SCN 8-8008: General Processing

Reference: SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008

This paper presents Section 46 from the book SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008 by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Church of Scientology (1952).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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General Processing

Anything which rehabilitates the self-determinism of a preclear, whether education, change of environment, running facsimiles, theta clearing or the creation of one’s own universe, is valid processing. Any one of these will raise the tone of the preclear markedly.

Anything that helps mental matrix function more efficiently is valid processing. This is the source of self-determinism. Education may help clarify misunderstanding; change of environment may help calm the mind; running facsimiles may help assimilate the mental matrix better; theta clearing may help clear the filters; and creation of one’s own universe may help resolve inconsistencies.

At the end of 80,000 hours of investigation of beingness in the MEST universe, I have concluded that those processes which make it possible for the preclear to disagree with the MEST universe also make it possible for him to handle the MEST universe, or to create his own or be part of a group which creates a universe, as the case may be. Scientology 8-8008 is remarkable for its ability to better the beingness and action potentials of the individual. It is, sadly enough, the only technique which I have seen produce excellent and fast results in the hands of trained auditors.

Processes that help a person to question things, which he is taking for granted are very helpful. Scientology 8-8008 processes are remarkable in this sense.

Mainly the reason is that homo sapiens has and will continue to use, any technique delivered into his hands for the control and enslavement of others, for homo sapiens is frightened. Even when an auditor was competent with earlier techniques, it would often occur that his preclear would return into his past environment and would relapse. This occurred because others had a vested interest in the preclear’s continuation in a state of aberration; and others would lose no moment in starting again to crush this preclear down the tone-scale to a point where they conceived, he was more easily controlled.

It is best to have processes that a person can apply to oneself because man cannot be trusted to help others unconditionally.

Mest is the most easily controlled item in the MEST universe, and the closer a human being could be pressed toward MEST, the easier, it was thought, to control him. That his value and ethical sense deteriorated in direct ratio to the degree he was depressed down the tone-scale, was overlooked by the homo sapiens who had a passion for slavery. The primary benefit of Scientology 8-8008 is that it works so swiftly even when indifferently used that the persons in the environment of the preclear are over-reached rapidly by the preclear and find themselves subject to his control when they act to continue his aberration. Further the auditor is seldom aware of the height his preclear attains until the preclear has attained it.

A mechanical (stimulus-response) condition is easy to enslave, so the general effort in society is to damage the sense of ethics and reduce man to this state of slavery. Scientology 8-8008 processes work swiftly enough to overcome that barrier.

Processing has always worked in the hands of a competent auditor; and it were better for any technique, no matter how dangerous, to be known to Man if it could benefit at least a few, for homo sapiens has no psychotherapy. In Dianetics he had his first thoroughly validated psychotherapy and Dianetics worked and still works uniformly in the hands of those skilled in its application. In Scientology in general, and in theta clearing in particular, the upper limits of homo sapiens as such have been transcended and it would not be good semantics to call a theta clear a homo sapiens or even, exactly speaking, a person, for he is a thetan with a body he uses for purposes of action and communication, and his viewpoint is quite altered.

It is better to let every technique become known, even when some may misuse them. There have been no workable therapies until Dianetics came along. These therapies have been improved even further in Scientology.

His general health is more or less directly under his control, but there is no goal for the body as a final goal in Scientology, for the body is a tool. The genetic entity, which built the human body, really wanted to be served. The complexities and ridges which he developed speak of a craving for energy and self-service which could only be the basest aberration, and, true enough, the genetic entity is aberrated almost beyond belief, as any thetan discovers when he seeks to clear the genetic entity.

As the viewpoint improves, the person takes care of his health. Scn does not focus on the body as it considers it to be a tool only. The genetic entity is the essence of the body that is concerned about the body only.

The body is quite alive and self-motivated without the thetan, as the thetan soon discovers; but it is so used to taking orders from successive lines of thetans which themselves someday would probably become part of this complex system of ridges, that its “mental activities” are quite stupid. The thetan who has lived in this association and has believed himself to be the body is early quite appalled at the character of the genetic entity who is cowardly, a thing of stimulus-response, without further will or goals than to grow a body, and obsessed entirely with the idea of growing one.

The body, through genetic entity, appears to be self-motivated but it is important to realize that it is just a stimulus-response system.

The thetan can repair the body quite easily if he so chooses, but quite often sees it as a pointless activity; for one’s personality is not even faintly dependent upon the body but is only debased by association with one. When one has learned to control a body from a distance, he is usually content to let it get along as best it can, for the reduction of all counter-efforts of the genetic entity would be a reduction of the entire body. The genetic entity has his whole track and has had his own travails. In other parts of space, not too incredibly, “dolls” are used by thetans—things which can be animated easily by theta energy and which are disposable, and which do not have the uncomfortable circumstance of being themselves any more alive than any other MEST.

Given the right environment, the body pretty much takes care of itself. A person should simply make sure that the body has the right nutrients.

The MEST universe itself has a considerable cravingness in it. It is composed of energy which was emanated in order to have, and the energy still contains as its basic characteristic Have and Not Have, and is itself, when contacted, found to possess a craving which does not make the MEST alive but which speaks of that which made the MEST. This cravingness is an essential part of all matter. Certain metals contain the desire to be had much more than others, and certain other metals contain the craving not to be had. This is one way of looking at positive and negative reactions. The body’s being composed of such energy makes it feel as though it is holding on to the thetan. Nothing is really holding on to the thetan since he has no substance, which can be held. Even the genetic entity does not hold on to the thetan, but probably considers him some sort of far off commanding god—if he thinks of the thetan at all.

The MEST universe is stimulus-response in character, and the body, mind and viewpoint have evolved from it toward greater self-determinism. The evolution of this whole system and the interdependencies need to be understood as best as possible. There are cravings and reactions that need to be understood and controlled.

Space has its own demanding quality and insists on its dimensions being accepted by anything in the universe, for it was erected and is erected on a command basis in the MEST universe.

Space is simply the extents of matter, light and gravity that it contains.

Processing must resolve this havingness on the part of matter, and the commandingness on the part of space. To confront these directly is, for most preclears, an impossibility, for it only drives them further into an apathy of agreement with MEST. The preclear has long contested with the MEST universe and has continually sought to create his own universe only to find the MEST universe declaring itself stronger each time and compressing the illusion to nothing.

It is knowledge that makes it possible for Theta and MEST to work harmoniously together as a system.

The war cry of the MEST universe is: “Must have gotten it somewhere,” and “It must have gone somewhere.” It will not tolerate the vaguest possibility that one created himself or could destroy anything himself. The whole sub-zero scale is a manifestation of one’s efforts to combat this demandingness on the part of the MEST universe. Hiding, protecting, owning, are all mechanisms to answer the question, “Where did you get it?” “What did you do with it?” The MEST universe, in this light, is essentially a police universe, for it operates upon force and intolerance and demands with pain that its laws be accepted. In that its laws are based solely upon agreement; it is only necessary to discover how one can disagree with them to abolish what has been called “natural law” for oneself. Upon the abolishment of this agreement depends the health, progress and advancement of the thetan. This universe is a major expanding trap of finite dimensions and rather idiotic simplicity. If one were to leave the MEST universe, one would solely create space of his own and maintain enough knowledge of what could happen with regard to the MEST universe to defeat its encroachment and its salesmen. No universe, however, cunningly constructed, is entirely proof against this expanding trap. The MEST universe is a game which has gone on too long and of which even the players are tired. Earth could be considered to be at this time an egress terminal.

MEST is not inimical to Theta. It is neither superior nor inferior. It is simply part of the whole system. It has certain laws. The more one understands these laws the better one can work with them. The laws are to be understood and not just agreed upon. There is a lot more to be understood about the mind.

It is noteworthy that one must not accept or know any of these conditions to have these processes work. They act very swiftly and uniformly on any homo sapiens and upon other beings. A considerable number of the principles which have been discovered in Scientology exist above the MEST universe. The MEST universe itself might be considered to be the “inevitable average” of illusion once it starts in a certain direction. We have in natural law as applied to the MEST universe the sum of agreement upon illusion. Tracing the principles of Scientology as they apply specifically to the MEST universe, is the tracing of the agreements which brought about the MEST universe. The axioms of 1951 are, in the main, a tracing of this agreement. The inevitability and “diabolical accuracy” of these predictions of human behavior depend upon their being held in common by Man, which they are. They extend as well to other beings below the level of player in this universe and have applied to many sets of players, while much of the data which has been recovered in this investigation seems, to the narrow scope of homo sapiens, quite wild, the wildness depends on the absence of investigation in the past and can be compared only to the stupidity which remained ignorant of them; for these matters were an unseen and insidious causation underlying the grief of Earth, at best a pawn in a minor game in a minor galaxy.

One only needs to know the objective principles underlying the Scientology processes. They help one understand the real nature of Theta and MEST. One is generally deluded in one’s perception because of one’s ignorance. Question everything that you perceive.

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FINAL COMMENTS

The MEST universe is stimulus-response in character, and the body, mind and viewpoint have evolved from it toward greater self-determinism. The evolution of this whole system and the interdependencies need to be understood as best as possible. There are cravings and reactions that need to be understood and controlled.

Scientology processes help one question things that are generally taken for granted. One is generally deluded in one’s perception because of one’s ignorance. It is, therefore, very important to question everything until all inconsistencies are resolved.

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The Lorentz Transformation

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

From Wikipedia,

“Historically, the transformations were the result of attempts by Lorentz and others to explain how the speed of light was observed to be independent of the reference frame, and to understand the symmetries of the laws of electromagnetism.”

The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment in 1887 led to the belief that the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames. For example, light is observed to have the same speed, c = 3 x 108 meters/second, relative to the earth and also to the sun, even when earth is moving at a speed 3 x 104 meters/second relative to the sun.

But, Earth and Sun, together as a system on a larger scale, are moving at the same velocity with respect to light. The anomaly, therefore, is local and not universal. Logically, it means that space and time characteristics, which determine the speed of light, maintain a constant relationship on a universal basis, while their individual characteristics may vary locally.

We know that the space and time characteristics are intrinsic to substance. As summarized in The Universal Frame of Reference, space is tied to the extents of substance, and time is tied to the duration of substance. Therefore, space and time are tied to the density of substance. As density changes, the space-time characteristics change accordingly, but in a constant relationship.

Mathematically, this constant space-time relationship leads to the Lorentz transformation (see Special Relativity explained at Khan Academy).

Lorentz transformation, however, transforms space and time coordinates from one local frame to another, considering that the speed of light is the same in both frames of references. The mathematics provides the following relationships.

When c is infinite, βc reduces to v, β reduces to 0, and γ reduces to 1. Lorentz transformation reduces to Galilean transformation. This means that Galilean transformation is valid in the universal frame of reference, and our task is to scale the motion in the local frame of reference to motion in the universal frame of reference. This is done by β. The resulting change in γ is the correction factor that needs to be applied to the Galilean transformation.

If v = 3 x 104 m/s is the velocity of the Earth relative to the Sun, we are scaling it down by the speed of light, c = 3 x 108 m/s in the universal frame of reference by β = v/c = 10-4. For this value of β, we may calculate γ = 1 + 5 x 10-9.

This means that a local velocity of v = 3 x 104 m/s provides a small correction factor of 5 x 10-9 to the Galilean transformation.

It is to be understood that a velocity differential in free space equates to a density differential (see The Universal Frame of Reference). Therefore, we may interpret the above numbers to mean that an increase in velocity of v = 3 x 104 m/s may equate to decrease in density by a factor of 5 x 10-9.

It should be noted that Lorentz transformation provides a very general correction for the material domain, and it may not account for finer details, such as, the Earth’s velocity is not linear relative to the Sun. In the material domain v is much smaller than c because the inertia (density), in general, is very high.

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Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

In his very first paper published in 1905 Einstein establishes the concept of “energy quantum” or “light quantum”. The energy of light quantum (photon) is proportional to frequency that becomes more pronounced as one moves up the electromagnetic spectrum. Here is a summary of Einstein’s 1905 paper on Light Quantum followed by some comments.

SECTION 0: Introduction

Einstein says,

The energy of a ponderable body cannot be split into arbitrarily many, arbitrarily small parts, while the energy of a light ray, emitted by a point source of light is according to Maxwell’s theory (or in general according to any wave theory) of light distributed continuously over an ever increasing volume.

In other words, Einstein observes that atoms are not infinitely divisible, but the electromagnetic radiation is treated as a continuum and infinitely divisible.

Einstein says,

“In fact, it seems to me that the observations on “black-body radiation”, photoluminescence, the production of cathode rays by ultraviolet light and other phenomena involving the emission or conversion of light can be better understood on the assumption that the energy of light is distributed discontinuously in space.”

In other words, Einstein proposes that the creation and conversion of light may not be continuous.

SECTION 1. On a Difficulty in the Theory of “Black-body Radiation’’

In this section Einstein sets up a thought experiment. He assumes electrons to be particles that are colliding like gas molecules. There are bound “resonator electrons” that emit and absorb electromagnetic waves with definite periods. The average kinetic energy of a resonator electron must equal the average kinetic energy corresponding to the translational motion of a gas molecule under dynamic equilibrium. Similarly, it should also equal the energy of interaction with radiation present in space.

Einstein says,

“This relation, which we found as the condition for dynamic equilibrium does not only lack agreement with experiment, but it also shows that in our picture there can be no question of a definite distribution of energy between aether and matter. The greater we choose the range of frequencies of the resonators, the greater becomes the radiation energy in space…”

This was famously known as the ultraviolet catastrophe.

SECTION 2. On Planck’s Determination of Elementary Quanta

In this section Einstein shows that “determination of elementary quanta given by Mr. Planck is, to a certain extent, independent of the theory of “black-body radiation” constructed by him.”

Using mathematics to back up his argument, Einstein concludes:

“The higher the energy density and the longer the wavelengths of radiation, the more usable is the theoretical basis used by us; for short wavelengths and low radiation densities, however, the basis fails completely.”

In other words, the radiation appears continuous per Maxwell’s theory at lower frequencies, but not at higher frequencies.

SECTION 3. On the Entropy of the Radiation

In this section Einstein presents Wien’s consideration that entropy of radiation may be determined completely from black body radiation law when the radiation energy is given for all frequencies.

SECTION 4. Limiting Law for the Entropy of Monochromatic Radiation for Low Radiation Density

In this section Einstein uses Wien’s approximation (valid for higher frequencies of black body radiation) to derive an equation for the entropy of radiation.

Einstein writes:

“This equation shows that the entropy of a monochromatic radiation of sufficiently small density varies with volume according to the same rules as the entropy of a perfect gas or of a dilute solution.”

Thus, Einstein proves that the energy distribution of radiation becomes particle-like at high frequencies. This is an ingenious way of arriving at this conclusion.

SECTION 5. Molecular-Theoretical Investigation of the Volume-dependence of the Entropy of Gases and Dilute Solutions

In this section Einstein shows that, when applied to a large number of discrete particles, the use of “statistical probability” is compatible with macroscopic laws of physics.

SECTION 6. Interpretation of the Expression for the Volume-dependence of the Entropy of Monochromatic Radiation according to Boltzmann’s Principle

In this section, Einstein uses mathematical arguments to conclude:

“Monochromatic radiation of low density behaves—as long as Wien’s radiation formula is valid—in a thermodynamic sense, as if it consisted of mutually independent energy quanta of magnitude Rßv/N.”

Each quantum is the energy of one interaction. Einstein mathematically determines the theoretical value of a quantum.

SECTION 7. On Stokes’ Rule

In this section Einstein uses the new idea of “energy quanta” to explain the Stokes’ Rule for photoluminescence and indicates new possibilities.

SECTION 8. On the Production of Cathode Rays by Illumination of Solids

In this section Einstein brilliantly verifies the calculated value of energy quanta from the experimental value obtained from the study of photoelectricity. Here we have the conclusive evidence that energy of light is made up of frequency (kinetic energy) and not amplitude (wave energy).

SECTION 9. On the Ionization of Gases by Ultraviolet Light

In this section Einstein tests his ideas to explain the existing experimental observations and further proves the viability of the idea of “energy quantum” or “light quantum”.

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Comments

Einstein’s concept of quantum is based on energy. From the phenomenon of photoelectricity, it can be seen that this energy is kinetic (based on frequency) and not that of a wave (based on amplitude). Light carries this energy with it. This means light is a fast-moving substance.

The kinetic energy depends on relative velocity between two things. Therefore, this energy is visible only when there is interaction between two things, such as, light and electron. Einstein is mathematically comparing this interaction to collisions among gas molecules in the kinetic theory of gases.

Therefore, quantum is tied to the energy of interaction. If there is no interaction, the energy, or the quantum, cannot be perceived. The very perception of quantum requires an interaction. Interactions are discrete. Therefore, quantum is discrete also, but only as energy of interaction. This is what Einstein is thinking about when he says, The energy of a ponderable body cannot be split into arbitrarily many, arbitrarily small parts…”

In the kinetic theory of gases, not only the interactions are discrete, but the interacting gas molecules are discrete also. The molecules are discrete because they have individual centers of mass. This is not the case with light because light has no centers of mass. Therefore, light “particles” cannot be distinguished from each other. Light forms a continuum in space even when its interactions are discrete.

Einstein disagreed with Maxwell treating energy of light as a continuous function across the spectrum; but he did agree with Maxwell for energy being continuous at the lower end of the spectrum. Maxwell treated light as a wave, which is not really the case. There is no stationary aether through which light is moving as a disturbance. Therefore, a continuous energy function at lower frequencies can only mean that energy interactions are so frequent that they appear continuous.

Thus, as the frequency reduces, light starts to act as a continuum in terms of energy interactions also. This can be used as an argument to support the observation that, fundamentally, light is infinitely divisible. As frequency increases, the energy interactions become increasingly differentiable.

Electrons also form a continuum in space similar to light, but their frequency is much higher. When light interacts with electrons in the photoelectric phenomenon, it is two continuums of very different frequencies interacting with each other, and not two particles. Any interaction shall only be in terms of partial resonance, and not as an impact between two billiard balls.

Much seems to be unknown about the nature of this interaction between light and electron.

The frequency of light may best be understood as the density of its continuum. The higher is the frequency, the greater is the density of light. There appears to be a high-density gradient from the electronic region to the nucleus within the atom. This is where the charge appears and the center of mass forms. This is an area of transition where radiation appears to be in equilibrium with matter.

Much seems to be unknown about this area of transition from electronic region to nucleus of atom.

In conclusion, let us look at the following assumption made by Einstein in this paper:

According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localized in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole.

It appears that quanta are more particle-like only because the density of the continuum has increased.

From Faraday’s perspective, quanta can be represented by thicker lines of force, but those lines are still continuous.

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Einstein’s Relativity

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment in 1887 initiated a line of research that eventually led to Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity. The expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist. The special relativity then ruled out a stationary aether.

The difference between the universal motion of light and Earth shall be constant because the difference between their densities is constant. This explains the null result of Michelson-Morley’s experiment.

One may object to the above reasoning by saying, “The earth is orbiting the sun. Therefore, it is constantly accelerating in the radial direction towards the sun, but not in the tangential direction. So, there must be a slight difference in speed in the two directions.”

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Michael-Morley’s Experiment

We may calculate this accuracy required of Michael-Morley’s experiment as follows:

1.    From de Broglie’s relationship the frequency of Earth is about 8 x 1070. The frequency of visible light is about 8 x 1014. Therefore, the ratio of their frequency is of the order of 1056

2.     This means that earth is 1056 times as dense as light.

3.     Then the intrinsic speed of earth is 1056 times slower than the speed of light. Even if we take density to be proportional to the square of speed, the intrinsic speed of Earth shall still be 1028 times slower.

4.     Therefore, the intrinsic speed of earth is about (3 x 108 meters/sec) times (10-28), or of the order of 10-20 m/s.

5.     Then, under best of the scenarios, the Michelson-Morley’s experiment is required to detect a velocity difference of the order of 10-20 m/s.

Michelson-Morley’s experiment was unable to detect the difference in speed of the order of 10-20 m/s. It, therefore, gave a null result. According to Wikipedia, modern experiments indicate that the two-way speed of light is isotropic (the same in every direction) to within 6 nanometres per second.

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The Speed of Light

The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment led to the formulation of the Lorentz transformation. Einstein derived the same formulation from the principles of relativity. These principles required that the speed of light be the same in all inertial frames of reference.

From Wikipedia,

In 1905 Einstein postulated from the outset that the speed of light in vacuum, measured by a non-accelerating observer, is independent of the motion of the source or observer. Using this and the principle of relativity as a basis he derived the special theory of relativity, in which the speed of light in vacuum c featured as a fundamental constant, also appearing in contexts unrelated to light. This made the concept of the stationary aether (to which Lorentz and Poincaré still adhered) useless and revolutionized the concepts of space and time.

The speed of light provides the basis of universal motion just like Newton’s fixed stars. The fixed stars may be approximated as infinite density and zero motion; whereas, light may be approximated as zero density and infinite motion. Both work as the basis for universal motion because the scale of universal motion is inverse of the scale of density (see The Universal Frame of Reference).

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The Theory of Relativity

The theory of relativity essentially converts local motion (relative to earth) to universal motion before doing math. That is why it gives more accurate results for Mercury’s orbit (see Newtonian Relativity). It does so through the use of Lorentz Transformation.

The Lorentz transformation reduces to Galilean transformation when ‘c’ is infinite. The speed of light is practically infinite compared to the motion in material domain. This means that Lorentz transformation is essentially “Galilean transformation with a correction factor for using local motion”.  The Newton’s laws of motion remain completely valid because they were originally designed for the universal frame of reference.

Lorentz transformation looks at the characteristics of space and time from the viewpoint of the invariant speed of light. Space and time actually represent the “extents” and “duration” of the substance respectively. Thus, space-time relates to the intrinsic properties (density and intrinsic motion) of substance.

The theory of relativity is applying the universal frame of reference in looking at the density and intrinsic motion of substance in the material domain.

We shall be looking at the mathematics of Lorentz transformation in the next chapter.

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Newtonian Relativity

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Newtonian relativity is an expansion upon Galilean relativity, which states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames. Galileo Galilei first described this principle in 1632 using the example of a ship traveling at constant velocity, without rocking, on a smooth sea; any observer doing experiments below the deck would not be able to tell whether the ship was moving or stationary.

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Inertial Frame of Reference

Newton considered the background of stars, which was at absolute rest, as the basis of all motion. According to Newton, all frames of reference, that are neither rotating nor accelerating, are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another. In other words, the first law of motion applies equally to these frames. Such a frame is called inertial frame of reference. Measurements in one inertial frame can be converted to measurements in another by a simple Galilean transformation.

In an inertial frame of reference, a body does not accelerate unless force is applied to it. In the absence of force, the body either stays at rest or moves at a constant speed in a straight line. Conceptually, the physics of a system in an inertial frame have no causes external to the system.

The inertial frame of reference operates from the perspective of MATERIAL-VOID duality. There is only matter that is homogeneous and isotropic throughout. The matter moves in the void with its space. The is no free space (see Matter, Void and Space).

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Newton’s Assumptions

Newton assumes that matter can move at different uniform velocities independent of density. This assumption is valid for the material region since the velocities are so small that their variation has negligible effect on density.

Newton also assumes that the Laws of Motion (and the Galilean transformation) apply to objects on Earth for motions relative to the Earth. This assumption is valid because Earth adds the same motion to these objects relative to the fixed stars.

Newton also assumes that the Laws of Motion (and the Galilean transformation) apply to the motion of planets of the solar system, when Earth, or the Sun, is used as the basis of motion (instead of the fixed stars). This assumption is generally valid as long as the variations in densities are negligible (see The Universal Frame of Reference).

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Mercury’s Orbit

Error occurs in calculating the precession of the perihelion of Mercury’s orbit because the variation in the densities involved is considerable. Mercury is 12 times as dense as the Sun, and 4 times as dense as the Earth. Therefore, neither Earth nor the Sun can be used as the basis of motion in lieu of the fixed stars.

Einstein resolved this problem through his theory of special relativity (SR), by using the speed of light as the basis of motion. This basis is just as workable as the basis of fixed stars because the speed of light is an intrinsic motion relative to fixed stars (see The Universal Frame of Reference).

Einstein says in The Evolution of Physics:

We really have no choice. We tried to save the Galilean relativity principle by assuming that systems carry the ether along in their motion, but this led to a contradiction with experiment. The only way out is to abandon the Galilean relativity principle and try out the assumption that all bodies move through the calm ether-sea.

The phrase “systems carry the ether along in their motion” seems to refer to the inertial frame operating from the perspective of MATERIAL-VOID duality (see above). Einstein seems to think that the problem is with the Galilean relativity principle.

The truth is that the problem arises because Earth and Sun are being used as the basis of motion instead of the fixed stars.

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Local and Universal Motion

Newton’s Laws of Motion, and the Galilean transformation, apply to motion relative to fixed stars. The fixed stars are assumed to have an intrinsic motion of zero. The intrinsic motion is a characteristic that is inherent to the substance and it does not depend on anything outside of the moving body. We refer to intrinsic motion as universal motion because it is the same throughout the universe like other intrinsic properties, such as, mass.

Therefore, the fixed stars provide the zero of a scale, relative to which we can measure intrinsic or universal motion.

In contrast to universal motion we have local motion, which is measured relative to a local body, such as, the Earth or the Sun. Working with local motion is like working with unlike quantities that require conversion to like quantities before adding and subtracting. Therefore, local motion must be converted to universal motion before Galilean transformation can be applied, especially if the densities of the moving bodies are different.

Current physics uses the terms relative and absolute motion. This is confusing because relative motion exists on the absolute scale also. By absolute motion we really mean intrinsic, or universal motion.

Therefore, the terms local and universal motion are more useful than the terms relative and absolute motion.

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