Glossary for Patanjali Yoga

Reference: Patanjali Yoga Sutras

This is the Glossary for Patanjali Yoga. It is based on the subject clearing of the book, FOUR CHAPTERS ON FREEDOM by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, First edition 1976, Published by Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar, India.

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Key Word List

pataJjali, yoga, sUtra, Yoga Sutra Text, samAdhi, pAda

chitta, vRtti, nirodha, kliSTa, pramANa, viparyaya, vikalpa, nidrA, smRti, pratyakSha, anumAna, Agama, abhyAsa, vairAgya, guNas, sAdhana,

samprajnAta, vitarka, vichAra, Ananda, asmitA, asamprajnAta, samskAra, videha, prakRtilaya, bhava, shraddhA, vIrya, prajnA, mRdu, madhya, adhimAtra,

Ishvara, praNidhAna, klesha, karma, vipAka, Ashaya, guru, praNava,

antarAya, vyAdhi, styAna, samshaya, pramAda, Alasya, avirati, bhrAnti-darshana, alabdha-bhUmikatva, anavasthitatva, duHkha, daurmanasya, angamejayatva, shvAsaprashvAsA, maitrI, karuNA, muditA, upekShA, sukha, puNya, apuNya, praNa, grahItR, grahaNa, grAhya,

savitarka, shabda, artha, jnAna, savichAra, nirvichAra, sabIja-samAdhi, nirbIja-samAdhi, adhyAtma, Rta, RtambharA,

tapaH, svAdhyAyA, IshvarapraNidhAna, kriyAyogaH, avidyA, rAga, dveSha, abhinivesha, prasupta, tanu, vichChinna, udAra, anitya, nitya, ashuchi, shuchi, anAtma, Atma, drk, darshana-shakti, svarasa, viduShas, sUkShma,

dhyAna, jAti, AyuH, bhoga, AhlAda, paritApa, draShTA, dRShyam, prakAsha, kriyA, sthiti, bhUta, indriya, apavarga, visheSha, avisheSha, linga-mAtra, alinga, pratyaya,

aSTANga, yama, niyama, Asana, prANAyAma, pratyAhAra, dhAraNa, dhyAna, samAdhi,

yama, ahinsA, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha, jAti, desha, kAla, samaya, niyama, shaucha, santoSha, tapaH, svAdhyAya, IshvarapraNidhAna,

vitarka, lobha, moha, duHkha, ajnAna, vIrya, sattva, shudhhi, saumanasya, aikAgrya, indriyajaya, yogyatva, Atmadarshana, sthira, Sankhya,

vibhUti, saMyama, vyutthAna, abhibhava, prAdurbhAva, pariNAma, sarvArthata, dharma, lakShaNa, avasthA, dharmI, sopakrama, nirupakrama, vyavahita, viprakRShTa, shrAvaNa, vedana, Adarsha, AsvAda, vArtta, udAna, jala, panka, kaNTaka, SamAna, shrotra, AkAsha, divya, sthUlasvarUpa,

Purusha, Prakriti, , Tattva, Vāsanā, Samapatti, Trataka,, Nirvitarka, Japa, Sattva, Rajas, Tamas, Sat, Shruta, Upāsana, Māyā, Kaivalya, Viveka, Karmashaya, Heya, Drishya, Hanam, Pratipaksha, Bhāvanā, Prarabdha, Puraka, Rechaka, Kumbhaka, Vikshepa,

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Glossary

To find the meaning of a Sanskrit word, enter its English transliteration in ‘Sanskrit Dictionary 1’ to obtain the Sanskrit script for the word; then, enter that word in Sanskrit script in ‘Sanskrit Dictionary 2’. You’ll get the full meanings from Sanskrit Dictionary 2.

  1. Sanskrit Dictionary 1
  2. Sanskrit Dictionary 2
  3. Sanskrit Dictionary 3

—A—

abhibhava (अभिभव) = overpowering, prevailing, subjugating

abhinivesha (अभिनिवेश) = clinging
Abhinivesha means “tenacity, adherence to, fixation”. An example of such a fixation is the “fear of death.” Even learned people fear death. They have an equally strong desire for life. This is true of the philosopher, the thinker and the layman. It can be seen in everybody, therefore, it is called svarasavahi—a natural force inherent in everyone. 

abhyAsa (अभ्यास) = Practice
abhyAsa refers to repeated or constant practice. In abhyasa, the effort becomes a part of your nature.

Adarsha (आदर्श) = Sight

adhimAtra (अधिमात्र) = intense

adhyAtma (अध्यात्म) = spirituality

Agama = acquisition

ahinsA (अहिंसा) = Non-Violence
Ahimsa means “not hurting.” It refers to not injuring anything, harmlessness, non-violence, security, safeness.

AhlAda (आह्लाद) = delight

aikAgrya (ऐकाग्र्य) = Intent Focus, One-Pointedness

ajnAna (अज्ञान) = stupidity

AkAsha (आकाश) = Space

alabdha-bhUmikatva (अलब्ध भूमिकत्व) = inability to gain grounding

Alasya (आलस्य) = laziness

alinga (आलिङ्ग) = undefined
Alinga means “absence of marks”. It is a state without mark or symbol. See LINGA.

Ananda (आनन्द) = pure bliss
Ananda  means pure happiness, bliss. In Ananda there is the feeling of absolute peace and absolute bliss, but that bliss is not the state of your sense experience.

anAtma (अनात्मा) = Not the Self

anavasthitatva (अनवस्थितत्व) = unsteadiness

angamejayatva (अङ्गमेजयत्व) = losing control over the limbs

anitya (अनित्य) = impermanent

antarAya (अन्तराय) = obstacles

anumAna (अनुमान) = inference
anumAna means “inference, consideration, reflection; guess, conjecture”. Knowledge from inference and testimony differs from individual to individual.

anushAsan (अनुशासन) = discipline, instruction, direction, command, precept

aparigraha (अपरिग्रह)
Aparigraha means non-acceptance, renouncing (of any possession besides the necessary utensils of ascetics); deprivation, destitution, poverty.

apavarga (अपवर्ग) = Release

apuNya (अपुण्य) = vice

ashuchi (अशुचि) = impure

aviplava (अविप्लव) = uninterrupted knowledge

artha (अर्थ) = the essence
Artha mans “meaning, object, purpose”. Artha refers to the ultimate purpose, and that is the real knowledge of the object.

asamprajnAta (असम्प्रज्ञात) = Eqanimous-Mind beyond discernment
See samprajnAta.

Asana (आसन) = posture
Asana refers to yoga postures; fixed sitting position. The purpose of an asana in Patanjali yoga is to balance the different nerve impulses, feelings of pain and pleasure, heat and cold and all other opposite sensations.

Ashaya (आशय) = intention

asmitA (अस्मिता) = knowing the sense of ‘I’, Wrong Identification of the self

aSTANga (अष्टाङ्ग) = the eight parts
Eight elements (of practice of yoga culminating in samadhi)—Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.

asteya (अस्तेय) = non-stealing
Asteya means “not stealing.” It is one of the yamas and refers to honesty.

AsvAda () = Taste

Atma (आत्मा) = self

Atmadarshana (आत्मदर्शन) = Perception of the True Self

avasthA (अवस्था) = state, condition

avidyA (अविद्या) = ignorance
Avidya is essentially the identification of self with something else. Therefore, there is ignorance of the true nature of self. It is not seeing things for what they are. It is misperceiving a whole scale of values as the black and white of duality. It is to be fixated on the body. We misunderstand our relations with people due to avidya.

avirati (अविरति) = failure to not-cling

avisheSha (अविशेष) = Generic
Avishesha means “without difference, uniform.” It is non-distinction, non-difference, uniformity.

AyuH (आयु) = Life Span

—B—

BEEJA (बीज)
Beeja means “germ, element, primary cause or principle, source, origin”. It is the object on which you are meditating. It forms the basis of support for the consciousness.

bhava (भाव) = simply being

BHĀVANĀ (भावना)
Bhāvanā means “reflection.” It refers to contemplation, feeling of devotion, demonstration, argument, ascertainment, right conception or notion.

bhoga (भोग) = to experience

brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य) = Being in the Path of the Divine
Brahmacharya means the state of an unmarried religious student, a state of continence and chastity.

bhrAnti-darshana (भ्रान्ति दर्शन) = hallucination

bhUta (भूत) = Elements

—C—

chitta (चित्त) = one of the aspects of the mind
Chitta means individual consciousness which includes the conscious, subconscious and unconscious levels of mind. Chitta is derived from the basic idea of chit, which means to see, to be conscious of, to be aware. Chitta is comprised of three stages: the sense or objective consciousness, the subjective or astral consciousness, and the unconsciousness or mental state of dormant potentiality. Jivatman, the individual awareness, is made up of Atman plus chitta.

—D—

darshana-shakti (दर्शन शक्ति) = the power of sight

daurmanasya (दौर्मनस्य) = depression

desha (देश) = one’s place

dhAraNa (धारणा) = Concentration
Dharana is the step before meditation that is concerned with fixing awareness on one object to the exclusion of all others. Patanjali yoga utilizes a psychic symbol as a focal point for internal concentration. It can be one’s guru, a deity, a mantra, an enquiry (anomaly); it can be almost anything. It must be something that spontaneously attracts the attention of the individual and must be chosen to suit the inherent nature of the mind and personality. 

dharma (धर्म) = one’s nature

dharmI (धर्मी) = A Subject of Change

dhyAna (ध्यान) = Meditation
Dhyana is merely an extension of dharana. It arises when one is able to maintain a smooth, unfluctuating flow of concentration towards the inner symbol for a period of time. The mind becomes moulded around one pattern in the form of the psychic symbol. This is the start of meditation.

divya (दिव्य) = that which shines, radiates and illuminates

draShTA (द्रष्टव्य) = the one who sees
Drashta means “seer.” It is THAT which is aware.

dRShyam (दृश्यम्) = That which is seen

DRISHYA (दृश्य)
Drishya means “visible, conspicuous.” It is anything manifested, whether objective or subjective; therefore, it can be perceived and experienced.

drk (दृक) = Seer

duHkha = Unpleasantness, suffering

dveSha (द्वेष) = aversion
Dvesha means “aversion, dislike, enmity to.” Whenever there is an object of pain and the mind runs away from it, wishing to avoid it, this is called dvesha. Dvesha is a more powerful binding force. When dvesha is removed, meditation becomes deeper and then raga can also be given up.

—G—

grahaNa (ग्रहण) = the act of consumption

grahItR (ग्रहीतृ) = the consumer

grAhya (ग्राह्य) = the consumed

guNas (गुण) = qualities
guNa means the threefold aspects of nature: sattva (essence), rajas (dissipation) and tamas (darkness). All functions of the body, mind and world are an interplay of these three gunas. When sattva has free expression, one-pointedness dawns. When rajas is overpowering, the mind is dissipated. When tamas comes into play, there is neither one-pointedness nor dissipation; there is only dullness and inactivity.

guru (गुरु) = illuminator

—H—

HANAM (हनन)
Hanam means “killing, a killer, slayer.” It refers to killing, destroying, removing, dispelling.

HEYA (हेय)
Heya means “that thing to be left or quitted or abandoned or rejected or avoided.”

—I—

indriya (इन्द्रिय) = Senses

indriyajaya (इन्द्रियजय) = Victory over the Senses

Ishvara (ईश्वर) = the supreme soul
Ishvara refers to master, lord, God, etc. Ishvara does not mean some personality that lords over you. Ishvara is the ultimate consciousness, which is completely free of ignorance, I-feeling, like, dislike, and fear of death. It is there in each one of us, and it has always been there in everyone. It is not possible to reach it through thinking, speeches, discourses, intellect, listening to others or the scriptures. It must be experienced directly through practices, such as, yoga. In it there is the seed of limitless knowledge, but that knowledge is not gained from outside.

IshvarapraNidhAna (ईश्वरप्रणिधान) = Abiding in the Divine
Ishvarapranidhana means “surrender to God.” It is placing the mind completely at the disposal of the inner self.

—J—

jala (जल) = water

JAPA (जप)
Japa means “muttering, whispering”. It refers to repetition of a mantra.

jAti (जाति) = one’s birth; the form of existence (as man, animal, etc.) fixed by birth

jnAna (ज्ञान) = knowledge
Jnana means “knowing, becoming acquainted with”. Jnana is inner sense perception (conceptualization). It refers to the higher knowledge (cognition, knowingness). 

—K—

KAIVALYA(कैवल्य)
Kaivalya means “isolation.” It refers to absolute unity, perfect isolation, abstraction, detachment from all other connections, detachment of the soul from matter or further transmigrations, beatitude.

kAla (काल) = The Times One lives in

kaNTaka (कण्टक) = thorn

karma (कर्म) = action

KARMASHAYA (कर्माशय)
Karmashaya means “receptacle or accumulation of (good and evil) acts” in the form of impressions.

karuNA (करुणा) = compassion

klesha (क्लेश) = affliction, obstacles
klesha is pain, affliction, distress, pain from disease, anguish. In yoga, five klesha’s are named: “ignorance”, “egotism”, “desire”, “aversion”, and “tenacity of mundane existence”.

kliSTa (क्लिष्ट) = not easily intelligible

kriyA (क्रिया) = Action

kriyAyogaH = Yoga of Internal Action

KUMBHAKA (कुम्भक)
Kumbhaka means a pot. In pranayama (breath control), it is stopping the breath by shutting the mouth and closing the nostrils with the fingers of the right hand.

—L—

lakShaNa (लक्षण) = characteristic, behavior

linga-mAtra (लिङ्ग मात्र) = defined

lobha (लोभ) = Greed

—M—

madhya (मध्य) = medium

maitrI (मैत्री) = friendliness

MĀYĀ (माया)
Maya means “illusion, unreality, deception, fraud, trick, sorcery, etc.”

moha (मोह) = Delusion

mRdu (मृदु) = mild

muditA (मुदिता) = joy

—N—

nidrA (निद्रा) = sleep
nidrA refers to sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth. In this state there are thoughts but they are not present before the mind. It is an unconscious state of mind.

nirbIja-samAdhi (निर्बीज समाधि) = a state of causeless equanimity
Nirbeeja means “without seed.” Nirbeeja samadhi is a state devoid of consciousness. According to yoga, consciousness or awareness is in the form of motion or vibration, but nirbeeja samadhi is not a state of motion or vibration. It involves stillness. Nirbeeja samadhi is the state of causeless equanimity.

nirodha (निरोध) = bringing them down, calming it, having control over

nirupakrama (निरुपक्रम) = incurable; which are not immediately manifest

nirvichAra (निर्विचार) = thoughtlessness states of meditation
Nirvichara means not reflecting or considering. In nirvichara, the space, time and idea are taken out but behind that something else remains, and that is called the essential nature of thought.

NIRVITARKA (निर्वितर्क)
Nirvitarka means without reason or thought; unreflecting, inconsiderate.

nitya (नित्य) = permanent

niyama (नियम) = Strict-Regimen
Niyama refers to fixed observances or rules; personal code. The niyamas are intended to harmonize one’s inner feelings. The five niyamas are: shaucha (cleanliness); santosha (contentment); tapah (austerity); swadhyaya (self-study) and Ishwara pranidhana (surrender to the cosmic will). 

—P—

pAda (पाद) = a quarter, a fourth Part

panka (पङ्क) = sludge

pariNAma (परिणाम) = a very profound change, transformation from within

paritApa (परिताप) = Dejection

pataJjali (पतञ्जलि) = author of Yoga Sutras
An Indian sage who lived between 2nd and 4th century CE. Very little is known about him.

PATANJALI YOGA
Patanjali yoga is that system of Raja Yoga, which consists of eight stages: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. It is therefore widely called ashtanga yoga (the yoga of eight stages).

prAdurbhAva (प्रादुर्भाव) = manifestation, appearance, becoming visible

prajnA (प्रज्ञा) = pure perception
prajnA refers to intuition; revelation; intuitive knowledge; true knowledge.

prakAsha (प्रकाश) = Manifestation

PRAKRITI (प्रकृति)
See PURUSHA.

prakRtilaya (प्रकृतिलय) = immersed in one’s own nature

pramAda (प्रमाद) = negligence

pramANa (प्रमाण) = judgment, measure of any kind

prANa (प्राण) = life airs
Prana means “breath, exhalation, breath of life.” It refers to bioplasmic energy expressed through living protoplasm. The subtle prana is in the form of energy, and the gross prana has the form of breath.

praNava (प्रणव) = the first sound

prANAyAma (प्राणायाम) = Breath Control
Prana means breath, ayama is lengthening or widening through control. When breathing is controlled so as to retain the breath, it is pranayama. The ultimate aim of pranayama is to be able to retain the breath. Thus, if we breathe normally fourteen times per minute, in pranayama we breathe only once or twice per minute. There are three types of pranayama, namely, puraka, rechaka and kumbhaka (please see). 

praNidhAna (प्रणिधान) = abiding in

PRĀRABDHA (प्रारब्ध)
Prarabdha means “commenced, begun, undertaken.” It refers to an undertaking, enterprise, or one who has commenced, begun, or undertaken a work.

prasupta (प्रसुप्त) = dormant

PRATIPAKSHA (प्रतिपक्ष)
Pratipaksha means “opposite”. It refers to the the opposite side, hostile party, opposition, an obstacle, an adversary, opponent, foe, etc.

pratyAhAra (प्रत्याहार) = Sensory Withdrawal
Pratyadhara is the yogic practice of withdrawal of the senses. Pratyahara means ‘to gather inwards’. The practice is concerned with checking and curbing the outgoing tendencies of the mind so that awareness can be directed inwards.

pratyakSha = direct experience

pratyaya (प्रत्यय) = The State of Being; consideration of self
Pratyaya is the content of mind. Our consciousness has something to dwell upon during concentration. That support, which may be a symbol or a particular idea, gross or subtle, is called pratyaya. When you meditate on Aum, the form Aum is the pratyaya for the mind; similarly with other symbols. The aspirant’s mind must have something to rest upon during the process of meditation. Pratyaya only drops intermittently, when it is called virama pratyaya; but it remains until the end.

puNya (पुण्य) = virtue

PURAKA (पूरक)
Puraka means filling, completing. In pranayama (breath control), it is closing the right nostril with the forefinger and then drawing up air through the left and then closing the left nostril and drawing up air through the right.

PURUSHA (पुरुष) and PRAKRITI (प्रकृति)
Purusha is a particular manifestation of consciousness which may be translated as a viewpoint. The ultimate purusha (viewpoint) is Ishwara (God), which may be described by The Static Viewpoint. Prakriti is a particular manifestation of energy, which may be translated as a form that is manifested in space and time. Scientology defines Purusha as Theta; and Prakriti as MEST.

Purusha is the personal and animating principle; whereas, Prakriti is the original or natural form or condition of anything. The purusha implies the drashta (seer) and prakriti implies the drishya (seen). The purusha means subjective being and prakriti means objective, external existence. Existence and the individual being arise when purusha and prakriti come together. 

—R—

rAga (राग) = affection
Raga means “liking, attachment, vehement desire of.” Whenever there is an object of pleasure and the mind runs after it, wishing to have the pleasurable experience again and again, this is called raga. 

RAJAS (रजस्)
Rajas means “colored or dim space.” It is the substance becoming thicker or more substantial, and appearing as emotion, motion or activity. The mental disposition is rather scattered or unrestrained, and it cannot perceive things as they are.  

RĀJA YOGA (राज योग)
The royal path of yoga; It is the science of mental discipline and includes various methods of making the mind one-pointed. Patanjali defines his method of yoga as ‘the elimination of mental fluctuations’. 

RECHAKA (रेचक)
Rechaka means emptying the lungs, emitting the breath. In pranayama (breath control), it is expelling the breath out of one of the nostrils.

RITAM (ऋतम्)
Ritam is the absolute, cosmic or changeless aspect of this universe. It is is beyond energy and change. It appears to be still and void (shoonya शून्य). It is not seen, and can be understood only through spiritual consciousness.

RITAMBHARA (ऋतम्भर)
Ritambhara means “bearing the truth in one’s self”. It refers to cosmic harmony, or to the mental matrix in which all impressions are assimilated.

Rta (ऋत) = the true reality of existence

RtambharA (ऋतम्भरा) = intellect or knowledge which contains the truth in itself

—S—

sabIja-samAdhi (सबीज समाधि) = states of causal equanimity
Sabeeja, literally, means “with seed or germ.” In sabeeja samadhi we have a basis or content or a centre or a symbol. A beginner has to use a certain basis for fixing the mind. Finally, when the consciousness becomes concentrated in the form of that beeja (seed) they become one, and the subjectivity of the mind is lost.

sAdhana (साधन) = leading straight to a goal, guiding well, furthering
Sādhana is a discipline undertaken in the pursuit of a goal. Abhyāsa is repeated practice performed with observation and reflection. Kriyā, or action, also implies perfect execution with study and investigation. Therefore, sādhanaabhyāsa, and kriyā all mean one and the same thing. A sādhaka, or practitioner, is one who skillfully applies…mind and intelligence in practice towards a spiritual goal.

For the dynamic person, karma yoga is best suited. Bhakti is better for those who are emotional, who can surrender to God; they form the majority of the population. The third group, mystic people, are prone to practice raja yoga and the allied practices of hatha yoga, swara yoga, kriya yoga, nada yoga and trataka, etc. The fourth (rational) type form the few jnana yogis. They like to read the Upanishads, the Gita, etc. wherein the deeper aspects of life, the universe and meditation are described. Many of us have a mixture of these four tendencies. Hence a mixture of practices is to be recommended.

samAdhi (समाधि) = equanimity of mind
Eventually Dhyana leads to an elimination of duality; the seer, seen and seeing merge into unity and one’s being fuses into the state of samadhi. A good definition is: When the five senses of perception together with the mind are at rest, when even the intellect has ceased to function, that, say the sages, is the supreme state—absorption, superconsciousness; concentration of the mind on an object of meditation. 

Samadhi is the state in which the mental matrix is fully assimilated. Even the grainy perceptual elements are assimilated into oneness. Samadhi is to reach the deepest level of consciousness where even the sense of individuality disappears. In the approach to samadhi one starts to become aware of fixations one by one and resolves them. The primary fixation is on the body and the self. The fixation is both physical and spiritual. In the beginning there may be a basis of meditation, such as, a mantra, or an auditing question; but, gradually, all such supports are dropped.

SamAna (समान) = The assimilative aspect of prANa

SAMĀPATTI (समापत्ति)
Samapatti means complete absorption; complete acceptance. In samapatti, all disturbance in consciousness fades away. This gives rise to purely objective consciousness of the object upon which the mind is cast. 

samaya (समय) = one’s circumstances

samprajnAta (सम्प्रज्ञात) = discerned, distinguished, known accurately
samprajnAta-samAdhi = Eqanimous-Mind which still discerns. samprajnAta refers to a samadhi that is accompanied by discernment and illumination.

samshaya (संशय) = doubt

samskAra (संस्कार) = latent-tendencies

saMyama (संयम) = control of the senses, self-control
saMyama  consists of dhāranā (concentration), dhayāna (meditation) and samadhi (absorption).

Sankhya (सङ्ख्या) = Number of Repetitions

santoSha (सन्तोष) = Contentment

sarvArthata (सर्वार्थता) = Interest in All worldly Nature

SAT (सत)
Sat is the entire universe that is in a process of evolution.

sattva (सत्त्व) = Vitality
Sattva means “essence or  reality.” It is the essence of substance that appears as vibration or light. It is the focused disposition or character of the mind that can see things as they are.

satya (सत्यम) = Truthfulness
Satya is the relative, changing and interdependent aspect of this universe. it is perceptible by the senses and understandable by the mind. The world of planets and stars is satya because it is relative.

saumanasya (सौमनस्य) = Pleasantness of the Mind

savichAra (सविचार) = thoughtfulness states of meditation
Savichara means that to which consideration is given. In savichara, one does not think of any object in terms of normal understanding. There is no form present. The whole process is through reflection that has no language.

savitarka (सवितर्क) = accompanied with reason or thought

shabda (शब्द) = the sound
Shabda refers to the  sound, word or mantra. Shabda is a thought process in the form of words. It is mental argumentation.

shaucha (शौच) = Cleanliness

shraddhA (श्रद्धा) = steadfast focus

shrAvaNa (श्रावण) = Hearing

shrotra (श्रोत्र) = Sense of Hearing

SHRUTA (श्रुत)
Shruta means “heard, listened to, heard about or of, taught, mentioned, orally transmitted or communicated from age to age”. It specifically refers to the Vedas, because they were revealed. Through them, we know the supreme being and atman.

shuchi (शुचि) = Pure

shuddhi (शुद्धि) = Purity

shvAsaprashvAsA (श्वासप्रश्वासा) = laboured breathing

smRti = constant remembrance
Smriti refers to memory. It is the recalling of existing impressions. The impressions do not exhaust themselves upon recall; they remain.

sopakrama (सोपक्रम) = undertaken; which are immediately manifest

sthira (स्थिर) = Firm

sthiti (स्थिति) = Continuation

styAna (स्त्यान) = procrastination

sukha (सुख) = pleasantness

sUkShma (सूक्ष्म) = Subtle

sUtra (सूत्र) = thread, that which like a thread runs through or holds together everything, rule
The word sutra means ‘thread’. The word implies that the written words carry an underlying continuous thought; the various ideas connect together like the beads on a necklace to form a complete philosophy.

svAdhyAyA (स्वाध्याय) = study of the self
Svadhyaya means “self-study.” It includes study of the entire physical, mental, emotional and spiritual structure of your personality. You are looking at your own consciousness. 

svarasa (स्वरस) = interest in one’s own self

—T—

TAMAS (तमस्)
Tamas means “darkness, gloom”. It is the substance becoming solid and totally substantial, and appearing as dull, inert state of mind that takes everything literally. It cannot see what is there.

tanu (तनु) = feeble

tapaH (तपः) = penance
Tapas means “warmth, heat.” It refers to religious austerity, bodily mortification, penance, severe meditation, special observance.

TARKA (तर्क)
Tarka means logic or reasoning. It is a system or doctrine founded on speculation or reasoning.

TATTVA (तत्त्व)
Tattva is a true principle or axiom. It is the essence or substance of anything.

TRATAKA (त्राटक)
Trataka is a Sanskrit word, which means “to look” or “to gaze.” It is a method of fixing the eye on one object. As such, this meditation technique involves starting at a single point of focus.

—U—

udAna (उदान) = The buoyant aspect of prANa

udAra () = उदार

UPĀSANA (उपासन)
Upasana means “homage, adoration, worship”. It is an activity of being intent on or engaged in.

upekShA (उपेक्षा) = neutrality

—V—

VĀSANĀ (वासना) = unassimilated impressions
Vāsanā is the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind, the present consciousness of past perceptions, knowledge derived from memory. It is said that consciousness has two supports: prana (vital energy) and vasana (impressions). These are the supports on which the mind rests and consciousness works. If one of them is removed, the other goes automatically.

vairAgya (वैराग्य) = Dis-identification
vairAgya is indifference to worldly objects and to life. It is freedom from all worldly desires, One has a sense of objectivity with which one looks at everything. This frees one up from all the seeming appearances of nature to which one gets attached.

vedana (वेदन) = Touch

vibhUti (विभूति) =
Vibhooti means “penetrating, pervading.” It refers to manifestation of might, great power, superhuman power.

vichAra (विचार) = deep thought
vichAra means pondering, deliberation, consideration, reflection, examination, investigation. The definition of vichara is when the consciousness is flowing without the basis of language. It is not thinking; there is only a contemplative pattern. The mind simply alternates in time, space and idea. 

vichChinna (विच्छिन्न) = intermittent

videha (विदेह) = without a body

viduSha (विदुष) = the knowledgeable one

vikalpa (विकल्प) = imagination
vikalpa refers to false notion, fancy, imagination. It is an unfounded belief that has no corresponding object at all.

VIKSHEPA (विक्षेप)
the act of throwing asunder or away or about, scattering, dispersion; inattention, distraction, confusion, perplexity.

vipAka (विपाक) = results

viprakRShTa (विप्रकृष्ट) = Distant

viparyaya (विपर्यय) = misjudgment
viparyaya means perversion or alteration. It results in misconceptions.

vIrya (वीर्य) = high energy
vIrya means manliness, valour, strength, power, energy, manly vigour, virility, semen virile, etc.

visheSha (विशेष) = specific
Vishesha means “distinction, difference between.” It is the characteristic difference, peculiar mark, special property, speciality, peculiarity. It refers to particularity, individuality, essential difference or individual essence.

vitarka (वितर्क) = Illogical thoughts; justification to not follow a logical course
vitarka means “conjecture, supposition, guess, fancy, imagination, opinion, etc.” It is doubt and uncertainty followed by reasoning, deliberation, consideration, etc.

VIVEKA (विवेक)
Viveka mars “discrimination.” It is the power of separating the spirit from matter, truth from untruth, reality from mere semblance or illusion.

vivekakhyAti (विवेकख्याति)=‘Distinction between what is self, and what is not’.

vArtta (वार्त्त) = Smell

vRtti (वृत्ति) = the compulsive cyclical actions
vRtti is a mental modification, whether pleasant or painful. Vritti means circular. When you throw a stone into a pond, the movements of the water spread outward in the form of circles. In the same manner, the consciousness, when disturbed, moves out in a circular patterns. Therefore, the attitudes of chitta, the modes of mind, are called chitta vritti.

vyAdhi (व्याधि) = illness

vyavahita (व्यवहित) = Hidden

vyutthAna (व्युत्थान) = rising up, awakening

—Y—

yama (यम) = Self-Discipline
Yama refers to self-restraints, abstinences, or social code. The yamas are designed to harmonize one’s social interactions. The five yamas are ahinsA (feeling of non-violence to all things: human, animal, etc.); satya (truthfulness); asteya (honesty); brahmacharya (sexual control or abstinence) and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). 

yoga (योग) = union of human spirit with Ishvara
Yoga, literally, means ‘union’. Yoga is the control of the vRttis (compulsive, cyclical actions) as explained by Patanjali.

YOGA SUTRA TEXT
The Yoga sutras is one of the most important texts in the Indian tradition and the foundation of classical Yoga. It is the Indian Yoga text that was most translated in its medieval era into forty Indian languages. The text fell into obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda and others. 

yogyatva (योग्यत्व) = Eligibility

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