Patanjali Yoga Sutras Chapter 3

Reference: Patanjali Yoga Sutras

Chapter 3: Vibhooti Pada (Supernatural powers)
Verses 3:1- 3:55

Reference: The Sun of Sanskrit Knowledge

Sutras (1-3) – Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi
Sutras (4-8) – The Nature of Samyama
Sutras (9-16) – Series of Transformations
Sutras (17-55) – Enhanced States of Being


Summary of Vibhooti Pada

The first three sutras of this chapter describe the concentration of attention, deepening with contemplation and meditation, such that it becomes like a laser beam that may be directed at anything. Samyama is the generation of this laser beam-like focused attention. When this attention is directed at things it gives rise to pure perception and super experiences.

The first effect of samyama is the gradual decay of impressions that have existed in the mind for a long time. This makes the fluctuations in mental state disappear, which then becomes equanimous. This is accompanied by many internal transformations at a fundamental level. This simplifies the personality and one becomes increasingly enlightened.

Practice of samyama on name, meaning and reality of things brings about true understanding of them. Samyama on long existing impressions brings their contents to awareness. With samyama on the state of being, one obtains the knowledge about the nature of other minds.

Samyama on a physical forms is like “looking through” that form. It makes that form disappear because one perceives what is there at a more fundamental level. One can bring this about in others. Samyama on actions bring to awareness their immediate and long-term consequences. This awareness extends to the knowledge of oncoming difficulties and what lies beyond this life. Essentially, when you apply samyama to something, it enables you to acquire knowledge and understanding with which to develop inner abilities, much like gaining external comforts through science. 

The ultimate samyama is on the nature of self, which brings one to the realization of true Self. This leads to heightened senses. One’s mind can enter another body. One can walk over water, sludge, thorns, etc. One can travel through space. Here we seem to be looking at an extension of some subtle aspects of the mind-body system.

Soon one transcends all concerns of the body-mind system and becomes concentrated entirely on the cyclical tendencies coming down from generations. Thus, one gains mastery over the elements of creation. One then attains to the knowledge of everything, and supremacy over all states of being.

When one no longer has attention on even these two highly coveted attainments, the very seeds of afflictions dissipate. This propels one to the state of true unity, where one grasps the continuity among all things. This is the state of kaivalyam.


Sutras (1-3) – Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi

देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा॥१॥
Deśabandhaścittasya dhāraṇā ||1||

dhAraNA=‘Concentration’ is binding the chitta=‘Mind’ fixedly in one place. (1)

Dharana means confinement of the mind to one place, whether physical, mental, objective, subjective or visionary. When the mind is concentrated on one place, perception of that place becomes intense.


तत्रप्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्॥२॥
Tatra pratyayaikatānatā dhyānam ||2||

In such state of concentration, steady one-pointedness of being is dhyAna=‘Meditation’. (2)

Dharana turns into dhyana when there is no break or interruption in one’s concentration, and it has become continuous. In dhyana, you are conscious of just an idea, a sound, or any object, subtle or gross, which is called pratyaya, but there is also the consciousness of “I”—that I am in dhyana.  


तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः॥३॥
Tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṁ svarūpaśūnyamiva samādhiḥ ||3||

That state, where only the essence of the being shines forth as if there is no form, is called as samAdhi=‘Equanimity’. (3)

Dhyana turns into samadhi when the consciousness of self disappears, and only an unbroken, continuous concentration on the object of focus remains. This object becomes clearer and clearer, as the filters in the mind fall away with deeper stages of samadhi. 


Sutras (4-8) – The Nature of Samyama

त्रयमेकत्र संयमः॥४॥
Trayamekatra saṁyamaḥ ||4||

All these three at once, is called as samyama. (4)

Samyama (संयम) means “control of the senses, self-control.” It consists of dhāranā (concentration), dhayāna (meditation) and samadhi (absorption). The application of samyama to different objects or thoughts gives rise to psychic powers called vibhootis. In this state, one is able to see things as they are in real time without any filters of the mind or self.


Tajjayātprajñālokaḥ ||5||

Through the mastery of samyama, one enters the realm of prajnA=‘Pure Perception’. (5)

Prajna (प्रज्ञा) refers to intuition; revelation; intuitive knowledge, and Aloka means, of what you see. prajñālokaḥ means oerception that is empowered by true knowledge. You acquire it, as you master samyama.


तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः॥६॥
Tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ||6||

The application of this prajnA is done in stages. (6)

The perception empowered by true knowledge finds application in multiple fields. You can penetrate any field of study with that perception.


त्रयमन्तरङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः॥७॥
Trayamantaraṅgaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ||7||

These three components of yoga are inward oriented, compared to the previous five, among the eight components of yoga. (7)

The first five parts of yoga (yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara) belong to our personal habits; they are considered external disciplines. But dharana, dhyana and samadhi together constitute the internal disciplines.


तदपि वहिरङ्गं निर्वीजस्य॥८॥
Tadapi vahiraṅgaṁ nirvījasya ||8||

But even these are considered outward compared to the state of nirbIja-SamAdhi=’State of Causeless Equanimity’. (8)

To one who is in nirbIja-SamAdhi, even these there stats of dharana, dhyana and samadhi feel like external activities.


Sutras (9-16) – Series of Transformations

व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥Vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacittānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ ||9||

As a result of the practice of control over the mind, inherent tendencies of thought-generation and thought-suppression alternate rapidly during the moments of control. (9)

When the eight limbs of yoga are practiced a certain transformation starts to occur. There is a profound change in the mental states at that moment. The impressions of these compulsive cycles appear and disappear rapidly. For example, a latent impression appears; but the moment it is perceived in its totality, it disappears. Then another impression appears, and the cycle repeats. This happens until all latent impressions are exhausted.


तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥
Tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt ||10||

This process becomes a calm flow, by internalizing it through repeated practice.(10)

As that cycle of appearance and disappearance of impressions becomes rapid fluctuations, it ultimately turns into a calm flow.


सर्वार्थतैकाग्रतयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः॥११॥
Sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ ||11||

As a result of the decline of sarvArtha=‘Interest in All Worldly Nature’ and the onset of aikAgrya=‘One-Pointedness’, the state of samAdhi=‘Equanimity’ sets into the chitta=‘Mind’. (11)

The transformation that comes about through samadhi is the decay of interest in all worldly nature, and the rising of one-pointedness.


ततः पुनः शान्तोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः॥१२॥
Tataḥ punaḥ śāntoditau tulyapratyayau cittasyaikāgratāpariṇāmaḥ ||12||

And then again, as a result of the onset of the aikAgrya=‘One-Pointedness’ of chitta=‘Mind’, various states-of-being that rise and fall, become equanimous. (12)

In samAdhi, the transformation results in one-pointedness; and, in one-pointedness, the transformation results in equanimity of the states of being.


एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः॥१३॥
Etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharmalakṣaṇāvasthāpariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ||13||

Due to these, the internal transformations of dharma=‘Nature’, lakShaNa=‘Behavior’, and avasthA=‘Conditions’ occur at the very level of bhUta=‘Elements’ and indriya=‘Senses’. (13)

Through the equanimity of the states of being, transformations in one’s nature, behavior and state are brought about at the very fundamental genetic level.


शान्तोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी॥१४॥
Śāntoditāvyapadeśyadharmānupātī dharmī ||14||

dharmI=‘A Subject of Change’ undergoes transformation which follow the rise, fall or constancy of one’s dharma=‘Nature’. (14)

The dharmI is that which undergoes the transformations in nature. In other words, the rise, fall or constancy of personality is being transformed.


क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यत्वे हेतुः॥१५॥
Kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyatve hetuḥ ||15||

Any difference in the sequence of practices, results in a difference in the sequence of transformations. (15)

Not everybody goes through the same series of transformations in Yoga. They are different for different people. This happens because of the difference in the sequence one performs the practices of Yoga.


Pariṇāmatrayasaṁyamādatītānāgatajñānam ||16||

Once these three transformations occur, one attains to the knowledge of the beyond, that is not yet in one’s reach. (16)

Because of the three transformations in nature, characteristics, and state, one gains the knowledge of the past and the future. It is noted that different kind of self-control over senses brings about different kind of transformations (attainments and powers). But such attainments should not be the goal of the practice of Yoga.


Sutras (17-55) – Enhanced States of Being

शब्दार्थप्रत्ययानाचमतरेतराध्यासात् सङ्करस्तत्प्रचवभागसांयमात्सवथभूतरुतज्ञानम्॥१७॥
Śabdārthapratyayānāmitaretarādhyāsātsaṅkarastatpravibhāgasaṁyamātsarvabhūtarutajñānam ||17||

By separating the jumbled up nature of sound, meaning and perception, and focusing on these three, one attains to the knowledge of the sounds pertaining to all creation. (17)

There are three characteristics of any entity—it exists, it is denoted by a sound, and there is a meaning attached to that sound. All of these three, seeming to be distinct from each other, get mixed up. By separating them and then doing samyama on on each one of them, the knowledge of the sounds of all creation is gained.


Saṁskārasākṣātkaraṇātpūrvajātijñānam ||18||

By realizing one’s latent tendencies, one attains to the knowledge of previous lifetimes. (18)

When one confronts the impressions in one’s mind, which have come from previous lifetimes, one come’s to know their content.


प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम्॥१९॥
Pratyayasya paracittajñānam ||19||

By realizing the nature of one’s thoughts, one attains to the knowledge of other minds as well. (19)

By realizing or perceiving the state of being, one gains the knowledge of other minds.


न च तत्सालम्बनं तस्याविषयीभूतत्वात्॥२०॥
Na ca tatsālambanaṁ tasyāviṣayībhūtatvāt ||20||

But that knowledge doesn’t convey the object of thought in one’s mind, since they do not have a separate existence of their own. (20)

That knowledge of other mind is limited to what the thoughts are. The object of their thoughts is not perceived, because the thoughts are not exactly dependent upon what they are directed towards. It is like knowing the program but not what that program is being applied to at any moment.


कायरूपसंयमात्तद्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुःप्रकाशासम्प्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम्॥२१॥
Kāyarūpasaṁyamāttadgrāhyaśaktistambhe cakṣuḥprakāśāsamprayoge’ntardhānam ||21||

Through samyama on one’s physical form, suspending the energy thus generated, and uncoupling it with the light perceived through the eyes, one attains the ability to suspend vision. (21)

By performing samyama on the physical form of the body, holding that energy and thickening it, and not letting eyes and light work together, invisibility comes about.


सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमादपरान्तज्ञानमरिष्टेभ्यो वा॥२२॥
Sopakramaṁ nirupakramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamādaparāntajñānamariṣṭebhyo vā ||22||

Through samyama over the two types of karma=‘Actions’, which are sopakrama=‘Which are immediately manifest’, and nirupakrama=‘Which are not immediately manifest’, one attains to the knowledge beyond the end of life, and of the bad omens and signs. (22)

This is the samyama on active and dormant actions that leads to the knowledge of beyond the end, and bad omens (signs of oncoming difficulties).


मैत्र्यादिषु बलानि॥२३॥
Maitryādiṣu balāni ||23||

Through samyama over qualities like friendliness, one is imbued with many strengths. (23)

Samyama may be applied to different things. Here it is being applied to friendliness.


बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनि॥२४॥
Baleṣu hastibalādīni ||24||

Through samyama over these strengths one attains to the strength like that of an elephant and so on. (24)

Among those many strengths, you get the strength of that, such as, an elephant, on which samyama is being performed.


Pravṛttyālokanyāsātsūkṣmavyavahitaviprakṛṣṭajñānam ||25||

Through samyama over the origin and purview of action, one attains to the knowledge of that which is SUkShma=’Subtle’, vyavahita=‘Hidden’, and viprakRShTa=‘Distant’. (25)

Here samyama is putting (nyAsa न्यास) an activity (Pravṛtti प्रवृत्ति) under close supervision (Aloka आलोक). This leads to subtle knowledge about what is hidden and distant.


भुवनज्ञानं सूर्ये संयमात्॥२६॥
Bhuvanajñānaṁ sūrye saṁyamāt ||26||

Through samyama over sUrya=’Sun’, one attains to the knowledge of the entire World. (26)

This is self-explanatory.


चन्द्रे ताराव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२७॥
Candre tārāvyūhajñānam ||27||

Through samyama over chandra=‘Moon’, one attains to the knowledge of the layout of the stars. (27)

This is self-explanatory.


ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम्॥२८॥
Dhruve tadgatijñānam ||28||

Through samyama over dhruva=‘Pole Star’, one attains to the knowledge of the movement of the stars. (28)

This is self-explanatory.


नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२९॥
Nābhicakre kāyavyūhajñānam ||29||

Through samyama over nAbhi-chakra=’Naval Chakra’, which is the maNipUraka, one attains to the knowledge of the layout of the physical body. (29)

This is self-explanatory.


कण्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासानिवृत्तिः॥३०॥
Kaṇṭhakūpe kṣutpipāsānivṛttiḥ ||30||

Through samyama over KaNTha-kUpa=‘Pit of the Throat’, which is the vishuddhi chakra, hunger and thirst are stopped. (30)

This is self-explanatory.


कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम्॥३१॥
Kūrmanāḍyāṁ sthairyam ||31||

Through samyama over kUrmanADi, which is one of the major energy pathways in the body, one attains to stability. (31)

This is self-explanatory.


मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम्॥३२॥
Mūrdhajyotiṣi siddhadarśanam ||32||

Through samyama over the light in the center of the forehead, visions of the siddhas manifest. (32)

This is self-explanatory.


प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम्॥३३॥
Prātibhādvā sarvam ||33||

Or, all these attainments may happen in a flash of spontaneous illumination. (33)

This is self-explanatory.


हृदये चित्तसंवित्॥३४॥
Hṛdaye cittasaṁvit ||34||

Through samyama on hRdaya=‘Heart’, which corresponds to the anAhata chakra, one understands the true nature of chitta=‘Mind’. (34)

This is self-explanatory.


सत्त्वपुरुषयोरत्यन्तासङ्कीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषो भोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात्पुरुषज्ञानम्॥३५॥
Sattvapuruṣayoratyantāsaṅkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo bhogaḥ parārthatvātsvārthasaṁyamātpuruṣajñānam ||35||

bhoga=‘Experience’ is a generic state, which is an outcome of utter non-unity between sattva=‘Fundamental essence of nature’ and puruSha=’True sense of Self’. By shifting this outward focus of the self inwards, and through samyama over it, one attains to the true knowledge of puruSha. (35)

The experience (taking in sensory inputs) and the true knowledge of self is being described here. Experience is the generic state of being, which is an outcome of extreme separation of the sense of nature and the sense of self. By moving that experience from belonging to other things to being part of the self through samyama, one attains to the knowledge of true self.


ततः प्रातिभश्रावणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते॥३६॥
Tataḥ prātibhaśrāvaṇavedanādarśāsvādavārtā jāyante ||36||

And from there arise brightened senses of shrAvaNa=‘Hearing’, vedana=’Touch’, Adarsha=Sight’,AsvAda=‘Taste’ and vArtta=’Smell’. (36)

When the knowledge of true self is attained, these five senses (hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell) become heightened and illuminated.


ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः॥३७॥
Te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ||37||

These enhanced senses are obstacles when one is in the state of samAdhi, and are attainments when one is out of it. (37)

When these siddhis (psychic powers) come about (as byproducts), they only act as obstacles in one’s samAdhi.


बन्धकारणशैथिल्यात्प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः॥३८॥
Bandhakāraṇaśaithilyātpracārasaṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ||38||

By relaxing one’s bondage with the physical body, and enhancing one’s mobility within, one’s chitta=‘Mind’ can enter another physical body. (38)

One’s mind can enter another body. This is done by loosening the ties of that which ties up one’s own self with the body, and by enabling that movement.


उदानजयाज्जलपङ्ककण्टकादिष्वसङ्ग उत्क्रान्तिश्च॥३९॥
Udānajayājjalapaṅkakaṇṭakādiṣvasaṅga utkrāntiśca ||39||

By mastering udAna=‘The buoyant aspect of prANa’, one can move untouched over jala=‘Water’, panka=’Sludge’, kaNTaka=‘Thorns’ etc. (39)

One’s physical body can pass over these obstacle (water, sludge, thorns, etc.) through mastery over the buoyancy aspect of prAna.


Samānajayājjvalanam ||40||

By mastering SamAna=‘The assimilative aspect of prANa’, one attains to radiance. (40)

SamAna is the transactory prAna, which moves energy from one part to the other. It is the vehicle of movement. By mastery over samAna one begets radiance.


श्रोत्राकाशयोः सम्बन्धसंयमाद्दिव्यं श्रोत्रम्॥४१॥
Śrotrākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṁyamāddivyaṁ śrotram ||41||

Through samyama over the relationship between shrotra=’Sense of Hearing’ and AkAsha=’Space’, one attains to a divine faculty of hearing. (41)

There is a very basic, inherent relationship between the sense of hearing and space. By samyama over those two one begets a divine sense of hearing.


कायाकाशयोः सम्बन्धसंयमाल्लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाकाशगमनम्॥४२॥
Kāyākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṁyamāllaghutūlasamāpatteścākāśagamanam ||42||

Through samyama over the relationship between kAya=‘Physical Body’ and AkAsha=’Space’, one attains to extreme lightness and an ability to travel through Space. (42)

One can make this to be a mysterious process, but it does not have to be so. This is similar to what a scientist does in his research, except there is a deeper involvement in samyama. It is not the entire physical body that becomes light and travels through space, but a subtle aspect of that body.


वहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिर्महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशावरणक्षयः॥४३॥
Vahirakalpitā vṛttirmahāvidehā tataḥ prakāśāvaraṇakṣayaḥ ||43||

When one’s cyclical tendencies of the mind are greatly beyond the realm of the physical body and external circumstances, then the veil over the light within starts to thin. (43)

The cover (over the light within) starts to decay when the activities of the mind start to outgrow the realm of the body, and external circumstances. In other words, one starts on the path of enlightenment as one’s attention expands beyond the concerns of the body and the ego, and becomes concentrated entirely on the cyclical tendencies coming down from generations.


Sthūlasvarūpasūkṣmānvayārthavattvasaṁyamādbhūtajayaḥ ||44||

One attains to mastery over the elements through samyama over the functional relationship between sthUlasvarUpa=‘The gross physical form’ and sUkShmatva=‘The subtle nature’. (44)

We have a gross physical form and also a subtle nature. They are part of the same system. As we deeply meditate over this system our understanding of the elements of creation increases to the point of mastery.


ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसम्पत्तद्धर्मानभिघातश्च॥४५॥
Tato’ṇimādiprādurbhāvaḥ kāyasampattaddharmānabhighātaśca ||45||

And from there arise the external attainments like aNimA=‘Ability to transform to a minute size’, kAya-sampat=‘Attainments of the physical body’, and dharma-anabhighAta=‘Insulation from external forces’. (45)

As one attains mastery over the elements of creation, one is able to transforms one’s body in various ways. One is also unaffected by external forces. In may opinion, this refers to the aspects of the body that are not just solidly physical.


रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसम्पत्॥४६॥
Rūpalāvaṇyabalavajrasaṁhananatvāni kāyasampat ||46||

kAya-sampat=‘Attainments of the physical body’ constitute rUpa=‘Perfection of form’, lAvaNya=‘Gracefulness’, bala=’Strength’, and vajrasanhanatvA=‘Firmness of a Diamond’. (46)

Attainment of the physical body are made up of perfection of form, gracefulness, strength and firmness like that of a diamond.


Grahaṇasvarūpāsmitānvayārthavattvasaṁyamādindriyajayaḥ ||47||

One attains to mastery over the senses through samyama over the functional relationship between grahaNasvarUpa=‘Nature of consumption’, and asmitA=’The sense of identity’. (47)

As one deeply contemplates over the functional relationship between the nature of consumption and the sense of identity, one attains mastery over the senses.


ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च॥४८॥
Tato manojavitvaṁ vikaraṇabhāvaḥ pradhānajayaśca ||48||

And then, the senses attain to manojavitva=’Swiftness of the Mind’, vikaraNabhAva=‘The ability of function outside the ambit of the body’, and pradhAnajaya=‘Mastery over the very foundations’. (48)

By mastery over one’s senses one attains swiftness of mind, ability to function with no attention on the body, and mastery over the very foundations of birth and death.


सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च॥४९॥
Sattvapuruṣānyatākhyātimātrasya sarvabhāvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarvajñātṛtvaṁ ca ||49||

Once one just sees the distinction between sattva=‘Fundamental essence of nature’ and puruSha=’True sense of Self’, one attains to sarvabhAvAdhiShThAtRtvaM=’Supremacy over all states of existence’ and SarvajnAtRtvaM=’The knowledge of everything’. (49)

This sutra talks about the attainment of the knowledge of everything, and supremacy over all states of being. This is attained by just knowing the difference between fundamental essence of nature and the true sense of self.


तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम्॥५०॥
Tadvairāgyādapi doṣavījakṣaye kaivalyam ||50||

When one is disentangled with even this level of mastery, the seeds of imperfection wither away, and one attains to kivalyam=‘True Unity’. (50)

When one no longer has attention on even these two highly coveted attainments, the seeds of afflictions within are gone. This propels one to the state of true unity.


स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात्॥५१॥
Sthānyupanimantraṇe saṅgasmayākaraṇaṁ punaraniṣṭaprasaṅgāt ||51||

When one invokes and employs these powers situated within oneself, one is drawn toward entanglement once again, due to one’s involvement with that which is not conducive for growth. (51)

The very fact of invoking siddhis is deviating from the ultimate state of kaivalya (true unity).


क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमाद्विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५२॥
Kṣaṇatatkramayoḥ saṁyamādvivekajaṁ jñānam ||52||

Through samyama over each moment and its passage into the next, one attains to the knowledge born out of discernment. (52)

It takes discrimination to differentiate between two moments in time.


जातिलक्षणदेशैरन्यतानवच्छेदात्तुल्ययोस्ततः प्रतिपत्तिः॥५३॥
Jātilakṣaṇadeśairanyatānavacchedāttulyayostataḥ pratipattiḥ ||53||

And from that knowledge, one attains to the understanding of the similarity between seemingly different entities, due to non-separation between the seemingly separate factors of jAti=‘Birth’, lakShaNa=‘Characteristics’ and desha=‘Location’. (53)

There is continuity of moments. As one differentiates between these moments, one starts to understand the continuity between them as well, and thus, the continuity between seemingly different factors of birth, characteristics and location.


तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमं चेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५४॥
Tārakaṁ sarvaviṣayaṁ sarvathāviṣayamakramaṁ ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam ||54||

The knowledge born out of discernment is that ‘All objects of the senses are not properly perceived in all sort of ways, and  need to be transcended’. (54)

We don’t get a complete picture of the objects of the senses; and we must perceive them in their actual continuity. This is the knowledge born out of discernment.


सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यमिति॥५५॥
Sattvapuruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyamiti ||55||

Upon shuddhi=‘Purification’ and sAmya=‘Perception of equality’ between sattva=‘Fundamental essence of nature’ and puruSha=’True sense of Self’, one attains to  a state called kaivalyam=‘True Unity’. (55)

The fundamental essence of nature and the true sense of self are essentially one and the same. To experience this one must deeply contemplate and meditate on the perception of equality in its purity.


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