Exercises: Discerning the Environment

seriously

Reference: Mindfulness Approach
[Note: These exercises have been revised after the feedback from many successful applications.]

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Here you employ all your five physical senses—touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste—to extrovert your attention. This exercise shall pull you out of any mental confusion or disturbance.

You do this exercise under the discipline of mindfulness. Under this discipline you do not avoid, resist, suppress, deny or interfere with the activity of the mind. Let the mind carry out its natural functions in the background.

You may do these exercises yourself, or have somebody help you do them.

NOTE: A person, who is afflicted by neurosis or psychosis, shall definitely need assistance in doing this exercise. He or she should be assisted with considerable gentleness and patience.

The sense of touch, when exercised, can bring considerable relief even to a person who is completely disconnected with reality.

In general, an extroverted and well-oriented attention brings clarity to thinking.

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EXERCISE # 1: EXTROVERSION

PURPOSE: To extrovert the attention by exploring the five physical senses.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

(Touch)

  1. Go to an environment where you can explore the sense of touch without getting distracted.

  2. Touch two different surfaces nearby and discern the difference between them. Touch them repeatedly until you can discern the uniqueness of each surface.

  3. Similarly touch other surfaces carefully and discern their uniqueness. 

  4. As you touch the surfaces, keep aware of the activities of the mind without interfering. Let the mind carry out its natural functions in the background.

  5. Explore the sensation of touch until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

 (Sight)

  1. Go to an environment where you can explore the perception of shapes and colors without getting distracted.

  2. Look at two different objects nearby and discern the difference between them. Look at them repeatedly until you discern the uniqueness of each object.

  3. Similarly look at other objects carefully and discern their unique shapes, colors, etc.

  4. As you look at the objects, keep aware of the activities of the mind without interfering. Let the mind carry out its natural functions in the background.

  5. Explore the perception of sight until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

 (Hearing, Smell & Taste)

  1. Go to a coffee shop where the atmosphere is pleasant and relaxed. Alternatively, go for a walk in a crowded place with some sweets and gums in your pocket.

  2. Explore the perception of hearing as above until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

  3. Explore the perception of smell as above until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

  4. Explore the perception of taste as above until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

  5. Recycle through all five physical sense perceptions until you find that your attention is fully extroverted.

  6. Keep the duration of the session to 20 minutes. Do as many sessions as necessary to fully extrovert your attention.

STEPS FOR ASSISTED VERSION:

  1. The guide gently directs the student by pointing: “Touch that ______.”

  2. If the student hesitates, the guide gently takes the student’s hand and makes it touch the intended surface.

  3. The guide gently directs the student by pointing: “Look at that ______.”

  4. If the student hesitates, the guide gently directs the student’s attention again to look at the intended object.

  5. The guide gently directs the student by pointing: “Listen to that ______,” “Smell that ______,” “Taste that ______,” one at a time as appropriate.

  6.  If the student hesitates, the guide gently directs the student’s attention by giving the command again.

  7. Continue assisting the student with this exercise until he can do it unassisted.

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EXERCISE # 2: ORIENTATION

PURPOSE: To orient oneself by exploring directions and distances.

PREREQUISITE: This is a higher level exercise. If you are having trouble on this exercise, then return to the exercise above.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

  1. Go to an environment where you can explore different directions and distances without getting distracted.

  2. Look at two different objects and assess their directions and distances from you until you fully discern their respective orientations.

  3. Similarly assess the directions and distances of other objects around you carefully and discern their respective orientations. 

  4. As you assess the directions and distances, keep aware of the activities of the mind without interfering. Let the mind carry out its natural functions in the background.

  5. Explore the orientation of objects until you find yourself doing it happily without internal resistance.

  6. Keep the duration of the session to 20 minutes. Do as many sessions as necessary until you can easily orient your attention in any environment.

  7. If you are having difficulty with this exercise, return to the previous exercise.

STEPS FOR ASSISTED VERSION:

  1. The guide gently directs the student by pointing: “Get the idea of the direction and distance of ______.”

  2. If the student hesitates, the guide gently directs the student’s attention again to estimate the intended direction and distance.

  3. Continue assisting the student with this exercise until he can do it unassisted.

  4. If the student has any difficulty with this exercise, return to the previous exercise.

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The EM Spectrum & Inertia

emspectrum

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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From Wikipedia:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a collective term; referring to the entire range and scope of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective, associated photon wavelengths.

This spectrum seems to be flanked by SPACE at the lower end, and MASS at the upper end. As an example, the atom can be seen as consisting of many frequencies of the EM spectrum. Space lies beyond its outer boundary, and mass makes up its center.

From Wikipedia:

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-, and gamma radiation.

The electromagnetic radiation must form itself continually in each cycle in order to propagate. These cycles of formation have a much higher frequency at the upper end of the spectrum than at the lower end.

Permittivity (ε) is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium. Permeability (μ) is a measure of how easily a magnetic field can pass through a medium. For space, permittivity is ε0, and permeability is μ0 Therefore, the formation of the electromagnetic field in space faces a resistance equal to (μ0ε0).

The rate of formation of electromagnetic field in space is finite. Therefore, the rate of propagation of light in space is also finite. This is the speed of light, c = 3 x 108 meters per second. There is relationship between the resistance to formation and the rate of propagation of light. This relationship is:

c = 1/√(μ0ε0).

The resistance to the formation of light is a form of inertia. Newton’s defines inertia in his book “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” as follows:

The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.

If there were no resistance to the formation of light, the speed of light shall be infinite.

The resistance “μ0ε0”represents the inertia of the electromagnetic radiation in space.

Inertia, therefore, is a phenomenon of the interaction between disturbance and space. In short, inertia depends on the nature of interaction between time and space. The units of “μ0ε0 are s2/m2.

An electromagnetic “wave cycle” consists of a back and forth interchange between electric and magnetic fields. Here each field acts as the potential of the other field and they manifest alternately.

As frequency increases the electromagnetic disturbance ceases to be simple wavelike. It may no longer be represented by a sine function, which looks like the ripples on the surface of a pond. Instead inetrference and cross currents start to appear.

The increase in the complexity of the disturbance leads to increase in inertia. The complexity becomes significant only in the gamma range. Here we may combine the equations, m = E/c^2E = hf; and c = 1/√(με) to get m = h (fμε). Thus, mass is proportional to the product of frequency, permeability and permittivity, at least in the sub-atomic range. In this range, the electromagnetic radiation loses its “laminar” flow and “eddies” start to appear. These eddies are recognized as the particles of Quantum Mechanics.

Most of these particles have very short lives. As these eddies develop into stable vortices, we get particles like electrons, protons and neutrons. These particles manifest inertia as mass.

SUMMARY

The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to undisturbed space as frequency goes to zero. Undisturbed space has no inertia. We may use this state of space as the reference point.

Inertia seems to enter the picture with the disturbance of space. We may look at the electromagnetic phenomenon as disturbed space.  The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of disturbed space.

As the frequency of this disturbance increases, its complexity also increases, and so does the inertia. Toward the upper end of the spectrum, where the frequency is very high, the inertia starts to manifest itself as mass of particles.

This spectrum of disturbed space is visible from the outer boundary of the atom to the nucleus at the center of the atom. We can thus see the inertia increasing from the boundary of the atom to its center.

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Calculation of Disturbance Level

disturbance

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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De Broglie Equation,       λ = h/(mv)

Speed of light,                 c = f λ

and,                                 c = 3 x 108 m/s

and,                                  h = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s

 

Therefore, the frequency associated with an object would be

Frequency,                        f = c/λ

or,                                      f = cmv/h

or,                                      f = (4.528 x 1041) (mv)

 

Therefore, the disturbance level associated with an object would be

Disturbance level,              DL = (log f) / (log 2)

or,                                       DL = (3.322) log f

 

Disturbance Level of the earth

m = 5.972 x 1024 kg

v = 3 x 104 m/s

f = 8.112 x 1070

DL (earth) = 235.6

 

Disturbance Level of the sun

m = 1.989 x 1030 kg

v = 2 x 105 m/s

f = 1.801 x 1077

DL (sun) = 256.6

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Validity of Lorentz Transformation

Lorentz derivation

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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From Wikipedia,

“Historically, the transformations were the result of attempts by Lorentz and others to explain how the speed of light was observed to be independent of the reference frame.”

The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment in 1887 led to the belief that the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames. For example, light is observed to have the same speed, c = 3 x 108, meters/second, relative to the earth and also to the sun, even when earth is moving at a speed 3 x 104 meters/second relative to the sun.

It is possible to show theoretically that the earth has a speed relative to “aether”, which is the reference frame of no inertia as represented by space. However, this speed is so small that no experiment so far has been able to measure it directly. See Michelson-Morley’s Null Result.

But the actual problem lies in combining the speeds that belong to particles, such as, light particles and the earth, which have a difference in inertia of many orders of magnitude. The vector algebra works only with particles or bodies that have inertia of similar orders of magnitude.

Lorentz transformation was an effort to resolve this anomaly, where velocities could not be simply added or subtracted per vector algebra. The following links provide the derivation of Lorentz transformation.

Reference from Khan Academy

Reference from Yale University

Lorentz Boost

The derivation of Lorentz transformation is based on the following assumptions.

Assumption #1: The speed of light is the same in all inertial systems.

Based on Michelson-Morley’s experiment, the speed of light of 3 x 108 meters/second was not affected by the velocity of the earth, which is 3 x 104 meters/second relative to the sun. This velocity of the earth is 1/10,000 of the speed of light. The “v/c ratios” of most material bodies in the universe are of the same order. Therefore, this assumption is good for a “v/c ratio” of 1/10,000 or less.

Lorentz transformations may not be valid for “v/c ratios” that are much greater than 1/10,000 and close to 1, as found at the sub-stomic level.

Assumption #2: The gamma “fudge” factor is the same for observers in different inertial systems.

In this cosmos, each body is drifting in space under a balance of forces. These forces depend on the inertia of the body. Therefore, the inertial systems are not exactly alike, and we cannot assume the gamma factor to be the same for them.

However, this assumption is good as long as the difference in inertia among these systems is much less compared to their difference in inertia with light.

Lorentz transformations may not be valid for motion of particles with inertia much less than the inertia of earth and closer to the inertia of light, as is the case with sub-atomic particles.

Lorentz transformations are at the heart of special relativity. Therefore, these limitations apply to special relativity as well.

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Michelson-Morley’s Null Result

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Reference: Disturbance Theory

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“The situation grows more and more serious. Two assumptions have been tried. The first, that moving bodies carry ether along. The fact that the velocity of light does not depend on the motion of the source contradicts this assumption. The second, that there exists one distinguished coordinate system and that moving bodies do not carry the ether but travel through an ever calm ether-sea. If this is so, then the Galilean relativity principle is not valid and the speed of light cannot be the same in every coordinate system. Again we are in contradiction with experiment.”

~ Albert Einstein, Evolution of Physics by Einstein

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The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment in 1887 initiated a line of research that eventually led to Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity. The expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist. The special relativity then ruled out a stationary aether.

Light seems to have both wave and particle characteristics. As a wave, light requires a medium; and as particles, light requires some system of coordination among particles. In either case, light requires some relationship within its background, which is space, even when there is no aether.

There seems to be an assumption that moving bodies travel through space without resistance. We do not see space. We can only see a body moving relative to another body. How do we know that a body is moving relative to space?

We all know about inertia. Newton defined it as follows:

“The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.”

If we postulate that inertia is the resistance of space to a moving body then a lot of observations fall into place.

  1. When there is acceleration then we know that a body is definitely moving relative to space.

  2. When there is no acceleration then a body’s acceleration is balanced by inertia.

  3. Light has a finite and constant speed because its acceleration is balanced by inertia.

  4. A body has a constant drift speed in space when its acceleration is balanced by its inertia.

  5. The drift speed of any object shall depend on its inertia.

We may then postulate space to be the background of no inertia in which bodies with inertia are drifting at speeds that depend on their inertia.

The difference between the speeds of light and the earth shall be constant because the difference between their inertia is constant. This explains the null result of Michelson-Morley’s experiment.

One may object to the above by saying, “The earth is orbiting the sun. Therefore, it is constantly accelerating in the radial direction towards the sun, but not in the tangential direction. So, there must be a slight difference in speed relative to light in the two directions.”

We may calculate the order of this difference as follows:

  1. The difference between the disturbance levels of the earth and light is roughly 186 (235 – 49). Therefore, the ratio of their frequencies is 2186.

  2. The ratio of their drift speed shall then be 293 or 1028.

  3. The drift speed of the earth shall then be (3 x 108 meters/sec) (10-28) = 3 x 10-20 m/s.

  4. The Michelson-Morley’s experiment is then required to detect a velocity difference of 6 x 10-20 m/s.

So far there has been no Michelson-Morley or another type of experiment that has the level of accuracy to detect the speed of the earth relative to “aether”, which, in this case, is space.

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Conclusion

Thus, the null result from Michelson-Morley’s experiment is questionable when we consider space to be that elusive aether.

This then also makes the postulates of special relativity questionable when we consider inertia to be the resistance of space to a moving body.

This then limits the validity of the theory of special relativity to the explanation of phenomena where speeds involved are much smaller compared to the speed of light.

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