So, their mass is a lot smaller. Electrons are vortices too but there is no nucleus to help them maintain their shape. So, electrons in a cathode ray beam form and dissolve to provide a high consistency of energy and a slower than light speed. Electrons do get attached to nuclei as a vortex around them.

Chapter 29: The Discovery of Polonium and Radium (Pierre Curie 1859 – 1906, Marie Sklodovska Curie 1867 – 1934)

After Becquerel’s discovery of radioactivity in 1886, Pierre and Marie Curie, in 1898, started a systematic search of other radioactive elements. They soon discovered Polonium and Radium. It took them till 1902 to isolate enough radium to determine its atomic weight.

Chapter 30: The Discovery of α-and β-rays from Uranium (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937)

Ernest Rutherford start working on understanding the nature of the radioactive emissions, and soon discovered the α-and β-rays from Uranium in 1899. The nature of these rays was determined later.

Chapter 31: The Discovery of γ-rays (Paul Villard 1860 – 1934)

Villard discovered γ-rays in the course of investigating the natural radiations from radium. He wanted to see whether or not a penetrating radiation like X-rays might be emitted. He found that a part of the emission from radium was very penetrating, and it was not deflected by a magnetic field. Hence this radiation carried no electric charge. It did have the nature of very penetrating X-rays.

Chapter 32: The Transformation of the Elements (Ernest Rutherford 1871 – 1937, Frederick Soddy 1877 – 1956)

Rutherford and Soddy discovered the transformation of the atoms of elements as part of radioactivity. Consequently, all radioactive elements were considered as undergoing spontaneous transformation into new elements; the atom could no longer be viewed as the immutable entity that chemistry had hitherto considered it. Thus, the most sweeping changes in the contemporary outlook on matter were introduced.

Chapter 33: The Quantum Theory of Radiation (Max Planck 1858 – 1947)

Radiational Energy is proportional to frequency, hence radiation (light) is not a disturbance propagating in aether.

Chapter 34: Mass Changes with Velocity (Walter Kaufmann 1871 – 1947)

The ratio e/m decreases with increased velocity of electrons. 

Chapter 35: The Electron Theory of Matter (Henrik Anton Lorentz 1853 – 1928)

Electrons are material particles that contract in the direction of motion.

Chapter 36: Einstein’s Legacy (Albert Einstein 1879 – 1955)

Motion affects the measurements of space and time. Electromagnetic radiation condenses into quanta (particles) with increasing frequency. There is equivalence between energy and matter. A new theory of gravitation.



  1. There is a frequency spectrum to Electromagnetic radiation.
  2. There are spontaneous subatomic reactions.
  3. These reactions emit subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation.
  4. There are particles of charge quantized like particles of mass.
  5. Atomic structure becomes unstable at higher atomic mass.
  6. Electromagnetic energy is proportional to “frequency” and not to amplitude as in the case of a wave. This makes EM a substance and not a disturbance in substance.
  7. Electromagnetic radiation increasingly displays particle-like behavior at higher “frequencies”.
  8. There is intrinsic motion in atoms and molecules.
  9. The geometry of space-time and the laws of nature are interdependent. That means space and time are directly related to energy.
  10. Space and time form a space-time continuum of motion.
  11. Mass and energy are equivalent to each other.
  12. Inertial Mass and gravitational mass are equivalent, and they vary with motion.
  13. An inertial frame in a gravitational field cannot be distinguished from an accelerated frame in a field-free space.
  14. Gravity is a property of all particles from electron and photon to neutrino.
  15. A freely moving body will move in a “straight line” characteristic of the geometry of the space in which it is moving.



  1. Matter, electricity and EM radiation are different forms of the same substance.
  2. From matter to electricity to EM is a spectrum of decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength.
  3. As frequency of substance decreases, there is a gradual
  4. Increase in wavelength (expansion of space)
  5. Decrease in duration (expansion of time).
  6. Increase in intrinsic motion.
  7. Decrease in inertia and gravity.
  8. Increase in the curvature of motion.
  9. Space represents the extents of substance, and time represents the duration of the same substance.
  10. The intrinsic motion of substance is balanced by innate inertia. As inertia increases the motion decreases. A body of infinite inertia is at absolute rest.
  11. A force applied to a body increases its motion and reduces its inertia.
  12. That reduction in inertia is practically undetectable (it reduces by a factor of v2/c2).
  13. Atoms are vortices in a river of EM radiation. At the center of atom is a material nucleus and at its periphery is EM.
  14. Force is the property of intrinsic inertia of substance. The force becomes more intense as the inertia (substance) becomes more condensed.
  15. The gravitational force is the least intense, and the nuclear force is the most intense form of force.
  16. The presence of space means the presence of substance or field of certain consistency. As the consistency of field increases, the space curves increasingly.


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