Durant 1926: The New Organon (Francis Bacon)

Reference: The Story of Philosophy 

This paper presents Chapter III, Section 4 (Part 2) from the book THE STORY OF PHILOSOPHY by WILL DURANT. The contents are from the 1933 reprint of this book by TIME INCORPORATED by arrangement with Simon and Schuster, Inc.

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.

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IV.2 The New Organon

“Bacon’s greatest performance,” says his bitterest critic, “is the first book of the Novum Organum” Never did a man put more life into logic, making induction an epic adventure and a conquest. If one must study logic, let him begin with this book. “This part of human philosophy which regards logic is disagreeable to the taste of many, as appearing to them no other than a net, and a snare of thorny subtlety. … But if we would rate things according to their real worth, the rational sciences are the keys to all the rest.”

Logic has a great value. Bacon recognized it and expressed it the best.

Philosophy has been barren so long, says Bacon, because she needed a new method to make her fertile. The great mistake of the Greek philosophers was that they spent so much time in theory, so little in observation. But thought should be the side of observation, not its substitute. “Man,” says the first aphorism of the Novum Organum, as if flinging a challenge to all metaphysics,—“Man, as the minister and interpreter of nature, does and understands as much as his observations on the order of nature … permit him; and neither knows nor is capable of more.” The predecessors of Socrates were in this matter sounder than his followers; Democritus, in particular, had a nose for facts, rather than an eye for the clouds. No wonder that philosophy has advanced so little since Aristotle’s day; it has been using Aristotle’s methods. “To go beyond Aristotle by the light of Aristotle is to think that a borrowed light can increase the original light from which it is taken.” Now, after two thousand years of logic-chopping with the machinery invented by Aristotle, philosophy has fallen so low that none will do her reverence. All these medieval theories, theorems and disputations must be cast out and forgotten; to renew herself philosophy must begin again with a clean slate and a cleansed mind. 

The great mistake of the Greek philosophers was that they spent so much time in theory, so little in observation. 

The first step, therefore, is the Expurgation of the Intellect. We must become as little children, innocent of isms and abstractions, washed clear of prejudices and preconceptions. We must destroy the Idols of the mind. 

We must get rid of prejudices and preconceptions.

An idol, as Bacon uses the word (reflecting perhaps the Protestant rejection of image-worship), is a picture taken for a reality, a thought mistaken for a thing. Errors come under this head; and the first problem of logic is to trace and dam the sources of these errors. Bacon proceeds now to a justly famous analysis of fallacies; “no man,” said Condillac, “has better known than Bacon the causes of human error.” 

An idol is a picture taken for a reality, a thought mistaken for a thing. The first problem of logic is to trace and dam the sources of these errors.

These errors are, first, Idols of the Tribe,—fallacies natural to humanity in general. “For man’s sense is falsely asserted” (by Protagoras’ “Man is the measure of all things”) “to be the standard of things: on the contrary, all the perceptions, both of the senses and the mind, bear reference to man and not to the universe; and the human mind resembles those uneven mirrors which impart their own properties to different objects … and distort and disfigure them.” Our thoughts are pictures rather of ourselves than of their objects. For example, “the human understanding, from its peculiar nature, easily supposes a greater degree of order and regularity in things than it really finds. … Hence the fiction that all celestial bodies move in perfect circles.” Again, 

Idols of the Tribe = fallacies natural to humanity in general.

the human understanding, when any proposition has been once laid down (either from general admission and belief, or from the pleasure it affords), forces everything else to add fresh support and confirmation: and although most cogent and abundant instances may exist to the contrary, yet either does not observe, or despises them, or it gets rid of and rejects them by some distinction, with violent and injurious prejudice, rather than sacrifice the authority of its first conclusions. It was well answered by him who was shown in a temple the votive tablets suspended by such as had escaped the peril of shipwreck, and was pressed as to whether he would then recognize the power of the gods. … “But where are the portraits of those that have perished in spite of their vows?” All superstition is much the same, whether it be that of astrology, dreams, omens, retributive judgment, or the like, in all of which the deluded believers observe events which are fulfilled, but neglect and pass over their failure, though it be much more common.

The human mind resembles those uneven mirrors which impart their own properties to different objects and distort and disfigure them.

“Having first determined the question according to his will, man then resorts to experience; and bending her into conformity with his placets, leads her about like a captive in a procession.” In short, “the human understanding is no dry light, but receives an infusion from the will and affections, whence proceed sciences which may be called ‘sciences as one would.’ … For what a man had rather were true, he more readily believes.” Is it not so? 

What a man had rather were true, he more readily believes.

Bacon gives at this point a word of golden counsel. “In general let every student of nature take this as a rule—that whatever his mind seizes and dwells upon with peculiar satisfaction, is to be held in suspicion; and that so much the more care is to be taken, in dealing with such questions, to keep the understanding even and clear.” “The understanding must not be allowed to jump and fly from particulars to remote axioms and of almost the highest generality; … it must not be supplied with wings, but rather hung with weights to keep it from leaping and flying.” The imagination may be the greatest enemy of the intellect, whereas it should be only its tentative and experiment. 

RULE: The understanding must not be allowed to jump and fly from particulars to remote axioms and of almost the highest generality.

A second class of errors Bacon calls Idols of the Cave—errors peculiar to the individual man. “For everyone … has a cave or den of his own, which refracts and discolors the light of nature”; this is his character as formed by nature and nurture, and by his mood or condition of body and mind. Some minds, e. g., are constitutionally analytic, and see differences everywhere; others are constitutionally synthetic, and see resemblances; so we have the scientist and the painter on the one hand, and on the other hand the poet and the philosopher. Again, “some dispositions evince an unbounded admiration for antiquity, others eagerly embrace.novelty; only a few can preserve the just medium, and neither tear up what the ancients have correctly established, nor despise the just innovations of the moderns.” Truth knows no parties. 

Idols of the Cave = errors peculiar to the individual man.

Thirdly, Idols of the Market-place, arising “from the commerce and association of men with one another. For men converse by means of language; but words are imposed according to the understanding of the crowd; and there arises from a bad and inapt formation of words, a wonderful obstruction to the mind.” Philosophers deal out infinites with the careless assurance of grammarians handling infinitives; and yet does any man know what this “infinite” is, or whether it has even taken the precaution of existing? Philosophers talk about “first cause uncaused,” or “first mover unmoved”; but are not these again fig-leaf phrases used to cover naked ignorance, and perhaps indicative of a guilty conscience in the user? Every clear and honest head knows that no cause can be causeless, nor any mover unmoved. Perhaps the greatest reconstruction in philosophy would be simply this—that we should stop lying. 

Idols of the Market-place = errors arising from the commerce and association of men with one another. Ideas like “first cause uncaused,” or “first mover unmoved,” are but fig-leaf phrases used to cover naked ignorance.

“Lastly, there are idols which have migrated into men’s minds from the various dogmas of philosophers, and also from wrong laws of demonstration. These I call Idols of the Theatre, because in my judgment all the received systems of philosophy are but so many stage-plays, representing worlds of their own creation after an unreal and scenic fashion. … And in the plays of this philosophic theater you may observe the same thing which is found in the theater of the poets,— that stories invented for the stage are more compact and elegant, and more as we would wish them to be, than true stories out of history.” The world as Plato describes it is merely a world constructed by Plato, and pictures Plato rather than the world. 

Idols of the Theatre = idols which have migrated into men’s minds from the various dogmas of philosophers.

We shall never get far along towards the truth if these idols are still to trip us up, even the best of us, at every turn. We need new modes of reasoning, new tools for the understanding. “And as the immense regions of the West Indies had never been discovered, if the use of the compass had not first been known, it is no wonder that the discovery and advancement of arts hath made no greater progress, when the art of inventing and discovering of the sciences remains hitherto unknown.” “And surely it would be disgraceful, if, while the regions of the material globe … have been in our times laid widely open and revealed, the intellectual globe should remain shut up within the narrow limits of old discoveries.”

We need new modes of reasoning, new tools for the understanding.

Ultimately, our troubles are due to dogma and deduction; we find no new truth because we take some venerable but questionable proposition as an indubitable starting-point, and never think of putting this assumption itself to the test of observation or experiment. Now “if a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin in doubts he shall end in certainties” (alas, it is not quite inevitable). Here is a note common in the youth of modern philosophy, part of its declaration of independence; Descartes too would presently talk of the necessity of “methodic doubt” as the cobweb-clearing pre-requisite of honest thought. 

We find no new truth because we take some venerable but questionable proposition as an indubitable starting-point, and never think of putting this assumption itself to the test of observation or experiment. 

Bacon proceeds to give an admirable description of the scientific method of inquiry. “There remains simple experience; which, if taken as it comes, is called accident” (“empirical”), “if sought for, experiment. … The true method of experience first lights the candle” (hypothesis), “and then by means of the candle shows the way” (arranges and delimits the experiment) ; “commencing as it does with experience duly ordered and digested, not bungling nor erratic, and from it educing axioms, and from established axioms again new experiments.” (We have here—as again in a later passage which speaks of the results of initial experiments as a “first vintage” to guide further research—an explicit, though perhaps inadequate, recognition of that need for hypothesis, experiment and deduction which some of Bacon’s critics suppose him to have entirely overlooked.) We must go to nature instead of to books, traditions and authorities; we must “put nature on the rack and compel her to bear witness” even against herself, so that we may control her to our ends. We must gather together from every quarter a “natural history” of the world, built by the united research of Europe’s scientists. We must have induction. 

We must go to nature instead of to books, traditions and authorities. We must have the scientific method of inquiry. We must have induction.

But induction does not mean “simple enumeration” of all the data; conceivably, this might be endless, and useless; no mass of material can by itself make science. This would be like “chasing a quarry over an open country”; we must narrow and enclose our field in order to capture our prey. The method of induction must include a technique for the classification of data and the elimination of hypotheses; so that by the progressive canceling of possible explanations one only shall at last remain. Perhaps the most useful item in this technique is the “table of more or less,” which lists instances in which two qualities or conditions increase or decrease together, and so reveals, presumably, a causal relation between the simultaneously varying phenomena. So Bacon, asking, What is heat?—seeks for some factor that increases with the increase of heat, and decreases with its decrease; he finds, after long analysis, an exact correlation between heat and motion; and his conclusion that heat is a form of motion constitutes one of his few specific contributions to natural science. 

The method of induction must include a technique for the classification of data and the elimination of hypotheses; so that by the progressive canceling of possible explanations one only shall at last remain.

By this insistent accumulation and analysis of data we come, in Bacon’s phrase, to the form of the phenomenon which we study,—to its secret nature and its inner essence. The theory of forms in Bacon is very much like the theory of ideas in Plato: a metaphysics of science. “When we speak of forms we mean nothing else than those laws and regulations of simple action which arrange and constitute any simple nature. … The form of heat or the form of light, therefore, means no more than the law of heat or the law of light.” (In a similar strain Spinoza was to say that the law of the circle is its substance.)”For although nothing exists in nature except individual bodies exhibiting clear individual effects according to particular laws; yet, in each branch of learning, those. very laws—their investigation, discovery and development—are the foundation both of theory and of practice.” Of theory and of practice; one without the other is useless and perilous; knowledge that does not generate achievement is a pale and bloodless thing, unworthy of mankind. We strive to learn the forms of things not for the sake of the forms but because by knowing the forms, the laws, we may remake things in the image of our desire. So we study mathematics in order to reckon quantities and build bridges; we study psychology in order to find our way in the jungle of society. When science has sufficiently ferreted out the forms of things, the world will be merely the raw material of whatever utopia man may decide to make. 

“When we speak of forms we mean nothing else than those laws and regulations of simple action which arrange and constitute any simple nature.” We arrive at the final form by resolving anomalies and confirming the law of continuity, consistency and harmony. Knowledge must generate achievement.

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DIANETICS: Mechanisms and Aspects of Therapy Part I

Reference: Hubbard 1950: Dianetics TMSMH

These are some comments on Book Three, Chapter 9, “Mechanisms and Aspects of Therapy Part I” from DIANETICS: THE MODERN SCIENCE OF MENTAL HEALTH.

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Comments on
Mechanisms and Aspects of Therapy Part I

THE CASE ENTRANCE

In Dianetics the goal is basic-basic, which is the earliest moment of pain and “unconsciousness.” You right away try for basic-basic and then for prenatal area. Reduce as many prenatal facsimile as you can. Then look for later painful emotion facsimile, instant of loss, failure, and discharge it. Lacking any success, start in repeater technique. Let the somatic strip travel. You may or may not get a discharge, keep searching, keep observing. Try the most likely phrases. Use your knowledge of bouncers, holders, groupers, misdirectors and denyers. If you get a discharge ask the somatic strip to go back for the prenatal it was sitting on. You alternate between early physical pain and later painful emotion facsimiles. Whenever you encounter a non-optimum thought or feeling, see if it could be traced back to a facsimile. 

In the subject clearing approach the goal is to exteriorize the attention from being introverted into the self. You start by clearing the subject of self. Handle facsimiles as they come up. If that gets tiring, alternate the subject of Self with an entirely different subject that extroverts your attention.

STUCK IN PRESENT TIME

When no repeater phrase works and you seem to be “stuck in present time,” then restudy the mechanism of returning. Practice returning to a moment a few hours ago, then a few days ago, then a few months and finally several years. When you are returned, start using repeater technique with  words like “feel” and “forget.” Make a guess what must be troubling you or occluding your recalls and again use these guesses as repeater. Should this still fail, then find some light locks, incidents which contain minimal pain, and run those. There is one motto which applies to all therapy, “If you keep asking for it, you’ll get it.”

In subject clearing start clearing up words and concepts in the subject of self. Study the relationships among these concepts by making examples that are really real to you. As make examples from your personal experience you might run into facsimiles. You the handle such facsimiles through mindfulness meditation.

BASIC-BASIC

Basis-basic contains the first moment when the analyzer was turned off. When this moment is gained, subsequent engrams are much more easily reduced. Dianetics assumes such a moment to occur weeks before mother’s first missed period. In practice, try to get the earliest moment of pain or discomfort you can reach every session. If you can reach nothing early, seek to discharge a late emotional facsimile.

In subject clearing try to clear up the earliest concept from available materials on which the whole subject is based.

THE REDUCTION AND THE ERASURE

To reduce means to take all the charge or pain out of an incident. A reduced incident will never be as aberrative as it was before. To “erase” means to recount it until it has vanished entirely. If a facsimile is early enough and no material exists earlier which will suspend it, that the facsimile will “erase.” In other words, it gets assimilated in the mental matrix.

In subject clearing, words and concepts may lead to other words and concepts. Finally a word or concept at the bottom of the chain will fully clear up. Then you come back up the chain clearing rest of the words and concepts.

HANDLING THE SOMATIC STRIP

When the mind is working well, the “somatic strip” can be commanded to go to any part of the time track day by day, hour by hour. It will pick up the somatic first, usually, and then pick up the content. As the somatic strip moves physical sensations turn on and off. If the somatic strip does not respond according to command, then a bouncer, a holder, a misdirector, or a grouper has been restimulated and should be discharged. 

“Somatic strip” are attention units that are detached and can look at the experiences objectively. 

PRESENT TIME

It happens now and then that after returning, the strip does not get back to present time because it has struck holders en route. Repeater technique with holders will generally free the strip and get it to present time.

In Subject Clearing approach simply apply the Mindfulness Meditation. This will help you return to the present time.

THE FLASH ANSWER

The flash answer is the first thing which comes into a person’s head when a question is asked him. Much valuable data can be recovered by clever use of the flash answer. If there is no answer at all, it means that the answer is occluded and there is some kind of a cover-up.

DREAMS

Dreams are puns on words and situations in the facsimiles. They are not much used in dianetics. 

VALENCE SHIFT

A person assumes a valence when he dramatizes a personality from a facsimile that is not himself. He says and does rather much what the person in the winning valence did in that facsimile. When running a trauma, the person may first run it in valences that did not suffer pain as it makes it easier to go through the trauma. This can flush out phrases that can then be used to run out the trauma in his own valence.

TYPE OF CHAINS

A chain means a series of incidents of similar types. The chains one can most easily contact are the least charged. The most aberrative chains will usually be the hardest to reach because they contain the most active data. 

DIANETIC DON’TS

Many of these don’ts are common sense and doesn’t explicitly apply when you are using the subject clearing approach. Just don’t get angry or upset with yourself. Don’t get frightened when there are reactions. They will soon run out. Don’t expect anything; let things happen as they may. Stick to the procedure. Handle any anomaly as far as you can, don’t leave it in the middle.

TYPES OF SOMATICS

There are two kinds of somatics, those which properly belong to the person and those which belong to some other person in the facsimile.

“UNCONSCIOUSNESS”

“Unconsciousness” has two special manifestations: the yawn and the “boil-off.” Yawns are an indicator of approaching awareness. “Boil off” is a condition of being groggy and floundering around. One appears as if drugged. Five or ten minutes of “boil-off” are not uncommon. A period when the person was almost dead is coming up to the surface.

LOCKS

A lock is a moment of mental discomfort containing no physical pain and no great loss. It can be recalled easily and reduced. But there are just too many of them. The key-in of a painful facsimile is the primary lock. All locks discharge automatically the moment the painful facsimile holding them is erased.

THE JUNIOR CASE

If father was named George and the patient is called George, beware of trouble. A Junior case is seldom easy.

RESTIMULATING THE ENGRAM

“Ask often enough and you will receive,” is always true when working the facsimiles. Simply by returning into an area enough times facsimiles will appear. If it is not there today, it will be there tomorrow. But if it is not there tomorrow, it will be there the day after and so forth. Emotional discharges are most certainly located by asking for them time after time, returning over the part of the track where the charge is expected to lie. What repeater technique will fail to do can be done by returning, session after session, to a portion of your life. Sooner or later it will come into view.

OCCLUDED LIFE PERIODS AND PEOPLE

Whole areas of the time track and persons will be found occluded. They come to view after a few facsimiles have been lifted in basic or the area has been developed as above.

ANIMOSITY TOWARD PARENTS

As a person gets better he will go through a phase of anger. It is a natural by-product of therapy and it cannot be avoided. When he is released or cleared, he feels no animosity whatever toward his parents or others who had caused his aberrations. 

PROPITIATION

Propitiation is a state wherein the person, in deep fear of another, offers expensive presents and soft words, turns the other cheek, offers himself as a doormat and generally makes a fool out of himself. It is an apathy effort to hold away a dangerous “source” of pain. This is an indicator of sympathy facsimile not yet suspected or tapped.

LOVE

Love can be compulsive, dictated by nothing more reasonable than aberration. Here is a meeting of minds — but the minds are on the lowest computational level possessed by man. Driven together by compulsion, men and women mate who will find in that mating nothing but sorrow and reduction of their hopes. Where there are children, divorce does not answer, clearing does. And with clearing comes a fresh new page of life on which happiness can be written.

THE ERASURE

Once you get the basic-basic things start to erase rather than reduce. You erase all the early painful facsimiles, always the earliest you can find, and you keep discharging painful emotion facsimiles in the later periods after birth and later in life. You erase as much as you can find in the early part of the case, then you release all the emotion you can find later in the case and then you come back and find early material. Not until you have worked out every moment of physical pain and discharged all the moments of painful emotion will the case be cleared. A cleared person is no longer interested in facsimiles.

THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CASE

The best remedy for such a case is to get help from somebody who knows both the language used in the prenatal area and the present tongue. Another remedy is to take a dictionary and figure out the bouncers et al. from the dictionary.

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Glossary of Hinduism (Subject Cleared)

Bhagavad-Gītā | Parijaata

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

This glossary is an attempt to provide scientifically precise definitions of the key terminology related to HINDUISM. The tool for generating these definitions is Subject Clearing. These definitions shall be regularly updated with clarity in mind.

HINDUISM
Hinduism is an organization of spiritual thought that started with the Vedic period and has continued till today. The Vedic period (c. 1500 -500 BCE) was a period of rapid development of thought with little organization. This is the period during which Krishna, very likely, existed as a yogi and had such a great impact that his name became synonymous with Hinduism.

At the end of the Vedic period (500 BCE) there was organization of spiritual thought in the form of Jnana Yoga. Jnana Yoga separated all ritualism, and focused primarily on meditation. It clarified the concept of self, and the goal of meditation became accessing and becoming aware of the samskāras (unassimilated impressions) in one’s Chitta (mental processes). This awareness brings up unknown sensations, emotions and thoughts that have been buried for a long time. This is followed by the process of assimilation, during which many realizations occur. This phase of spiritual organization became synonymous with Buddha. However, Jnana Yoga just happens to be very cerebral and was successfully followed by relatively few people.

During the next phase of the organization (400-200 BCE) Patanjali and Ved Vyas expanded Jnana to Karma Yoga of detached action. Karma Yoga required giving up the fixation on worldly affairs. There was a fine line here. One engaged in the worldly affairs to the degree that the actions were in line with the natural laws. One’s disposition suited one to follow a certain class of activity in the society. It was mandatory for the person to perform his assigned duty to the best of his ability. This allowed the person to focus on developing his abilities in a detached manner. Karma Yoga is the main subject of the Bhagavad Gita (BG). It has less focus on the mind and more on detached action. In writing BG, Vyasa used the legendary character of Krishna to popularize Karma Yoga. BG introduces Jnana Yoga briefly in Chapter 2, with the concept of Atman, and then focuses on Karma Yoga as a step preliminary to Jnana Yoga. However, Karma Yoga ended up alienating people from their emotions. Like Jnana Yoga, it was successfully followed by relatively few people.

In the centuries following the Bhagavad Gita, the emotional dimension of spiritual thought was explored. This led to Bhakti Yoga. Unlike Jnana and Karma, Bhakti was able to win the hearts and minds of people in large numbers. This makes Bhakti Yoga a fascinating subject.

GOD
God is perceived as a supernatural being (भगवान्) in Bhakti Yoga only. One worships God in order to seek solutions to their problems. In Jnana Yoga, God is perceived the Supreme Ātman (परमात्मन्) or The Static Viewpoint). One sees Paramātman as the state he wants to evolve to.

YOGA (योग)
Yoga means ’yoke or union’. It is the practice of uniting atman with brahma (see MOKSHA) from which develops the detached ‘witness-consciousness’ (See The Static Viewpoint). Discrimination, resolute intellect and devotion is present in all yoga; but in Jnana Yoga there is predominance of discrimination, in Karma Yoga there is predominance of resolute intellect, and in Bhakti Yoga there is predominance of devotion. See MEDITATION in the Other Glossary.

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JNANA YOGA

JIVA (जीव)
Jiva means ‘to breathe or to live’. It is the human self that is made of jivātman, antahkarana and deha. Please see HUMAN SELF in the Other Glossary.

ĀTMAN (आत्मन्)
Ātman represents the whole scale of consciousness. Please see C-SCALE in the Other Glossary.

JIVĀTMAN (जीवात्मन्)
Jivātman is an individual’s level of consciousness that acts as his frame of reference. Please see C-POINT in the Other Glossary.

PARAMĀTMAN (परमात्मन्)
Paramātman (Supreme Atman) is the ultimate level of consciousness to which all jivātmans converge upon expansion. Selflessness is the attribute of Paramatman, where all personality/individuality vanishes. Please see ETERNAL C-POINT in the Other Glossary.

BRAHMA (ब्रह्म)
Brahma represents the ultimate metaphysical reality that is self-created. It is the unifying principle that underlies the reality that is always changing. According to this principle, all reality is one, meaning it is continuous, consistent and harmonious.

MOKSHA (मोक्ष)
Moksha is derived from the root, muc, which means “to free, let go, release, liberate”. It refers to freedom from the cycle of death and rebirth. In the context of Hinduism, Moksha is the realization that Paranātman and Brahman are one and the same.

NIRVĀNA (निर्वाण)
Nirvāṇa literally means, “blown out”, as in an oil lamp. It represents the ultimate state of release from dukkha and saṃsāra. In the Buddhist context, Nirvāṇa is the realization that there is nothing substantial and permanent underlying the concept of Atman.

JÑĀNA (ज्ञान)
Jñāna means ‘knowledge’. It refers to knowledge that is assimilated. Jñāna yoga (Yoga of Knowledge) is one of the three main paths, which are supposed to lead towards moksha.

DEHIN (देहिन्)
Dehin means ‘having a body, corporeal’. It translates as soul. Please see SOUL in the Other Glossary.

DEHA (देह)
Deha means ‘to plaster, mould, fashion’. It translates as the body. Please see BODY in the Other Glossary.

CHIT (चित्)
Chit meaning consciousness or awareness. Chit is associated with Jivatman, Atman and Paramatman meaning that there are different levels of consciousness associated with these viewpoints. Please see CONSCIOUSNESS in the Other Glossary.

ANTAHKARANA (अन्तःकरण)
Antahkarana literally translates as the “internal organ.” It consists of four parts: Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahamkara.

MANAS (मनस्))
Manas translates as mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers). Please see MIND in the Other Glossary.

BUDDHI (बुद्धि)
Buddhi is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit root Budh (बुध् ), which literally means “to wake, to know, be conscious again”. The same root is the basis for the more familiar masculine form Buddha and the abstract noun bodhi. Buddhi means the intellectual faculty and the ability to “discern, judge, comprehend, understand” something. It translates as the analytical mind. Please see ANALYTICAL MIND in the Other Glossary.

CHITTA (चित्त)
Chitta is the term used to refer to the quality of mental processes as a whole. One’s state of mind at any given time affects one’s actions, speech, and thoughts. The chitta is said to go off with a will of its own if not properly controlled. Generally speaking, a person will operate with a collection of changing mindsets, and some will occur regularly. While these mindsets determine the personality, they are not in control of themselves, but fluctuate and alternate. It translates as the reactive mind. Please see REACTIVE MIND in the Other Glossary.

AHAMKĀRA (अहंकार )
Ahamkāra is the conception of one’s individuality, self-consciousness etc. (see I-NESS in the Special Glossary). It also means the making of self, thinking of self, egotism (see EGO in the Other Glossary).

SMRTI (स्मृति)
Smrti means “remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind”, or simply “memory”. The word is found in ancient Vedic literature. In later usage, the term refers to tradition, memory, as well as “tradition that is remembered”. Please see MEMORY in the Other Glossary.

SAṂSKĀRA (संस्कार)
Samskāras  are mental impressions, recollections, or psychological imprints. These samskāras manifest as tendencies, impulses, subliminal impressions, habitual potencies or innate dispositions. Please see FACSIMILE in the Other Glossary.

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KARMA YOGA

KARMA
Karma means “action.” In Hinduism, karma refers to an anomaly that is left unresolved after some action is taken. Such anomaly is carried forward until it is resolved. All doubts, perplexities and problems come from such anomalies.

SANCHIT KARMA
Sanchit (संचित) means “accumulated”. Sanchit karma is the karma accumulated over time.

ATTACHMENT
Attachment is FIXATION. Most people are fixated on identity. Fixation on other things comes from the fixation on one’s personal identity. A person can be very fixated on his identity, and yet appear quite calm. Such a person will lose that calm quickly when he loses his zone of comfort. Many people are also fixated on the identities of others, especially on the identities of celebrities.

Ego Painting by Zuzana R. | Victory Art | Artworks | Victory Art

SACRIFICE
When you perform an action for its natural purpose without any other consideration, it becomes holy. That is the basic meaning of sacrifice. A sacrifice is an action performed without attachment. It does not bind you; it rather frees you up. This is Karma Yoga.

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BHAKTI YOGA

BHAKTI
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means “attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity”. Bhakti is “emotional devotionalism”, particularly to a personal God or to spiritual ideas. Thus, bhakti requires a relationship between the devotee and the deity. NOTE: A bhakta feels deep emotions, but these emotions should not cut across the faculty to reason and understand.

BHAKTI YOGA
Bhakti yoga is a spiritual practice focused on loving devotion towards a personal deity. The personal god varies with the devotee. It may include a god or goddess such as Ganesha, Krishna, Radha, Rama, Sita, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, and Surya among others. In Bhakti Yoga, the personal deity may encourage the person to focus on certain attributes all the time. That is a type of meditation. NOTE: Bhakti Yoga is an effort to popularize knowledge using the emotion of devotion. In no way does it minimize Jnana and Karma Yoga. A Bhakta should, by all means, make an effort to understand self and perform actions according to the natural laws. Some say that Bhaktas use more heart (emotions) than mind (logic). That may be so with common people, but the principles of Jnana and Karma yoga cannot be ignored and have to be followed, ultimately, even by the bhaktas. Bhakti Yoga has inspired much progress in arts and culture. However, the knowledge has become diluted by all the diverse symbolism. This makes it necessary to decipher the symbolism correctly.

KIRTAN
Kirtan is a Bhakti Yoga technique in which attention is diverted away from mental fixations, so that mind is temporarily free to resolve anomalies in a natural fashion. Kirtan includes singing of bhajans and chanting. Bhajan refers to any devotional song with a religious theme or spiritual ideas. The term bhajanam means reverence and originates from the root word bhaj, which means to revere, as in ‘Bhaja Govindam’. NOTE: A technique to more deeply free the mind of fixations is meditation. Of course, one needs to resolve fixations themselves to keep the mind permanently free. Subject Clearing helps in resolving the fixations themselves.

SURRENDER TO GOD
To surrender to God means to let the laws of nature take over. You do not avoid, suppress, deny, or resist your tendencies but face them for what they are. This will make you become aware of your conditioning in depth and the laws of nature. This will help you become free of your conditioning and be able to navigate successfully with your basic nature. People suppress their tendencies and think they have surrendered. They have not.

AVATĀR
Avatār literally means, “to make one’s appearance.” From its usage in Hinduism, an avatar appears to be a major step forward in evolution. Some of the avatars are: Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narasimha (animal-man), Vamana (dwarf), Parshuram (warrior-sage), Rama (model of ethics), Krishna (model of love), Buddha (model of wisdom), Kalki (prophesied to end evil). NOTE: An Avatar is a symbol for a major step toward evolution.

What if Krishna and Christ made love? - Q Spirit

KRISHNA
In Bhagavata Purana, Krishna is considered an avatar that did not undergo a human birth. NOTE: As an avatar Krishna has become a symbol for a major step toward evolution. This means that, at one time, Krishna must have been an actual person who became a great yogi and attained moksha through his efforts. 

DEITY
A deity or god serves as a symbol for the unknown cosmic influence. It is often defined as a supernatural being whose actions affect the world and the lives of human beings. It is considered divine and sacred. Formation of deities are essentially attempts to understand one’s life and how it is influenced in this universe. Through the “worship” of deities one evolves to new levels of consciousness. The Bhagavad Gita visualizes Krishna as the God teaching Jnana, Karma and Bhakti yoga. The Bhagavata Purana focuses on the worship of Krishna as the cosmic deity, which essentially demonstrates Bhakti yoga.

PURĀNA
Purāna (पुराण) literally means “ancient, old”. It is a vast genre of Indian literature woven with the Bhakti movement. It includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy. Several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Shakti. The Puranas are known for the intricate layers of symbolism depicted within their stories. They present a form of religion, wherein bhakti ultimately leads to self-knowledge, salvation (moksha) and bliss. They have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism.

BHAKTI MOVEMENT
The Bhakti movement refers to the trend in medieval Hinduism. It was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta. It was a revival, reworking and recontextualisation of ancient Vedic traditions. Bhakti refers to passionate devotion (to a deity) to achieve salvation. It provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one’s birth or gender. The Bhakti movement preached using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. NOTE: Bhakti movement has been a great effort to bring Vedic knowledge broadly to the uneducated masses. It has inspired much progress in arts and culture. However, the diverse symbolism has created much confusion and it requires careful deciphering.

MYTH
Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world, nature, and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society’s religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. NOTE: God is a mythological explanation for an unknown cosmic influence that does not have a face or personality. Ultimate authority resides in universal principles.

REBIRTH
The idea of rebirth comes from variations in the characteristics that one is born with, along with the continuation of certain characteristics from one life cycle to the next. Both these factors may be explained through the phenomenon of genes and the programming they carry. However, it still remains to be explained what this genetic programming is and how it comes about. The genetic programming is the blue print that shapes the identity (body-mind system) of the organism. Its content comes from life cycles that have already occurred. Some of this programming contains anomalies that needs to be resolved. It is the resolution of these anomalies that drives the evolution. In Hinduism, these anomalies are referred to as “karma”, because they come to light through one’s actions.

KURU
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and some parts of western part of Uttar Pradesh, which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.

MAHABHARATA
Mahabharata describes the first civil war among the Kurus. It seems to have been composed about 800 to 1000 years later after the actual event. Krishna and Arjuna seems to be characters created by the author based on legends.

ĀSTIKA (THEIST)
Astika (आस्तिक; from Sanskrit: asti, ‘there is, there exists’) means one who views deities existing as supernatural beings. 

NĀSTIKA (ATHEIST)
Nāstika (from Sanskrit: na, ‘not’ + āstika) means one who views deities to be the symbolization of elements of nature.

VISHNU
Vishnu (विष्णु) literally means the pervader. It is the all pervasive cosmic order that maintains cosmic equilibrium. It forms into universal principles. Vishnu, along with Brahma and Shiva, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are part of extensive Hindu mythology. NOTE: Vishnu seems to be the description of the innate impulse that energizes every atom of this universe, and, therefore, our very beingness. Obviously, it is formless and the very root of everything. It generates the very sense organs that perceive. It manifests as space,  time, knowledge and all characteristics. It is the ultimate realization that one can have.

SHIVA
Shiva (शिव) means “auspicious, propitious, gracious, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly”. The term Shiva also connotes “liberation, final emancipation” and “the auspicious one”. It is the supreme power that recognizes the true nature of reality and destroys all illusion. Shiva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. As a deity, Shiva is identified as the creator of the cosmos and liberator of Selfs from the birth-rebirth cycle. NOTE: The Static Viewpoint comes closest to describing Shiva.

PRAKRITI
Prakriti (प्रकृति) is “the original or natural form or condition of anything” and connotes “nature, body, matter, phenomenal universe”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, where it includes all the cognitive, moral, psychological, emotional, sensorial and physical aspects of reality. Prakriti has three different innate qualities (guṇas): sattva (goodness, calmness, harmonious), rajas (passion, activity, movement), and tamas (ignorance, inertia, laziness). The equilibrium of these qualities is the basis of all observed empirical reality. Prakriti refers to the feminine aspect of all life forms. It contrasts with the male aspect, Purusha, which is pure awareness and metaphysical consciousness.

PURUSHA
Purusha (पुरुष) means the cosmic being or self, consciousness, and universal principle. It is atman working toward the state of parmātama. Brahma combines Prakriti (nature, matter) and Purusha (spirit, soul) to create a dazzling variety of living creatures, and tempest of causal nexus. NOTE: It is the universal viewpoint that still suffers from some fixations as it works its way towards becoming the static viewpoint.

KALI
Kālī (काली) is the power (SHAKTI) that emerges from SHIVA. It destroys all ignorance and leads one to the understanding of the ultimate reality (BRAHMA). Kali, as deity, is portrayed standing on Lord Shiva, with one foot forward. Her skin color appears to be dark, and she is wearing a garland of 51 skulls, denoting 51 letters of sanskrit alphabet. She is four armed, holding a Kharag, in her top left arm, denoting strength of divine knowledge. In her lower hand, she is holding a severed head denoting ego. Both of her right hands are in the abhaya (fearlessness) and varada (blessing) mudras. She is often depicted naked which symbolizes her being beyond the covering of Maya since she is far above Prakriti. NOTE: Kali symbolizes the concentrated effort to overcome the very source of ignorance.

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NOTES

ABSOLUTE

ANOMALY
Anomaly is anything that does not make sense because it is inconsistent, discontinuous or disharmonious. It generates doubts, perplexities and problems.

DIVINITY
When you meditate on divinity you simply end up realizing that you and the universe are one. Your mental matrix is totally assimilated. You are free of anomalies.

MAYA
Maya is actually the condition of perplexity, confusion or delusion. But this condition is impermanent, and it can be cleared up.

STATIC VIEWPOINT
Static Viewpoint is a synonym for Paramātman.

STHULA SHARIRA (GROSS BODY)
The Sthula Sharira is a synonym for Jiva (identity).

SUBJECT CLEARING
Subject Clearing is the general technique employed to clear up the confusion of relationships among different concepts. This handles the source of many problems the person is having.

SUKSHMA SHARIRA (SUBTLE BODY)
The Sukshma Sharira is a synonym for Jivātman (viewpoint).

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DIANETICS: Some Types of Engrams

10 Sick Bed Paintings ideas | painting, painter, art

Reference: Hubbard 1950: Dianetics TMSMH

These are some comments on Book Three, Chapter 8, “Some Types of Engrams” from DIANETICS: THE MODERN SCIENCE OF MENTAL HEALTH.

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Comments on
Some Types of Engrams

Engrams are unassimilated impressions, which appear as facsimiles of some incident that happened to the person. There are four types of facsimiles: (a) Contra-survival, (b) Pro-survival, (c) Sympathy, and (d) Painful emotion. 

The contra-survival facsimile lies across the dynamics; it has no alignment with purpose, and it is antagonistic in nature. The command of the facsimile is more important than the action people take in it. These commands are hypnotic. In therapy this facsimile is somewhat drained of power just by being touched with the returned awareness.

The pro-survival facsimile pretends to assist survival of the person by its content. It is more difficult to access. It contains allies who defended the person’s existence in moments when the person conceived that his existence was under attack. 

The sympathy facsimile contains the effort of the parent or guardian to be kind to a child who is severely hurt. The aberrative aspect of this facsimile is a “conviction” that if the ally were not around and if one were not on good terms with her, one would starve, die or suffer generally. This facsimile comes forward and stays chronic as a psychosomatic illness.

The painful emotion facsimile is caused by the shock of sudden loss such as the death of a loved one. It contains the death, departure or denial by an ally. It contains an emotional charge which, if it will not display itself, is elsewhere suppressed. A condition of such painful emotion is that it has early physically painful engrams upon which to append.

For examples of these facsimiles please read the chapter.

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Substance, Inertia and Consistency

Combined into One Body, Mass, or Substance by Linnie Brown - mixed media  artwork | UGallery
Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The following definition is missing in physics.

Matter is a substance so condensed that it has a center of mass. Less condensed substances, like electricity and light, have no center of mass, but they have consistency.

Consistency is a dimension of a substance that is actually the subject of Quantum mechanics. The size of the quantum is determined by the consistency of the substance. Quantum is the energy involved in subatomic interactions.

The nucleus of an atom has mass, but the substance around the nucleus has consistency but no mass. Consistency also has inertia just like mass. Therefore, the electromagnetic substance, such as light, has momentum even when it is not made up of atoms.

The “mass” of an electron is actually a measure of inertia in response to enforced motion. It is the result of electron having the highest consistency among electromagnetic substances.

NOTE (Sep 15, 2021):
I have revised the above to make the definitions of “substance,” “mass,” and “consistency” more clear. It also clarifies the definition of “quantum” as “the energy involved in subatomic interactions.” It also puts the definition of “inertia” in proper perspective.

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