The Problem of Distance


Reference: Disturbance Theory


We measure “empty space” in our material domain as if matter is stored in it. But that “empty space” is actually filled with field. Since space is the extension of substance we should measure space by its actual content.

We measure distance on the surface of earth by its material content. This is perfectly valid as long as that distance is being associated with the surface of earth. But when it comes to the measurement of distance in interstellar space, it seems that associating it with earth’s surface may not be totally valid.


The Material Space

The electromagnetic cycles are packed so closely in the nucleus of an atom that we may consider them to be “collapsed”. In other words, the electromagnetic substance within the nucleus appears as a continuum instead of being made up of discrete cycles. We call this continuum “mass”.

We may measure the distance over the surface of earth by counting the number of “collapsed” electromagnetic cycles. Instead we use arbitrary units of length, such as, a foot or a meter, because that is more convenient.

But the point is,

A distance may be determined by counting the number of cycles.


The Field Space

The distance in field space may be compared with the distance in material space by taking into account the “compactness” of cycles by looking at frequency. The gamma rays are 50,000 times more compact than visible light. Therefore, the distance is 50,000 times more compact in the gamma region compared to visible light region. it is logical to assume that the average distance within the atom, or the material distance, shall be still more compact. Let’s assume the material distance to be about 60,000 times more compact than the distance in terms of the visible light cycles.

In other words, the distance in terms of light cycles shall shrink 60,000 times when measured in terms of material cycles.

So the field space out there is really not that large when measured on the basis of material space. Light travels at the speed of 3 x 108 meters per second in “light space”. If we look at that speed in terms of “material space” it would be about 5000 meters/second, or 11,185 miles per hour. This may give us some idea of “light cycle distance” when converted to “material cycle distance”. This is a very conservative estimate. The earth distance could be still more compact.


The Theory of Relativity

The theory of relativity identifies this phenomena as “length contraction” as the speed of light is approached. The distance appears to shrink because we are looking at it from the perspective of the material domain.

The Newtonian mechanics uses the material frame of reference. The theory of relativity ventures beyond Newtonian mechanics into electromagnetic field, but it still uses the material frame of reference.

This has generated much confusion about the subject of time.


Further Research

Einstein’s discovery of light quantum established field as a fundamental substance. It seems that field, at the upper limit of frequency, appears as matter. This observation is yet to be fully confirmed. But it is for certain that matter does not provide the only frame of reference.

Further research is needed to investigate the implications of shifting the frame of reference away from matter to field.


The Problem of Space


Reference: Disturbance Theory


After realising that field is a more basic substance than matter, Einstein finally comes to terms with the assertion of Descartes that space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space. 

Thus, the space, which we see as “empty” is actually the extension of an invisible field. This field was not known to Descartes when he boldly asserted based on philosophical reasoning that there is no empty space. If he were here today, he would have been highly satisfied with the discovery of the field.


History of Space

Historically, Aristotle viewed things as made of substance. To him, matter and thought were complementary principles. Space was included in the concept of substance.

Descartes postulated matter to be an abstract reality, independent of thought, whose inherent property was limited to extension. He, thus, saw matter separate from thought, and space as property of matter.

Newton developed Descartes’ notion of matter into the concept of material-substance that existed within an absolute space. The material-substance had intrinsic properties of extension, hardness, impenetrability, mobility, and inertia. He thus separated space from matter. Newton was, however, troubled by the notion of gravity as “action at a distance”.

Based on extensive experimentation, Faraday boiled down the phenomena of electricity and magnetism to the notion of “field” that acted as a medium for radiative phenomena and force. The field was made up of “lines of force” that originated from and terminated at material points. The field explained what appeared as “action at a distance”. Faraday identified space as field that formed the background medium of material bodies.

Maxwell saw Faraday’s approach to be compatible with the theory of potential from the mathematical discoveries of Laplace, Poisson, Green and Gauss. He came up with mathematical equations that showed radiative phenomena, such as, light, to be electromagnetic in nature that carried force and energy. Maxwell confirmed that Faraday’s field was real. From this followed the discovery of electromagnetic spectrum made up of electromagnetic cycles of increasing frequency.

Einstein then discovered that electromagnetic cycles that could be described by a continuous function at lower frequencies gradually became quantized at higher frequencies (see Einstein’s 1905 Paper on Light Quanta). Thus, light acted as wave and also as a particle. This showed light (and field in general) to be a real substance in its own right more fundamental than matter.


Space as Extension

Per Descartes, space is substance’s inherent property of extension. It does not exist in the absence of substance.

With the discovery of field as a substance more fundamental than matter, the philosophical assertion of Descartes becomes a physical reality. Space is not just something abstract or mathematical. It is as real as the substance of matter of field.

Space is the extension of substance (matter or field).


“Empty Space” is Field

Thus, the “empty space” is not really empty. There is an invisible field that takes the place of visible matter.

We have been measuring space by the amount of material substance that can be stored in it. This is true only when space represents the extension of actual matter. When the space represents the extension of field, it should be measured by the amount of field substance that can be stored in it.

“Empty space” is correctly measured by the amount of field substance actually present.


The Basic Space

The fundamental state of substance is a single field cycle that extends into infinity. This extension is space. Therefore, space is synonymous with the substance of a single field cycle. Thus, the basic space appears at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The basic space is the single field cycle at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends into infinity.

Below the level of basic space there is no electromagnetic spectrum. This is “absence of substance”, which was postulated as emptiness earlier (see The Postulates).


Further Research

As we move up the electromagnetic spectrum, the frequency increases. The space starts to become more substantial as a field. This requires a closer study of the field.


The General Principle of Objectivity


Reference: Disturbance Theory


In Relativity & Problem of Space Einstein expresses the following,

General principle of relativity: Natural laws must be covariant with respect to arbitrary continuous transformations of the co-ordinates.

The coordinates refer to space-time in which all phenomena take place. According to this principle natural laws and continuous transformations of phenomena must go hand-in-hand. In other words all natural relationships in the universe must be consistent with each other.

However, Einstein limits his principle to the physical phenomena only because he holds the physical universe to be objective. To him any perception and understanding of the physical universe is subjective.


Observer versus Observed

From The Postulates,

Postulate #2: The UNIVERSE is a single system that is intrinsically continuous, harmonious and consistent.

The universe is what it is. Its perceptions are what they are. The observer and observed are part of the same system. Therefore, the above postulate leads to the following,

General principle of objectivity: The essential criterion of objectivity is continuity, harmony and consistency among all observations.

The general principle of objectivity applies to the whole system, which includes both the observer and the observed. Hence its criterion applies equally also to perceptions and understanding of the phenomenon.

On the other hand Einstein’s general principle of relativity excludes perceptions and understanding from its criterion of objectivity. To that degree it is incomplete.

The general principle of relativity is incomplete as it excludes perceptions and understanding from its criterion of objectivity.


“Real External World”

In Einstein’s view, the objectivity of space has already been established by the success of Newtonian mechanics; and the objectivity of time is established only when more than one person experiences the event taking place. The agreement among the persons establishes that the event exists in the “real external world”. So, for Einstein, only “the external world” is objective and not the “internal world” of a person.

But the universe is an integrated whole. It doesn’t exclude anything. Therefore, “space is physical and, therefore, objective,” and “time is mental and, therefore, subjective” are arbitrary and unnecessary labels. “Physical” and “mental” are attributes of the universe. They are not separate and independent. They cannot be treated differently

“External world” and “internal world”, as arbitrary labels, that falsify the integrity of the universe.

Einstein holds a black and white view of objectivity and subjectivity. The general principle of objectivity presents a more logical view.


Objectivity versus Subjectivity

The general principle of objectivity visualizes “objectivity” and “subjectivity” as forming the two ends of a continuous scale. Thus there are degrees of objectivity and subjectivity of observation just like there are degrees of hotness and coldness of temperature.

Einstein believed in the consistency of observations to be the criterion of objectivity. The universe is inherently continuous, harmonious and consistent in all its aspects. Thus, consistency is inherent in the universe, and, therefore, the universe is naturally objective.

Subjectivity is the degree to which one fails to observe the continuity, harmony and consistency of the universe.

Thus, when there is subjectivity, there is something missing from observation. This alerts one to look for the missing datum.

The general principle of objectivity also establishes the criterion for philosophy, logic, mathematics and science.


Further Research

We shall now apply the criterion from the general principle of objectivity to look at the problem of space more closely.

The Disturbance Levels

Disturbance Levels

Reference: Disturbance Theory


The basic space is a field cycle of unit frequency that extends into infinity. This extension decreases and becomes more compact as frequency increases. Mass begins to form in the gamma range where the frequency is greater than 3 x 1019. Using de Broglie’s hypothesis for mass-frequency equivalence we find that electrons appear at the beginning of the gamma range, and protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom appear at the upper end of the gamma range.

Frequency has a very large domain, which is a bit cumbersome to work with in units of Hertz.  It becomes much better manageable if we use the doubling of frequency as our unit. We call this unit disturbance levels.  A disturbance level (DL) is the number of times frequency has doubled.

Disturbance Level (D) = log f / log 2

Where f denotes frequency.

If the disturbance level is ‘D’, the frequency (in hertz) = 2D

The disturbance level of the basic space at unit frequency is therefore 0. The disturbance level for light is in the range of 50. When we consider the disturbance level of 100, we are well into the material domain. The material domain most likely starts with the disturbance level of neutron of 77.6. The disturbance level of earth is about 235.6, and that of sun is about 256.6 (see the table above).

The unit of disturbance level allows us to extend the electromagnetic spectrum into the material domain, and have a better perspective on all physical phenomena.


Calculation of Disturbance Level

We may calculate the disturbance level of a material particle from its momentum as follows.

De Broglie Equation,       λ = h/p,

where h is Planck’s constant, and p is momentum

Frequency,                       f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 1041 p

Disturbance level,          D = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p

Thus, knowing the mass and velocity of Earth, we may calculate its disturbance level of Earth as follows,

ME = 5.972 x 1024 kg, VE = 3 x 104 m/s, and  p = ME V= 1.79 x 1029

D (earth) = 138.4 + 3.322 log (1.79 x 1029) = 235.6

The disturbance levels of difference substances have been calculated from the current estimates as shown above.


Space & Einstein

Einstein Space

Reference: Disturbance Theory


Einstein’s theory of relativity has been highly successful in resolving the problem of space at cosmological dimensions where the substance is matter, but it has failed at atomic dimensions, where the substance is field. For the rest of his life Einstein struggled to come up with a theory that applied to atomic dimensions.


Problem of Space

Einstein took an incisive look at the problem of space in his article Relativity & Problem of Space. This is a remarkable article written in 1952, just three years before his death. In this article Einstein seems to revise his earlier supposition about space that he made in his special theory of relativity. If Einstein had only lived longer, and followed up on his thoughts expressed in this article, he could have made further breakthroughs at a very fundamental level of physics.


Space in Special Theory of Relativity

In his special theory of relativity, Einstein takes the viewpoint that the physical universe is objective but its perceptions are subjective. Therefore, any understanding of the physical universe is subjective. Time is a conceptual ordering principle of the experiences of the individual. Objectivity of time is established only when more than one person reacts to an event, because that ensures that the event is taking place in the “real external world”. The success of Newton’s mechanics establishes the objectivity of space because it provides broad experience of space as a physical reality.

Einstein then concludes that space is an independent physical reality that remains after all matter and field are removed. Thus, Einstein disagrees with the philosophical view of Descartes that space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space.


Space in General Theory of Relativity

Later in General Theory of Relativity, Einstein reverses his views on space by stating, “There is no such thing as an empty space, i.e. a space without field. Space-time does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural quality of the field.”

This reversal came from Einstein’s recognition of field as a more basic substance. He arrived at this understanding through the general principle of relativity.


The General Principle of Relativity

Einstein states this principle as follows:

Natural laws must be covariant with respect to arbitrary continuous transformations of the co-ordinates.

The general principle of relativity deals with the nature of the universe, because the coordinates refer to space-time in which all phenomena take place. Accordingly the natural laws and continuous transformations of phenomena must go hand-in-hand.

A more general form of this principle is stated by Postulate #2 (see The Postulates),

The UNIVERSE is a single system that is intrinsically continuous, harmonious and consistent.


Further Research

In light of the postulate we shall examine Einstein’s general principle of relativity to see if it can help us understand the idea of space better.