Category Archives: Subject Clearing

Glossary for Patanjali Yoga

Reference: Patanjali Yoga Sutras

This is the Glossary for Patanjali Yoga. It is based on the subject clearing of the book, FOUR CHAPTERS ON FREEDOM by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, First edition 1976, Published by Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar, India.


Key Word List

Patanjali, Yoga, Sutra, Yoga Sutra, Patanjali Yoga, Raja Yoga, Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, Ashtanga, Nirodha, Chitta, Vritti, Purusha, Prakriti, Pramana, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidra, Pratyaya, Samskara, Samprajnata, Asamprajnata, Beeja, Sabeeja, Nirbeeja, Ishvara, Tattva, Sādhana, Prāna, Vāsanā, Samapatti, Trataka, Savitarka, Nirvitarka, Savichara, Nirvichara, Ananda, Asmita, Linga, Japa, Shabda, Artha, Jnana, Alinga, Guna, Sattva, Rajas, Tamas, Sat, Ritam, Satyam, Shruta, Anumana, Samyama, Ritambhara, Upāsana, Tapas, Svadhyaya, Ishvara pranidhana, Klesha, Avidyā, Māyā, Raga, Dvesha,



  1. Sanskrit Dictionary 1
  2. Sanskrit Dictionary 2


ABHINIVESHA (अभिनिवेश)
Abhinivesha means “tenacity, adherence to, fixation”. An example of such a fixation is the “fear of death.” Even learned people fear death. They have an equally strong desire for life. This is true of the philosopher, the thinker and the layman. It can be seen in everybody, therefore, it is called svarasavahi—a natural force inherent in everyone. 

ABHYĀSA (अभ्यास)
Abhyasa refers to repeated or constant practice. In abhyasa, the effort becomes a part of your nature.

ALINGA (आलिङ्ग)
Alinga means “absence of marks”. It is a state without mark or symbol. See LINGA.

ĀNANDA (आनन्द)
Ananda  means pure happiness, bliss. In ananda there is the feeling of absolute peace and absolute bliss, but that bliss is not the state of your sense experience.

ANUMĀNA (अनुमान)
Anumana means “inference, consideration, reflection; guess, conjecture”. Knowledge from inference and testimony differs from individual to individual. The sensations carried through the indriyas (senses) are different, but supreme knowledge is one.

ARTHA (अर्थ)
Artha mans “meaning, object, purpose”. Artha refers to the ultimate purpose, and that is the real knowledge of the object.

ASAMPRAJNĀTA (असम्प्रज्ञात)
Asamprajnata samadhi occurs between successive stages of vitarka, vichara, ananda, and asmita of samprajnata samadhi. In asamprajnata samadhi, there is no awareness of any symbol (unconsciousness); but there is an underground dynamism called samskara. The consciousness is not static, so asamprajnata is still a form of sabeeja samadhi. Thus in asamprajnata there are two distinct characteristics: one, dropping of the pratyaya (content of the mind) and two, the presence of samskara. From the state of asamprajnata one may either ascend to a deeper state of consciousness or one may revert back to a grosser state. When the samskara is completely finished, the consciousness is completely dissolved; that state is nirbeeja samadhi (samadhi without a basis).

ĀSANA (आसन)
Asana refers to yoga postures; fixed sitting position. The purpose of an asana in Patanjali yoga is to balance the different nerve impulses, feelings of pain and pleasure, heat and cold and all other opposite sensations.

ASHTĀNGA (अष्टाङ्ग)
Eight elements (of practice of yoga culminating in samadhi).

ASMITĀ (अस्मिता)
Asmita means egoism. In asmita, the awareness is absolutely pure, there is no thought, there is no awareness of time or space, and there is complete understanding or realization of that awareness; only a pattern of ‘I-ness’ remains. Also see Sutra 2:6.

AVIDYĀ (अविद्या)
Avidya means “ignorance, spiritual ignorance.” It is also illusion. It is not seeing things for what they are. It is misperceiving a whole scale of values as the black and white of duality. It is to be fixated on the body. We misunderstand our relations with people due to avidya.


BEEJA (बीज)
Beeja means “germ, element, primary cause or principle, source, origin”. It is the object on which you are meditating. It forms the basis of support for the consciousness.


CHITTA (चित्त)
Chitta means individual consciousness which includes the conscious, subconscious and unconscious levels of mind. Chitta is derived from the basic idea of chit, which means to see, to be conscious of, to be aware. Chitta is comprised of three stages: the sense or objective consciousness, the subjective or astral consciousness, and the unconsciousness or mental state of dormant potentiality. Jivatman, the individual awareness, is made up of Atman plus chitta.


DHĀRANĀ (धारणा)
Dharana is the step before meditation that is concerned with fixing awareness on one object to the exclusion of all others. Patanjali yoga utilizes a psychic symbol as a focal point for internal concentration. It can be one’s guru, a deity, a mantra, an enquiry (anomaly); it can be almost anything. It must be something that spontaneously attracts the attention of the individual and must be chosen to suit the inherent nature of the mind and personality. 

DHYĀNA (ध्यान)
Dhyana is merely an extension of dharana. It arises when one is able to maintain a smooth, unfluctuating flow of concentration towards the inner symbol for a period of time. The mind becomes moulded around one pattern in the form of the psychic symbol. This is the start of meditation.

DVESHA (द्वेष)
Dvesha means “aversion, dislike, enmity to.” Whenever there is an object of pain and the mind runs away from it, wishing to avoid it, this is called dvesha. Dvesha is a more powerful binding force. When dvesha is removed, meditation becomes deeper and then raga can also be given up.


GUNA (गुण)
Guna means the threefold aspects of nature: sattva (essence), rajas (dissipation) and tamas (darkness). All functions of the body, mind and world are an interplay of these three gunas. When sattva has free expression, one-pointedness dawns. When rajas is overpowering, the mind is dissipated. When tamas comes into play, there is neither one-pointedness nor dissipation; there is only dullness and inactivity.


ISHVARA (ईश्वर)
Ishvara refers to master, lord, God, etc. Ishvara does not mean some personality that lords over you. Ishvara is the ultimate consciousness, which is completely free of ignorance, I-feeling, like, dislike, and fear of death. It is there in each one of us, and it has always been there in everyone. It is not possible to reach it through thinking, speeches, discourses, intellect, listening to others or the scriptures. It must be experienced directly through practices, such as, yoga. In it there is the seed of limitless knowledge, but that knowledge is not gained from outside.

ISHVARA PRANIDHANA (ईश्वरप्रणिधान)
Ishvara pranidhana means “surrender to God.” It is placing the mind completely at the disposal of the inner self.


JAPA (जप)
Japa means “muttering, whispering”. It refers to repetition of a mantra.

JNANA (ज्ञान)
Jnana means “knowing, becoming acquainted with”. Jnana is inner sense perception (conceptualization). It refers to the higher knowledge (cognition, knowingness). 


KLESHA (क्लेश)
Klesha is pain, affliction, distress, pain from disease, anguish. In yoga, five Alesha’s are named: “ignorance”, “egotism”, “desire”, “aversion”, and “tenacity of mundane existence”.


LINGA (लिङ्ग)
Linga refers to the invariable mark which proves the existence of anything. It is the symbol for the seed, or ultimate basis, of consciousness.


MĀYĀ (माया)
Maya means “illusion, unreality, deception, fraud, trick, sorcery, etc.”


NIDRĀ (निद्रा)
Nidra refers to sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth. In this state there are thoughts but they are not present before the mind. It is an unconscious state of mind.

NIRBEEJA (निर्बीज)
Nirbeeja means “without seed.” Nirbeeja samadhi is a state devoid of consciousness. According to yoga, consciousness or awareness is in the form of motion or vibration, but nirbeeja samadhi is not a state of motion or vibration. It involves stillness. 

NIRODHA (निरोध)
Nirodha does not mean the suppression of the flow of ordinary thoughts, feelings, passions and desires from the mind. It means the blocking the process of consciousness responsible for remanifestation. Using the terminology of Scientology, it simply means the stopping of restimulation. This restimulation can go very deep in consciousness. Sahasrara, the highest chakra, is the seat of nirodha. See Kundalini and the Chakras. In nirodha, neither tamas, nor rajas, nor sattva guna functions. blocking; stopping; state of mind beyond the three gunas. 

NIRVICHĀRA (निर्विचार)
Nirvichara means not reflecting or considering. In nirvichara, the space, time and idea are taken out but behind that something else remains, and that is called the essential nature of thought.

NIRVITARKA (निर्वितर्क)
Nirvitarka means without reason or thought; unreflecting, inconsiderate.

NIYAMA (नियम)
Niyama refers to fixed observances or rules; personal code. The niyamas are intended to harmonize one’s inner feelings. The five niyamas are: shaucha (cleanliness); santosha (contentment); tapah (austerity); swadhyaya (self-study) and Ishwara pranidhana (surrender to the cosmic will). 


PATANJALI (पतञ्जली)
An Indian sage who lived between 2nd and 4th century CE. Very little is known about him.

PATANJALI YOGA (पतञ्जली योग)
Patanjali yoga is that system of Raja Yoga, which consists of eight stages: yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. It is therefore widely called ashtanga yoga (the yoga of eight stages).

PRAJNA (प्रज्ञा)
Prajna refers to intuition; revelation; intuitive knowledge.

PRAKRITI (प्रकृति)

PRAMĀNA (प्रमाण)
Pramana is a measure of any kind. It is any proof or testimony or evidence. It is a correct notion or right perception.

PRĀNA (प्राण)
Prana means “breath, exhalation, breath of life.” It refers to bioplasmic energy expressed through living protoplasm. The subtle prana is in the form of energy, and the gross prana has the form of breath.

PRĀNAYĀMA (प्राणायाम)
Pranayama is the yogic practice of focusing on breath. In Sanskrit, prana means “vital life force”, and yama means to gain control. There is a whole science of pranayama (breath control). Just by practicing rechaka (prolonged exhalation), kumbhaka (breath retention) and the three bandhas (locks), the mind can be brought to a state of stillness.

PRATYĀHĀRA (प्रत्याहार)
Pratyadhara is the yogic practice of withdrawal of the senses. Pratyahara means ‘to gather inwards’. The practice is concerned with checking and curbing the outgoing tendencies of the mind so that awareness can be directed inwards.

PRATYAYA (प्रत्यय)
Pratyaya is the content of mind. Our consciousness has something to dwell upon during concentration. That support, which may be a symbol or a particular idea, gross or subtle, is called pratyaya. When you meditate on Aum, the form Aum is the pratyaya for the mind; similarly with other symbols. The aspirant’s mind must have something to rest upon during the process of meditation. Pratyaya only drops intermittently, when it is called virama pratyaya; but it remains until the end.

PURUSHA (पुरुष) and PRAKRITI (प्रकृति)
Purusha is a particular manifestation of consciousness which may be translated as a viewpoint. The ultimate purusha (viewpoint) is Ishwara (God), which may be described by The Static Viewpoint. Prakriti is a particular manifestation of energy, which may be translated as a form that is manifested in space and time. Scientology defines Purusha as Theta; and Prakriti as MEST.

Purusha is the personal and animating principle; whereas, Prakriti is the original or natural form or condition of anything. The purusha implies the drashta (seer) and prakriti implies the drishya (seen). The purusha means subjective being and prakriti means objective, external existence. Existence and the individual being arise when purusha and prakriti come together. 


RAGA (राग)
Raga means “liking, attachment, vehement desire of.” Whenever there is an object of pleasure and the mind runs after it, wishing to have the pleasurable experience again and again, this is called raga. 

RAJAS (रजस्)
Rajas means “vapour, mist,”. It is the “darkening” quality, passion, emotion, affection. It represents the active and fluctuating state of mind and nature; When rajas is predominant, with sattva and tamas suppressed, the mental condition is scattered and dissipated. It compares to ALTER-ISNESS of Scientology.

RĀJA YOGA (राज योग)
The royal path of yoga; It is the science of mental discipline and includes various methods of making the mind one-pointed. Patanjali defines his method of yoga as ‘the elimination of mental fluctuations’. 

RITAM (ऋतम्)
Ritam is the absolute, cosmic or changeless aspect of this universe. It is is beyond energy and change. It appears to be still and void (shoonya शून्य). It is not seen, and can be understood only through spiritual consciousness.

Ritambhara means “bearing the truth in one’s self”. It refers to cosmic harmony, or to the mental matrix in which all impressions are assimilated.


SABEEJA (सबीज)
Sabeeja, literally, means “with seed or germ.” In sabeeja samadhi we have a basis or content or a centre or a symbol. A beginner has to use a certain basis for fixing the mind. Finally, when the consciousness becomes concentrated in the form of that beeja (seed) they become one, and the subjectivity of the mind is lost.

SĀDHANA (साधन)
Sādhana is a discipline undertaken in the pursuit of a goal. Abhyāsa is repeated practice performed with observation and reflection. Kriyā, or action, also implies perfect execution with study and investigation. Therefore, sādhanaabhyāsa, and kriyā all mean one and the same thing. A sādhaka, or practitioner, is one who skillfully applies…mind and intelligence in practice towards a spiritual goal.

For the dynamic person, karma yoga is best suited. Bhakti is better for those who are emotional, who can surrender to God; they form the majority of the population. The third group, mystic people, are prone to practice raja yoga and the allied practices of hatha yoga, swara yoga, kriya yoga, nada yoga and trataka, etc. The fourth (rational) type form the few jnana yogis. They like to read the Upanishads, the Gita, etc. wherein the deeper aspects of life, the universe and meditation are described. Many of us have a mixture of these four tendencies. Hence a mixture of practices is to be recommended.

SAMĀDHI (समाधि)
Eventually Dhyana leads to an elimination of duality; the seer, seen and seeing merge into unity and one’s being fuses into the state of samadhi. A good definition is: When the five senses of perception together with the mind are at rest, when even the intellect has ceased to function, that, say the sages, is the supreme state—absorption, superconsciousness; concentration of the mind on an object of meditation. 

Samadhi is the state in which the mental matrix is fully assimilated. Even the grainy perceptual elements are assimilated into oneness. Samadhi is to reach the deepest level of consciousness where even the sense of individuality disappears. In the approach to samadhi one starts to become aware of fixations one by one and resolves them. The primary fixation is on the body and the self. The fixation is both physical and spiritual. In the beginning there may be a basis of meditation, such as, a mantra, or an auditing question; but, gradually, all such supports are dropped.

SAMĀPATTI (समापत्ति)
Samapatti means complete absorption; complete acceptance. In samapatti, all disturbance in consciousness fades away. This gives rise to purely objective consciousness of the object upon which the mind is cast. 

Samprajnata refers to a samadhi that is accompanied by discernment and illumination. In Samprajnata samadhi there are stages of vitarka (reasoning), vichara (reflection), ananda (bliss), and asmita (feeling of ‘I-ness’). Samprajnata is a form of sabeeja samadhi (samadhi having a basis). Ultimate samadhi is the nirbeeja samadhi (samadhi without a basis) in which even the sense of individuality disappears.

SAMSKARA (संस्कार)
The word samskara may be translated in English as latent impression, or dormant or past impressions. Samskara is the seed of consciousness which survives up to the state of samprajnata samadhi.  Samskaras also refer to mental tendency that causes one to act in a specific manner. These impressions may be prenatal and determine actions, illnesses, talents and so forth. This is the hereditary aspect of man.

SAMYAMA (संयम)
Samyama  means “control of the senses, self-control.” It consists of dhāranā (concentration), dhayāna (meditation) and samadhi (absorption).

SAT (सत)
Sat is the entire universe that is in a process of evolution.

SATTVA (सत्त्व)
Sattva means “essence”. It is true essence, nature, disposition of mind, character. It compares to AS-ISNESS of Scientology.

SATYAM (सत्यम्)
Satyam is the relative, changing and interdependent aspect of this universe. it is perceptible by the senses and understandable by the mind. The world of planets and stars is satyam because it is relative.

SAVICHĀRA (सविचार)
Savichara means that to which consideration is given. In savichara, one does not think of any object in terms of normal understanding. There is no form present. The whole process is through reflection that has no language.

SAVITARKA (सवितर्क)
Savitarka means accompanied with reason or thought.

SHABDA (शब्द)
Shabda refers to the  sound, word or mantra. Shabda is a thought process in the form of words. It is mental argumentation.

SMRITI (स्मृति)
Smriti refers to memory. It is the recalling of existing impressions. The impressions do not exhaust themselves upon recall; they remain.

SHRUTA (श्रुत)
Shruta means “heard, listened to, heard about or of, taught, mentioned, orally transmitted or communicated from age to age”. It specifically refers to the Vedas, because they were revealed. Through them, we know the supreme being and atman.

SUTRA (सूत्र)
The word sutra means ‘thread’. The word implies that the written words carry an underlying continuous thought; the various ideas connect together like the beads on a necklace to form a complete philosophy.

SVADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय)
Svadhyaya means “self-study.” It includes study of the entire physical, mental, emotional and spiritual structure of your personality. You are looking at your own consciousness. 


TAMAS (तमस्)
Tamas means “darkness, gloom”. Tamas is the dull, inert state of mind and nature; When tamas predominates, then nothing in the world can keep you active, spiritual or blissful. It compares to NOT-ISNESS of Scientology.

TAPAS (तपस्)
Tapas means “warmth, heat.” It refers to religious austerity, bodily mortification, penance, severe meditation, special observance.

TARKA (तर्क)
Tarka means logic or reasoning. It is a system or doctrine founded on speculation or reasoning.

TATTVA (तत्त्व)
Tattva is a true principle or axiom. It is the essence or substance of anything.

TRATAKA (त्राटक)
Trataka is a Sanskrit word, which means “to look” or “to gaze.” It is a method of fixing the eye on one object. As such, this meditation technique involves starting at a single point of focus.


UPĀSANA (उपासन)
Upasana means “homage, adoration, worship”. It is an activity of being intent on or engaged in.


VĀSANĀ (वासना) 
Vāsanā is the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind, the present consciousness of past perceptions, knowledge derived from memory. It is said that consciousness has two supports: prana (vital energy) and vasana (impressions). These are the supports on which the mind rests and consciousness works. If one of them is removed, the other goes automatically.

VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य)
Vairagya is indifference to worldly objects and to life. It is freedom from all worldly desires, One has a sense of objectivity with which one looks at everything. This frees one up from all the seeming appearances of nature to which one gets attached.

VICHARA (विचार)
Vichara means pondering, deliberation, consideration, reflection, examination, investigation. The definition of vichara is when the consciousness is flowing without the basis of language. It is not thinking; there is only a contemplative pattern. The mind simply alternates in time, space and idea. 

VIKALPA (विकल्प)
Vikalpa refers to false notion, fancy, imagination. It is an unfounded belief that has no corresponding object at all.

VIPARYAYA (विपर्यय)
Viparyaya means perversion or alteration. It results in misconceptions.

VRITTI (वृत्ति)
Vritta is a mental modification, whether pleasant or painful. Vritti means circular. When you throw a stone into a pond, the movements of the water spread outward in the form of circles. In the same manner, the consciousness, when disturbed, moves out in a circular patterns. Therefore, the attitudes of chitta, the modes of mind, are called chitta vritti.


YAMA (यम)
Yama refers to self-restraints, abstinences, or social code. The yamas are designed to harmonize one’s social interactions. The five yamas are satya (truthfulness); ahimsa (feeling of non-violence to all things: human, animal, etc.); asteya (honesty); brahmacharya (sexual control or abstinence) and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). 

YOGA (योग)
Yoga, literally, means ‘union’. Yoga is the control of the patterns of consciousness as explained by Patanjali.

YOGA SUTRA (योग सूत्र)
The Yoga sutras is one of the most important texts in the Indian tradition and the foundation of classical Yoga.It is the Indian Yoga text that was most translated in its medieval era into forty Indian languages. The text fell into obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda and others. 


The Definition of PTSness

Reference: Subject: Scientology Fundamentals

We shall look at the definitions of POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE (PTS) and SUPPRESSIVE PERSON (SP) carefully from the Technical Dictionary. Apparently, an SP is the cause of suppression, and a PTS is the effect of suppression. We shall start by looking at the definition of SUPPRESS.


SUPPRESS, to squash, to sit on, to make smaller, to refuse to let reach, to make uncertain about his reaching, to render or lessen in any way possible by any means possible, to the harm of the individual and for the fancied protection of a suppressor. 

According to this definition we are looking at any activity that does not allow a person to be himself or herself. Instead, such an activity tries to destroy the beingness of the person. 

POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE, 1. a person or preclear who “rollercoasters,” i.e., gets better, then worse. This occurs only when his connection to a suppressive person or group is unhandled and he must, in order to make his gains from Scn permanent, receive processing intended to handle such.

In order for the results from Scientology processing to last, any threat to a person’s beingness must be handled as a priority.

POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE, 2. somebody who is connected with an SP who is invalidating him, his beingness, his processing, his life.

To handle the threat to one’s beingness, one must first identify the source of such threat. Such source is always a living entity. In Scientology, that source is called the SP (suppressive person).

POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE, 3. means the case is going to go up and fall down. He’s a trouble source because he’s going to get upset. He’s a trouble source because he’s going to make trouble. And he’s trouble for the auditor and he’s trouble for us and he’s trouble for himself. 

A person whose beingness is under threat is not going to retain any benefits from auditing until that threat is handled. Until then he is gong to be trouble to Scientology organization that is auditing him.

POTENTIAL TROUBLE SOURCE, 4. it means someone connected to a person or group opposed to Scn. It is a technical thing. It results in illness and roller-coaster and is the cause of illness and roller-coaster. 

From Scientology perspective, the SP is opposed to the person getting better, and by extension, the SP is also opposed to Scientology activity that is trying to stabilize the person.

PTS, 1. means potential trouble source which itself means a person connected to a suppressive person. All sick persons are PTS. All pcs who roller-coaster (regularly lose gains) are PTS. Suppressive persons are themselves PTS to themselves.  

A PTS person is identifiable by his inability to hold on to his gains in auditing, because his beingness is constantly being invalidated by an SP.

PTS, 2. is the manifestation of a postulate—counter-postulate. 

The PTS person wants to be himself, but the SP is not allowing that.

PTS, 3. environmental menace that keeps something continuously keyed in. This can be a constant recurring somatic, a continual, recurring pressure or a mass. The menace in the environment is not imaginary in such extreme cases. 

To the PTS person the threat to his beingness appears as a diffused environmental menace because he is unable to identify the source of it. 

PTS TYPE A, a person intimately connected with persons (such as marital or familial ties) of known antagonism to mental or spiritual treatment or Scn. 

The source of threat that a PTS feels could be right there, but the PTS is blind to it. He may not be able to associate the threat to its source because he is in some relationship with it, and he can’t let go.

PTS TYPE ONE, the SP on the case is right in present time, actively suppressing the person. Type one is normally handled by an ethics officer in the course of a hearing.

When the SP on the case is right in present time, the handling is to get the PTS to recognize this fact.

PTS TYPE TWO, type two is harder to handle than type one, for the apparent suppressive person in present time is only a restimulator for the actual suppressive. The pc who isn’t sure, won’t disconnect, or still roller-coasters, or who doesn’t brighten up, can’t name any SP at all is a type two. 

But what appears to be an SP in present time, may only be a reminder of the real SP. So, it may require a search and discovery of the real SP.

PTS TYPE THREE, the type three PTS is mostly in institutions or would be. On this case the type two’s apparent SP is spread all over the world and is often more than all the people there are—for the person sometimes has ghosts about him or demons and they are just more apparent SPs but imaginary as beings as well. 

The PTS person may start seeing SPs everywhere. Such a person is so terrified that he or she is unable to function in life and may have to be institutionalized. 

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 1. he’s solving a present time problem which hasn’t in actual fact existed for the last many trillenia in most cases, and yet he is taking the actions in present time which solve that problem. The guy’s totally stuck in present time, that is the whole anatomy of psychosis. 

The SP is threatening the beingness of others around him in an effort to solve some imaginary problem. He is psychotic in this sense. He is stuck in some engram.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 2. a person who rewards only down statistics and never rewards an up statistic. He goofs up or vilifies any effort to help anybody and particularly knifes with violence anything calculated to make human beings more powerful or intelligent. A suppressive automatically and immediately will curve any betterment activity into something evil or bad.

The SP is not logical in his thinking. He harbors great fear against anybody getting better than him.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 3. a person who doesn’t get case gain because of continuing overts.

An SP does not get better because he is continually engaged in committing harmful acts.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 4. the person is in a mad, howling situation of some yesteryear and is “handling it” by committing overt acts today. I say condition of yesteryear but this case thinks it’s today. 

An SP is living with an engram completely controlling his mind.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 5 . an SP is a no-confront case because, not being in his own valence he has no viewpoint from which to erase anything. That is all an SP is.

An SP is simply acting out some valence in his engram.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 6. those who are destructively antisocial. 

In an SP, the thinking is completely mechanical, so no social activity flows from it.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 7. a person with certain behavior characteristics and who suppresses other people in his vicinity and those other people when he suppresses them become PTS or potential trouble sources.  

An SP is threatening the beingness of others around him as part of acting out some past engram. Those whose beingness is threatened cannot hold on to their gains in auditing and become troublesome to those who are trying to help them.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 8. is one that actively seeks to suppress or damage Scn or a Scientologist by suppressive acts.

An SP then starts to threaten those who are trying to help, such as, Scientology and Scientologists.

SUPPRESSIVE PERSON, 9. a person who has had a counter – postulate to the pc you are handling.

An SP is at the other end of the troublesome preclear you are trying to handle.



DEFINITION: An anomaly is any violation of the integrity of reality, such as, discontinuity (missing data), inconsistency (contradictory data), or disharmony (arbitrary data). An anomaly flags the presence of a hidden impression on the mind in the form of an assumption. When the assumption is discovered, one becomes aware of the underlying impression. This awareness produces a realization that resolves the anomaly.

The Scientology Organizations have declared many people on their lines, and on their staff, as SPs because they were difficult to manage. The number of such instances is so large that it points to a weakness in the application of Scientology itself. This requires a clear statement of PTSness.



With subject clearing, the state of PTSness appears to be as follows:

PTSness occurs when a person feels threatened about his or her beingness. This may also extend to a person who is feeling threatened about an aberrated beingness.The latter would be the condition of SPness. So, the conditions of PTSness and SPness are closely tied together and should be carefully assessed for proper handling.

Subject Clearing shall be immensely useful in handling this condition in either of its form of PTSness or SPness.



Reference: Subject: Scientology Fundamentals

Any exteriorization must be preceded by interiorization. We shall, therefore, start by looking at the definitions of INTERIORIZATION carefully from the Technical Dictionary

INTERIORIZATION, 1. interiorization means going into it too fixedly, and becoming part of it too fixedly. It doesn’t mean just going into your head.

Who or what is going into the head, or into something, too fixedly? Normally, this concept is applied to a thetan, which is a non-physical aspect of an individual,  such as, the viewpoint or the attention. So what does it mean for the viewpoint or attention to go into it too fixedly, and becoming part of it too fixedly? What does it mean to have viewpoint or attention going into the head?

INTERIORIZATION, 2. if the havingness of the preclear is low, he is apt to close in tight to the body because this gives him more havingness and if the preclear fears that the body is going to go out of control he will also move in closer to the body. Thus we get interiorization as no more complicated than fear of loss of control and drops in havingness.

If a person’s havingness is low, then, his attention will go to what he does have and in preventing further loss. This is interiorization. We may define interiorization as having the purpose of preventing loss of control. 


Now that we have some grasp of interiorization, we may now look at the definitions of EXTERIORIZATION.

EXTERIORIZATION, 1. the state of the thetan, the individual himself, being outside his body. When this is done, the person achieves a certainty that he is himself and not his body. 

Since thetan is not something physical, “the state of thetan being outside the body” means that the viewpoint or attention of the person is not fixated on controlling the body any more. He is so confident and relaxed about his inherent state that he isn’t worried about controlling the body. The body continues to operate per the natural laws. This is much more than the “certainty that he is himself and not his body.”

EXTERIORIZATION, 2. the phenomenon of being in a position in space dependent on only one’s consideration, able to view from that space, bodies and the room, as it is. 

The thetan, inherently, has no position. Instead, it gives position to the bodies and the room by means of consideration.

EXTERIORIZATION, 3 . the act of moving out of the body with or without full perception. 

The thetan is no a physical thing, so the correct interpretation of “moving out of the body” is something non-physical. The thetan simply stop considering that the body must be a fixed position relative to it. In other words, the thetan simply lets go of its considerations about the body.



DEFINITION: An anomaly is any violation of the integrity of reality, such as, discontinuity (missing data), inconsistency (contradictory data), or disharmony (arbitrary data). An anomaly flags the presence of a hidden impression on the mind in the form of an assumption. When the assumption is discovered, one becomes aware of the underlying impression. This awareness produces a realization that resolves the anomaly.

It is generally thought that the thetan moves out of the body during death or during out-of-body experiences. This is an anomaly because thetan is not something physical. The thetan does not have a location. Instead, it provides location to all things, including the body, by consideration. After all, subject clearing provides the Definition of THETAN as follows:

Thetan is the individuality associated with a body-mind system. It is a unit of theta that manifests in the viewpoint and activities of the person. Thetan, as a viewpoint, has a position on the Know-to-Mystery scale.



Since thetan is not something physical, “the state of thetan being outside the body” means that the viewpoint or attention of the person is not fixated on controlling the body any more. He is so confident and relaxed about his inherent state that he isn’t worried about controlling the body. The body continues to operate per the natural laws. This is much more than the “certainty that he is himself and not his body.”

With subject clearing, the state of exteriorization appears to be as follows:

Exteriorization is the phenomena of the attention being free of any fixed considerations about the body. The viewpoint is, therefore, free to postulate the position of the body, and its environment, at any distance relative to itself.


Theta-MEST Theory (KHTK version)

Reference: Subject: Scientology Fundamentals

The Theta-MEST theory was originated by L. Ron Hubbard in 1951. It became central to the the subject of Scientology, which was also developed by Hubbard. With subject clearing the basic statement of this theory appears as follows (see The Statement of Theta-MEST Theory),

THETA and MEST are two dimensions of the universe, which, together, explain not only all the phases of matter and its motion, but also the whole spectrum of living organisms and life.


Theta-MEST Theory

This document expands upon this theory with the following steps of reasoning.

(1) This universe is substantial; therefore, it is made up of substance. 
NOTE: Substance is anything substantial enough to be perceived.

(2) The universal substance has the dimensions of Theta and MEST.
NOTE: We are familiar with the dimension of Theta and MEST as ‘spiritual’ and ‘physical’, respectively.

(3) In the Theta dimension we have thought, identity and mental phenomena. This dimension has its own unique set of laws.

(4) In the MEST dimension we have radiation, matter and physical phenomena. This dimension also has its unique set of laws.

(5) The laws of Theta and MEST may parallel each other to some degree, but they are very different.

(6) Being substances, both Theta and MEST have extensions and durations.

(7) Having extensions, both Theta and MEST have the characteristic of space; but the two spaces are very different.

(8) Having duration, both Theta and MEST have the characteristic of time; but the two times are very different. 

(9) Having the characteristics of space and time, both Theta and MEST can condense and expand.

(10) In the Theta dimension, thought may condense into identity; and identity may expand into thought.

(11) In the MEST dimension, radiation may condense into matter; and matter may expand into radiation.

(12) Condensation and expansion allows forms to appear and disappear. A form, therefore, has Theta and MEST dimensions.

(13) A form is individualistic in that it can be distinguished from other forms; but the universal substance is one.

(14) A form has a beginning and an end; but the universal substance has no beginning or end.

(15) The beingness is the Theta dimension of a form; it is called Thetan. The body is the MEST dimension of that form. Both dimensions operate together as one form.

(16) As a form appears and disappears, both thetan and body appear and disappear.

(17) An individual is born, and he dies. Therefore, neither the body nor the thetan is permanent.

(18) The individuality, such as, the genetic characteristics and impressions from the life lived are carried forward in seed form, most likely as DNA programming.



Certain questions have arisen in relation to the above, and many will arise in the future. The purpose of this section is to address such questions.

The universe provides a background of infinite duration. Against this background we measure time in terms of duration of a cycle. On Earth, we use the cycle of Earth’s Rotation as our measure of time. All our units of time are derived from the time it takes for the Earth to complete one rotation.

Condensation and expansion are in the nature of substance. That is how the substance takes form and changes those forms. The same form may be brought into being and let go again and again; but its impressions retained. That is how a form may evolve.

Individuality arises with the form and subsides when the form disappears; but the form and its individuality may go dormant in between as in a seed. Thus, the individuality may evolve over time with repeated appearances of the form.


The Statement of Theta-MEST Theory

Reference: Subject: Scientology Fundamentals

THETA-MEST THEORY is central to Scientology. Let’s look at its “definitions” from the TECHNICAL DICTIONARY and other works of L. Ron Hubbard, carefully.

THETA-MEST THEORY, 1. a theory generated by myself in the fall of 1950 as an effort to explain (just a theory) the phenomena of an analyzer working in one direction and a reactive mind working in quite another, the reactive mind being interesting, and the analyzer being interested.  

Here Theta refers to the analytical mind that thinks in a self-determined manner, and becomes interested. MEST refers to the reactive mind that thinks in a  mechanical fashion, and becomes interesting.

THETA-MEST THEORY, 2. the idea is that life is a no-substance thing, up against a physical universe which is a substance thing. Here is nothingness up against a somethingness interacting where the nothingness or the no-substance thing is actually giving orders to and handling the all substance thing, the physical universe. 

Here Theta represents life as a no-substance thing; and MEST represents the universe as a substance thing. Theta is up against MEST. Theta is interacting with MEST and  ordering and handling it. 

Hubbard assumes that the universe is made up of MEST only. Theta is “no-substance” only from the viewpoint of MEST as “substance”. 

THETA-MEST THEORY, 3. the idea that there was a universe and that there was thought—theta without wave-length, without mass, without time, without position in space: this was life. And that was impinged upon something else called the physical universe, which was a mechanical entity which did things in a peculiar way, and these two things together, theta-mest interacting, gave us life forms. (PXL, p. 140)

Here we have MEST as the dimension of universe, and Theta as the dimension of thought. Theta is devoid of the  MEST properties of mass, energy, space and time. Theta is regarded as life; MEST is regarded as a mechanical entity. Theta is completely different from MEST. It impinges on MEST and gives us life forms.

Hubbard assumes that the source of life comes from outside the universe. He does not see the universe as something alive. His viewpoint of the universe is narrow in the sense that he excludes the source of life from it.


The following data on Theta-MEST theory is quoted from the book SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008, by L. Ron Hubbard.

SCN 8-8008, 1. Scientology is essentially a study of statics and kinetics. If anything, it is more exact than what are called the physical sciences, for it is dealing with a theoretical static and a theoretical kinetic which are at the opposite ends of a spectrum of all motion. … In Scientology, the static is represented by the mathematical symbol theta; the kinetic is called MEST.

Hubbard postulates MEST to be all motion, and Theta to be static with respect to MEST. In other words, Theta and MEST are two different dimensions that do not overlap in their characteristics. This is indeed an original contribution of Hubbard.

SCN 8-8008, 2. The capabilities of the static are not limited. The static interacts with the kinetic which is considered to be the ultimate of motion. 

The capabilities of Theta are unlimited. Theta interacts with MEST.

Hubbard uses theta and static interchangeably; whereas static is actually the key property postulated for theta. This creates confusion.

SCN 8-8008, 3. The original of the Theta-MEST theory may be found in Science of Survival 1951. After the concept of the true static was reached, problems of processing began to solve much more rapidly, and the main proof of the Theta-MEST theory is its workability and the fact that it predicted an enormous amount of phenomena which, when looked for, were found to exist and which, when applied, resolved cases rapidly.

The realization that Theta and MEST are two very basic and different dimensions, resolved many confusions.

SCN 8-8008, 4. Theta can be the property or beingness of any individual and is, for our purposes, considered to be individualistic for each individual. MEST stands for matter, energy, space and time, and is a composite of the first letter of each. The word MEST appearing all by itself denotes the physical universe. MEST with a designation word after it designates another’s universe.

Hubbard associates Theta with the beingness of the individual. He assumes that the body is part of the MEST universe. 

Hubbard assumes the beingness to actually separate from the body during out-of-body experiences and death. This, together with the memories from past lives, allows Hubbard to rationalize that the beingness of the individual is immortal.

SCN 8-8008, 5. It is now considered that the origin of MEST lies with theta itself, and that MEST, as we know the physical universe, is a product of theta.

Hubbard considers MEST to be the product of Theta.

This supports the long standing religious belief, which says, “God created the World.” Opposing this belief is the scientific reasoning, which says, “Man created the idea of God.” Here we have a very basic anomaly.



DEFINITION: An anomaly is any violation of the integrity of reality, such as, discontinuity (missing data), inconsistency (contradictory data), or disharmony (arbitrary data). An anomaly flags the presence of a hidden impression on the mind in the form of an assumption. When the assumption is discovered, one becomes aware of the underlying impression. This awareness produces a realization that resolves the anomaly.

Hubbard assumes the universe to be physical (MEST) and the source of life (THETA) to be external to it like God in the western religions. This maintains the long standing anomaly between religious thinking and scientific reasoning.

This anomaly can be resolved easily by taking a broader view of the universe in which THETA and MEST are the dimensions of the universe. In this broader view, neither MEST is the product of Theta, nor Theta is the product of MEST. 

Thus, the individual beingness is a unique configuration of Theta and MEST. Past memories can be explained in terms of the programming contained in the DNA molecule much like that in a seed.



Resolution occurs when we adopt a broad view of an all-encompassing universe from which nothing is excluded. Theta (spiritual) and MEST (physical) together describe the characteristics of this universe.

With subject clearing, the basic statement of Theta-MEST theory appears as follows:

THETA and MEST are two dimensions of the universe, which, together, explain not only all the phases of matter and its motion, but also the whole spectrum of living organisms and life.