Inertia, Geometry & Quantization

Geometry of space

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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The Space Reference frame (SRF) highlights the dimension of inertia. Newton defines inertia as follows,

“The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.”

The status quo of a body is defined here in terms of rest or uniform motion in a straight line. But a “straight line” only means near zero curvature, which is approached as the radius approaches an infinitely large value.

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Geometry & Inertia

Straight line relates to geometry of space.  Space is a property of substance. It expresses the extension of substance.  The fundamental substance is an electromagnetic cycle.  Per The Problem of Field,

“Something called “charge” triggers the electromagnetic cycle. This cycle is an oscillation between electrical flow and magnetic rotation. The electrical flow winds up as magnetic rotation. The magnetic rotation then unwinds back as electrical flow.”

The electric flow has the kinetic aspect of forward motion, which provides a sense of extension, or SPACE. The magnetic rotation has the potential aspect of holding motion in place, which provides a sense of duration, or TIME. Thus,

“The electromagnetic cycle consists of an oscillation between the “flow” of space and “rotation” of time. The relationship between space and time would depend on the frequency of oscillation. We perceive the ratio of space to time of an electromagnetic cycle as ‘c’ the speed of light.”

As frequency goes to zero space would seem to stretch out with its curvature approaching zero. The reverse seems to occur as frequency increases. In other words, the curvature of space seems to increase with frequency. Since frequency contributes to the substantial-ness, or inertia, of the electromagnetic substance, it seems that

The curvature of space increases with increase in inertia.

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Inertia & Quantization

In the electromagnetic spectrum, space represents the extensions of the electromagnetic substance. The curvature of this space approaches zero towards the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum. But as we move up the electromagnetic spectrum it starts to become very conspicuous towards the top. This is the basis of quantization.

The greater is the inertia of substance, the more quantized it appears.

This, in a way, was the subject of Einstein’s very first paper in 1905 on light quanta [see Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)].

This phenomenon of quantization has been debated as the duality of wave and particle properties of electromagnetic substance. Even though the quantization appears to be particle-like, there is always an underlying continuity. Even a material particle of very high inertia has some degree of continuity with the space around it.

Underlying quantization there is always continuity of substance from higher to lower inertia.

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Empty Space & Substance

“Empty space” is empty of matter only. When there is no matter, there is electromagnetic substance, which is not easily visible. But if the electromagnetic substance is not there, there won’t be empty space either. We may say that the electromagnetic substance is visible as empty space.

This may shed some light on the concepts of “dark energy” and “dark matter”. Any presence of dark energy and matter shall be accompanied by invisible curvatures in space. The curvatures shall change as the inertia of the electromagnetic substance changes.

Higher levels of inertia means more condensed regions. Therefore, regions of higher inertia shall appear inside the regions of lower inertia, just as higher elevations on a surface appear within lower elevations. Thus,

Contour maps of different inertial levels may be created within the “empty space”.

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Further Research

Heavenly bodies are like regions of very high inertia that exist within with the regions of very low inertia of space. Very high gradients of inertia shall exist at the interface of matter with space, where continuity must exist.

Further research in this area may lead to a better understanding of gravity beyond the mathematical symbols that are often very confusing.

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Newton, Einstein & Inertia

Electron

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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In Newtonian mechanics, the motion of a body (of constant mass) is defined by its velocity. In its default state, a body drifting in space at uniform velocity may be subject to forces, such as, gravity, but all those forces are in equilibrium.

Per Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader, the Newton’s Laws of Motion are,

Law I: Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
Law II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.
Law III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.

Thus, the uniform drift velocity of a body in space does not change, unless its state of equilibrium is changed by some external force. Newton states,

“The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.”

The default uniform velocity of a body is maintained by its innate force of inertia, which keeps it in equilibrium.

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MRF & Inertia

Per Newton’s second law, the force necessary to change a body’s velocity is proportional to its mass. The more is the mass of a body, the greater is the force required to disturb its uniform drift velocity. Thus mass provides inertia to the body.

The mass of a body acts as inertia that maintains its uniform drift velocity.

In the MRF (material reference frame) the uniform velocity is considered relative to the velocities of other bodies, such as the earth and the sun. However, in the SRF (space reference frame) the reasoning allows us to associate absolute rest with infinite mass. We may say,

The uniform drift velocity of a body increases as its mass or inertia decreases.

Mass decreases with decrease in density and bulk. The mass of an atom decreases with decrease in the complexity of its nucleus.

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SRF & Inertia

The concept of inertia has been confined to matter as it was the only substance known in Newton’s time. With Einstein the concept of substance shifted to include electromagnetic field. Since inertia is a fundamental concept associated with substance, we may extend it further to the electromagnetic field. Thus, inertia becomes a dimension in SRF. This dimension is not so obvious in MRF.

Inertia is a dimension that describes how substantial a substance is.

In SRF, the frequency increases throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, and collapses as mass at the upper end. Frequency and mass are properties of substance that indicate its substantial-ness. The relationship between drift velocity and mass may be generalized as follows,

Velocity increases as the inertia (indicated by frequency or mass) decreases.

Velocities in the electromagnetic domain are much higher than those in the material domain.

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Inertia & Quantization

In his very first paper published in 1905 Einstein established the concept of “energy quanta” or “light quanta”. The manifestation of light quantum (photon) becomes more pronounced as the frequency of electromagnetic energy increases [see Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)]. Einstein received Nobel Prize for this discovery.

Einstein thus introduced quantization as the phenomenon of increasing inertia. A continuous function at low frequency increasingly becomes discrete at higher frequencies. This is accompanied by the electromagnetic “substance” becoming more compact and durable.

This brings to mind a contour map where elevations are marked by contour lines, and where contours of higher elevation appear within the contours of lower elevations. In the case of electromagnetic field, the contours of higher frequencies shall appear within the contours of lower frequencies as the field becomes more compact with increasing frequency. Compactness indicates higher inertia.

Regions of higher inertia appear to be discretely placed within the regions of lower inertia of the field.

This may explain the transition from continuous electromagnetic field to discrete particles in the upper regions of SRF.

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Further Research

The SRF thus introduces the dimension of inertia in which MRF occupies a very small portion at the higher end. On this dimension the basic substance of the field transitions from continuity to discreteness. This is understood as quantization. Quantization seems to contribute rapidly to inertia.

The next step is to explore the process of quantization and how it contributes to inertia.

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Reference Frames: MRF vs SRF

time-management1

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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When we switch the frame of reference from MRF (material reference frame) to SRF (space reference frame) [see Frame of Reference & Einstein], we find ourselves immediately in possession of new explanations for many fundamental concepts in theoretical physics.

The idea of velocity belongs to MRF. It refers to how fast or how slow an object is moving. The idea of frequency belongs to SRF. It refers to how fast or how slow a cycle is repeating. The common denominator of both velocity and frequency appears to be the perception of time.

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Time is Absolute

The perception of time comes from the passing of instants. We may perceive the unit of time is an instant, which may be viewed as a “cycle”. No time elapses until an instant, or cycle, has passed.

Please note that a cycle may be subdivided into smaller cycles ad infinitum. It is, therefore, difficult to perceive of a single static cycle because it can always be subdivided. There are always going to be cycles, no matter how infinitesimal, that are accompanied by a frequency greater than zero. The concept of a static cycle or zero frequency shall always remain theoretical. However,

The concept of zero frequency provides a reference point for absolute time.

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Space is Infinite Velocity

The space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum represents a theoretical single cycle of zero frequency. This is like having a permanent instant of time that never passes.

When this cycle of space is superimposed over some “material distance”, it represents the same instant throughout that material distance. Thus, no time shall pass in traversing of this “material distance” even when that distance is infinite. This would be infinite velocity in MRF.

Space is a static instant that translates as infinite velocity in MRF.

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Frequency vs. Velocity

As frequency increases from the single static cycle of space, a sequence of instants start to appear; and we have passage of time.

As frequency increases, the instants (cycles) pass at increasing rates. When a higher frequency is superimposed over the same “material distance” considered for space, more instants must now pass in traversing that distance. This velocity shall be lower than the infinite velocity perceived for space from the perspective of MRF.

As frequency increases in SRF, the velocity decreases in MRF.

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The Velocity of Light

As we go up in the electromagnetic spectrum, the frequency increases and the velocity decreases. The velocity of gamma radiation is expected to be smaller than the velocity of radio waves. There is already some indication of that (see High Energy Gamma Rays Go Slower than the Speed of Light?).

Thus there is a range of velocities over the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the difference in these velocities is so small that it imperceptible compared to the difference between the velocity of light and matter. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is therefore represented by the single velocity of light ‘c’.

The value of ‘c’ is large but not infinite because the frequency of light has a value greater than 0.

The velocity of light is large but finite because it has a non-zero frequency.

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Quantum Entanglement

Based on the explanation above, quantum entanglement may be explained as a phenomenon resulting from a frequency very close to zero.

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Absolute Rest

In MRF, the velocity of matter is negligible compared to the velocity of light. Thus, matter seems to represent a near infinite frequency relative to the frequency of light.

Per Einstein, the mass-energy equivalence may be represented as “mass-frequency equivalence” as follows,

E = hf = mc2 ; ………………… hence f = (c2/h) m

Therefore, in MRF, the frequency is so large that it collapses into mass. This is evident in the atom, where frequency is rapidly increasing toward the center. At the center it collapses and produces the nucleus.

In MRF, the velocity shall continue to decrease as mass and its density increases; and this shall lead closer and closer to a position of absolute rest in space.

A black hole of infinite mass shall be completely at rest in an absolute sense.

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Further Research

The SRF seems to clarify the concept of time. It also provides an absolute sense of velocity compared to the relative velocity in MRF.

It is now time to explore the fundamental concept of inertia advanced by Newton.

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Frame of Reference & Einstein

Frame 1

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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A frame of reference is defined as the system that forms the basis of measurements of space and other dimensions. Newton’s frame of reference requires that Newton’s first law holds true. In this frame a free particle travels in a straight line at constant speed, or is at rest. Here all laws of physics take on their simplest form. These frames are related by simple Galilean transformations.

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Material Reference Frame (MRF)

Newton’s frame of reference is based on matter. Space, even when it is empty is measured as if it is the “extension of matter”. Measurements of other dimensions are also based on the idea that matter is the fundamental substance.

This has been the frame of reference used by all scientists from antiquity until the present. Newton formalized it. Einstein made interesting modifications to it. We may call this frame of reference based on matter as the “material reference frame” (MRF).

The MRF (material reference frame) is based on the properties of matter.

Einstein retains the MRF in his theory of relativity; but he adds the condition that the speed of light must be constant for frames of references moving at different speeds. In Einstein’s frames of reference space moves at the same speed as the material object [see Relativity & Problem of Space (1952)]. Mathematically, Einstein treats space as “extension of material object”.

In the MRF of Einstein, space also moves with the object as its extension.

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Lorentz Transformations

In special theory of relativity, the “velocity of the observer” is, mathematically, the velocity of the space of the observational frame of reference. This velocity is measured relative to the “stationary” space of the sun. This velocity ‘v’ is then compared to the speed of light ‘c’, which is constant for all moving frames. The ratio ‘v/c’ then determines the transformation of space moving at velocity ‘v’.

The famous Lorentz transformations of the special theory of relativity provide the following relationships.

Lorentz Boost

It is shown mathematically from these relationships that as velocity ‘v’ increases, the space contracts and becomes more durable.

Space contracts and becomes more durable as its “velocity” increases.

This is exactly what happens as frequency increases up the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of the spectrum is space made up of single field cycle [see The Problem of Space]. With increasing frequency this cycle multiplies and becomes more compact and durable.

The “velocity” of space is equivalent to space increasing in frequency as a field as one moves up the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Space Reference Frame (SRF)

The electromagnetic spectrum thus provides a “space reference frame” (SRF) that is referenced from space situated at the bottom of this spectrum.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents electromagnetic substance, which is also referred to as electromagnetic energy. Einstein’s discovery of light quanta [see Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)], and his famous equation, E = mc2, indicates that electromagnetic energy is equivalent to mass at higher frequencies. It is, then, not far-fetched to assume that as frequency increases, the electromagnetic substance ultimately condenses into mass. This is evident from the presence of nucleus at the center of the atom.

In other words, matter lies at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom end of the electromagnetic spectrum lies space.

The MRF (material reference frame) uses matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point. The theory of relativity, however, points to an SRF (space reference frame) that uses space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point.

The SRF (space reference frame) is based on the properties of space.

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Further Research

The conclusions of the special theory of relativity make more sense in the “space reference frame (SRF) than in the “material reference frame” (MRF). Therefore, the meaning of Einstein’s theory of relativity needs to be explored further in SRF.

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Neti Neti

Nothing

Reference: Mindfulness Approach

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As explained in Wikipedia, in Hinduism, and in particular Jnana Yoga and Advaita Vedanta, neti neti (नेति नेति) is a Sanskrit expression which means “not this, not this”, or “neither this, nor that” (neti is sandhi from na iti “not so”).

Thus, neti neti is negation of “something” to get at the esoteric understanding of “nothing”. This understanding of nothing is recognized in Hinduism as “Brahman”, and in Buddhism as “emptiness”. “Something” has a beginning. So, Brahman or emptiness lies at the root of the BEGINNING.

NOTHING is “absence of manifestation.” In other words, Brahman and emptiness also represent the absence of any and all manifestations.

Science cannot go into the beginning of universe as long as it presupposes SOMETHING to exist before the beginning. This is the limitation of science.

Western religion cannot go into the beginning of universe as long as it presupposes CAUSE to exist before the beginning. This is the limitation of western religion.

Logic, Mathematics and Philosophy cannot go into the beginning of universe as long as they presuppose THOUGHT to exist before the beginning. This is the limitation of Logic, Mathematics and Philosophy.

To describe the beginning of the universe then, one may speculate upon the nature of NOTHING, BRAHMAN or EMPTINESS. But that would give us another universe. This is where mindfulness comes in.

Mindfulness is “seeing things as they are”.

At the basis of mindfulness lies the recognition of something or nothing.

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