The Electromagnetic Spectrum

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The variations in the frequency of light cover the whole electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of this spectrum lies a theoretical emptiness of zero frequency. At the top is the mass of infinite frequency as seen in the nucleus of an atom. The layers of this spectrum build up in the following sequence.

  1. Emptiness (zero frequency)
  2. Radio waves
  3. Microwave radiation
  4. Terahertz radiation
  5. Infrared radiation
  6. Visible radiation
  7. Ultraviolet radiation
  8. X-ray radiation
  9. Gamma radiation
  10. Mass (infinite frequency)

The light appears as electromagnetic cycles, or corpuscles, in emptiness. The corpuscles have a concentration, or density. See Wave-Particle Duality.

The density of light has a certain stability. Any effort to change this stability activates a restoring force similar to the inertia of matter. Thus, light appears to maintain its frequency throughout the electromagnetic spectrum.


The Atom

This whole spectrum of light may be seen within an isolated atom from its outermost boundary at emptiness to its center of nuclear mass. The boundary of atoms appears to be squished when there is a concentration of atoms. During atomic interactions, gamma rays are seen to be emitted by the nucleus, and X-rays and visible light from inner electrons.

Each electromagnetic cycle has a constant energy equal to the Planck’s constant ‘h‘. This energy corresponds to a density of ‘h/c2‘ as determined from the mass-energy equivalence E = mc2. This is actually a conversion formula between the units of energy and mass. As we move up the spectrum from emptiness, the frequency increases and light become denser. In other words, light corpuscles become more concentrated in a smaller volume. This leads to a whirlpool model of an atom.

In the “whirlpool model of atom” density increases continually from the outer boundary to the center of the atom. This makes electron a denser form of light.



The wavelength to period ratio of an electromagnetic cycle is the constant ‘c‘. Both wavelength and period shrink together as the frequency increases because ‘c‘ remains unchanged. Light thus compresses into a smaller volume and gains endurance. We see the extensions of light as SPACE and its endurance as TIME.

The constants ‘h‘ and ‘c‘ ensure the continuity of the nature of light throughout the spectrum. In space, if regions of different frequencies of light appear next to each other, the boundary between them consists of a smooth gradient of frequency. The gradient at the boundary manifests as tension or charge (force). This force differs in its nature depending on the sharpness of the gradient as well as on its relative position in the whirlpool of atom. For example, the gradient of frequency is very steep between the electronic and nuclear regions of the atom. This gradient appears as electric charge that we are very familiar with.

Forces exist as gravitational, electromagnetic, electric or nuclear depending on the frequency gradient and its location in the “whirlpool” of atom.



The electromagnetic cycle is like a pendulum in which the “kinetic” and “potential” motions are converting back and forth as linear (electrical) and rotational (magnetic) motions. The frequency of such conversion is balanced by internal resistance, such as, permittivity and permeability. As frequency increases, so does the internal resistance. When the frequency becomes very high the internal resistance starts to form into mass. The formation of mass may at first start out near the center of the “atomic whirlpool”. A multitude of quantum particles first form as “eddies in a flow”. These end up as neutrons and protons at the center of the atom. This condensation of force into mass was first implied by Faraday in his lecture Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter.

Force condenses into mass at the upper end of the spectrum.


External Force

External force when impressed on substance increases its motion by overcoming its internal resistance. But if that external force gets internalized as mass it may increase the frequency and density of the substance and reduce its absolute motion. Faraday saw this phenomenon as the conservation of force.

When force is conserved, mass and energy in all forms are conserved.


Absolute Motion

The density of substance determines its duration at any location in space. The inverse of this duration is the absolute motion of substance.

The Newton’s Laws of motion apply to atomic matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum. At this level force manifests as acceleration of the discrete physical object, while the resistance to acceleration manifests as inertia. The balance of the two determines the absolute motion of the object. Looking at the high density, the absolute motion of matter is negligible compared to the absolute motion of light.

Absolute motion of substance is inverse of its density.


Relative Motion

Where the levels of inertia of objects are extremely close as in the material region, the resultant speed may be determined by simple addition or subtraction of relative speeds as in Galilean relativity.  But when these levels are a bit far apart, as is the case with the planet Mercury and the Sun, it becomes necessary to do the math with absolute speeds. This is called relativistic math.

Motion must be converted to absolute before it can be combined.



The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to the emptiness of background as frequency goes to zero. Emptiness has no substance, which is represented by zero density. We may use it as the absolute reference point. It, however, produces a singularity. Therefore, in special relativity we use the properties of light as the absolute reference point.

Substance is introduced in emptiness as low frequency light. The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of light of increasing frequency. The whirlpool model of the atom manifests this spectrum from its outer boundary to the nucleus at the center, as continually increasing density. The very high frequency at the center of this whirlpool starts to manifest itself as mass.


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