Category Archives: KHTK

Knowing How to Know

Mental Distress and KHTK


August 11, 2014: This essay is superseded by Mindfulness Therapy.


[Reference: What is KHTK?]

For improvement to occur a person needs the ability to be mindful, which means that he should be able to see things as they are. It is only when a person is being mindful that he is able to spot and resolve inconsistencies to handle his unwanted condition.

When a person is mentally distressed or ill, his ability to be mindful is compromised. However, such a person may be guided toward mindfulness. This is done by asking him about only those things that he is able to recognize.

In the beginning, you can help a mentally distressed person by minimizing distractions in his environment. If he is sick physically then take care of that sickness first as best as you can. Make sure that he is on a nutritious diet and that his environment is being kept calm and peaceful.

Once he is comfortable and in a calm environment then get him to recognize simple things. Start with items that he was familiar with in his childhood, such as, his favorite toys. Take him to his favorite locations and have him recognize the objects there.

Keep in mind that it is much easier to recognize concrete objects than subjective thoughts and ideas. Do not ask any subjective questions that require him to recall memories. Recall of memories requires visualization and this may be too much for him.

Get him to recognize large, simple physical objects first by looking, touching and feeling them. Then give him smaller and more complex objects. He should be encouraged to use all his perceptions.

After the person can recognize concrete objects comfortably, only then ask him to recognize simple characteristics of those things, such as, number, shape and color. Make sure that numbers are small, shapes are simple, and the colors are bright. Keep any interaction with him in terms of characteristics that are quite obvious.

Next, get the person to visualize and draw simple objects, such as, ball, table, chair, etc. Never exceed his capability to visualize. If ideas get too complex for him to visualize, then make them simpler until he can visualize them comfortably.

Gradually, get him to visualize subjective and complex ideas and describe them. Build up his ability to be mindful slowly and carefully. This itself will prove to be a wonderful therapy.

Then, when he is up to doing the KHTK exercises, get him started on them.


[For further details, please see: KHTK Index]


TRAINING: Attention and Mindfulness


To pay attention is to direct the mind to observe with care. A person should be able to direct his attention freely.

If the attention keeps on getting drawn to something then that attention is fixed. If the attention is difficult to focus then that attention is dispersed. In either case the attention is not free.

Underlying that fixed or dispersed attention; there is influence that the person is not aware of. As the persons looks with mindfulness and becomes aware of the influence, the attention frees up.

For example, the attention gets drawn to commotion in an area that is generally quiet, or to a lull in an area that is generally bustling. As soon as we become aware of the unusual factor that got introduced, our attention returns to normal. Similarly, when one encounters strangeness in something usually familiar, the attention gets dispersed and becomes hard to focus until it dawns on one that something that should be there is missing.

Whenever you find the attention to be non-optimum, isolate the area that seems to be involved directly. Use mindfulness to look at it more closely. Experience it without resisting. Let the mind unstack itself. Very soon you shall become aware of what is actually there and the attention will free up.

The following steps may help you look at an area more closely.

  1. Look broadly at the area.
  2. Consider its purpose and ideal scene.
  3. Isolate parts that do not seem to be consistent.
  4. View closely and experience those parts fully.

When an area is simply too complicated, such as, finances or certain relationships, then carefully apply each aspect of mindfulness. Use Mindful Subject Clearing to sort it all out. At the first instance of discomfort, take a step back and put attention on the physical environment. This will help you get regrounded in the present moment. Then continue with the procedure as before until the attention frees up.

In summary, attention becomes non-optimum to the degree it is fixed or dispersed. Underlying non-optimum attention there is data waiting to be viewed and experienced. Pursue non-optimum attention as an indicator to determine where to look, and then apply mindfulness to look closely.

TRAINING: Subject Clearing

subject 3


May 1, 2014: This essay is superseded by 

Subject Clearing


[Reference: MINDFULNESS / TRAINING: Word Clearing]

When studying a subject one should be able to detect the distortions present in the knowledge being received. This is especially true when one is dealing with the fundamentals of a subject. The distortions can be very pervasive. They may even enter the definitions of words in a dictionary.

The following procedure helps one detect and clear any distortions present in the subject being studied.

  1. List the key words, or concepts, of the subject.

    Look at the subject mindfully starting with its concepts expressed as key words. List the key words on a worksheet as you go through the subject. This list may grow as you get deeper into the subject.

    For example, you may find the key words in the subject of mathematics to be: mathematics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, number, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, equation, unknown, variable, space, direction, distance, position, etc.

    NOTE: You may use an Excel Worksheet to list the words and concepts. In the example shown below, the worksheet contains concepts associated with the word SPIRIT. There happens to be more than one concept associated with this word. The sequence of these concepts is maintained by assigning “priorities” to them.Excel example

  2. ‘Word clear’ the key words and concepts as you proceed.

    The purpose of study is not to memorize information, but to resolve the inconsistencies or blanks in understanding. ‘Word clear’ the key words as you proceed.

    Study the materials one paragraph at a time. Summarize and reduce each paragraph to its main thought before proceeding to the next. If the paragraph is difficult to reduce to its main thought then look for words in that paragraph that may not have been understood fully. These could be simple words. ‘Word clear’ such words.

    If the difficulty with a paragraph still persists then note down the confusion on your worksheet, and proceed to the next paragraph.

  3. Arrange the key words, or concepts, in proper sequence.

    The key words should be listed starting with those that express the fundamental concepts followed by those, which are derived from earlier concepts.

    Start by arranging the key words, or concepts, in the sequence that they appear in the material. As you gain familiarity, rearrange by words/concepts as they seem to have evolved. Move the words embodying more fundamental concepts toward the top. Move the words embodying derived concepts toward the bottom.

  4. Note the inconsistencies among the concepts.

    As the study of the subject progresses and better understanding comes about, the list of key words may be continually rearranged to achieve a consistency among the concepts. If you notice any inconsistencies, note them down on the worksheet.

    This then motivates a research deeper into the subject.

  5. Clarify the fundamentals of the subject as a priority.

    The consistency among the fundamental concepts in a subject is very important because it affects the consistency of the later concepts. Look closely at the inconsistencies starting from the top. Are there  underlying assumptions? If so then this may reveal gaps in the subject itself.

    There are likely to be many contributors to a subject. For example, many different cultures have contributed to the subject of religion. You may find similar concepts referred to by different words in different languages. Note down all those words and differences among the concepts.

  6. Make the subject as complete as possible.

    There are many examples in the subject of religion where gaps in knowledge are hidden under assumptions and dubious “explanations.” This may be the case with any subject where inconsistencies abound.

    When such assumptions and explanations are ferreted out, then the gaps in knowledge become obvious. Only when such gaps in knowledge stand out in the open and become uncomfortably clear that they can be addressed.

    Fill gaps in the subject with wider research. Make the subject as complete and consistent as possible through experimentation and direct experience.

    Thus, subject clearing can occur.


[For further details, please see: KHTK Index]


Obsolete: Word Clearing

See: Word Clearing


Reference Dictionaries:

Webster’s 1913 edition


Words are compressed thoughts. It may not be possible to express the complete meaning of a word through a dictionary, encyclopedia, or some other text because it is continually evolving. But dictionaries do provide origins, different usages, synonymns and other clues to understand a word in a given context.

During the process of learning when there is confusion, the first thing to do is to look up the meaning of the word(s) related to that area of confusion. This is necessary even when one has looked up those words before. One must newly examine the meaning of the words in the present context.

The following procedure is designed to bring about rapid understanding of words in the appropriate context.

  1. Start with looking up the broad concept underlying the word.

    In a dictionary you may find the broad concept listed under ‘history’, ‘origin’, or ‘derivation’ of the word. This may appear either before, or after the definitions. Sometimes you may have to go to a reference, such as, “Dictionary of Word Origins” by John Ayto to get the concept.

    Look for broad concept only. Sometimes you may have to piece together the concept from the derivations given. Ignore most other grammatical details. Once you have grasped the broad concept go to the next step.

    For example, when you look up ARITHMETIC, you may find the underlying concept expressed as “skill with numbers.” As an exercise, check out the concept for the word GEOMETRY.

  2. Locate the definition of the word that fits the context.

    Scan through the definitions provided for that word, and locate the one that seems to be most appropriate. Start with this definition even though you may find another definition more appropriate after some contemplation.

  3. Study the definition until you can visualize it fully.

    Read the definition carefully. Relate it to your experience and visualize it in your mind.

    If the word refers to something concrete then find the actual thing to look at, or a reasonable replica, model or a picture. For example, if the word is ARCHIPELAGO, you may easily find some pictures by searching images on the Internet.

    If the word refers to some feelings or conditions then find some examples or experiences that you can relate to. For example, if the word is EXUBERANT then look at the times when you felt exuberant, or perceived somebody else being exuberant.

    If the word refers to some abstract idea, you can still find examples that illustrate that concept. For example, the word INEFFABLE is very abstract; but you can find enough examples to define it for yourself. Look up the examples that are provided, and then follow them with examples of your own. You may even contemplate on how something is ineffable or not until it starts to make sense. Use your experience to visualize.

    Any time you have difficulty on understanding the meaning take further action per step (6).

  4. Study the remaining definitions for the word.

    Read the other definitions carefully one by one. Make sure you understand them enough to see if they fit within the context. If they do not, then move to the next definition. If a definition fits within the context then study it per step (3) above.

    Once you have gone over rest of the definitions then choose the definition for the word that is most appropriate within the present context.

  5. Use the word with chosen definition in several sentences.

    Once you have the appropriate definition, use the word in several sentences. Do so until you feel comfortable in expressing your ideas through this word with the correct use of grammar.

  6. If there are words in a definition that you do not understand, then look them up.

    This difficulty may arise in steps (3) and (4) above. Examine the definition for words in the definition that may not be correctly or fully understood. Then apply this word clearing procedure to each of those word.

    It is possible to get into long word chains when looking up words in definitions. Keep in mind that the definitions of words only provide approximations. What is important is getting a clear visualization of the underlying concept of the word in the appropriate context. A mindful use of visualization may help you keep the word chains short.

    Keep a record of such words. Cross out a word as soon as its meaning is understood. Sometimes a word may come up again that you had looked up earlier. But this time it may be used differently. It is okay to look up the same word as many times as necessary. Each time you look up a word you may pick up a new dimension of its meaning.


Further references: KHTK Self-Learning


Love and Liking


Love and Liking can have many flavors.

But, underlying them all

Is mindfulness.


The 12 aspects of mindfulness are:

  1. Observe without expecting anything, or attempting to get an answer.
  2. Observe things as they really are, not as they seem to be.
  3. If something is missing do not imagine something else in its place. 
  4. If something does not make sense then do not explain it away.
  5. Use physical senses as well as mental sense to observe.
  6. Let the mind un-stack itself. 
  7. Experience fully what is there.  
  8. Do not suppress anything.
  9. Associate data freely.
  10. Do not get hung up on name and form.
  11. Contemplate thoughtfully.
  12. Let it all be effortless.