The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is part of the spectrum of substance. (see The Spectrum of Substance). The EM spectrum is made up of the following layers of electromagnetic radiation:

  1. Gamma radiation
  2. X-ray radiation
  3. Ultraviolet radiation
  4. Visible radiation
  5. Infrared radiation
  6. Terahertz radiation
  7. Microwave radiation
  8. Radio waves

Each layer is a continuum of substance. It consists of a range of frequencies. All layers may be arranged on a continuous scale of frequencies. The frequency of EM radiation has certain stability. Any effort to change the frequency activates a restoring force similar to the inertia of matter. Thus, EM radiation appears to maintain its frequency throughout the spectrum.

EM radiation resists its frequency from being changed. This is a form of inertia.

The gamma rays are seen to be emitted by the nucleus, and X-rays from inner electrons. This EM spectrum may be seen to be emitted from the electronic region of the atom. Thus the configuration of the atom exists in equilibrium with the EM spectrum.

The EM spectrum exists in equilibrium with the atom.

Maxwell’s electromagnetic cycles may best be compared to Newton’s corpuscles. Each cycle is infinitely divisible like a corpuscle because unit of time is infinitely divisible. The higher is the “frequency” of light, the denser is the concentration of cycles (corpuscles) that make up the radiation. Therefore, the frequency indicates the density of the radiation. According to The Universal Frame of Reference, the speed of light shall decrease with increase in frequency, but this occurs in infinitely small gradients in the electromagnetic spectrum.

EM radiation forms a continuum in space whose density increases (speed decreases) on a very small gradient as frequency increases.

Common to EM spectrum is the concept of photon. The photon is an energy particle (see Particle, Continuum and Atom). This means that photon is the amount of radiation required in its interaction with the electronic region. This amount is proportional to the frequency (density) of radiation.

A photon is an energy particle of radiation, meaning it is the amount of radiation required in its interaction with the electronic region

Per the relationships, E = hf, and E = mc2, each cycle has energy equal to the Planck’s constant (h), and density equal to the constant (h/c2). As we move up the spectrum, the frequency increases and both wavelength and period shrink together. The radiation (field) becomes increasingly denser and more focused. This is perceived as quantization (condensation of energy into mass) at higher frequencies.

EM radiation becomes denser and more penetrating as frequency increases.

The constants described above ensure the continuity of different regions of the field that are at different frequencies. Therefore, these regions are bounded by smooth gradients of frequency. These gradients manifest as tension (charge) or force. These forces then become part of the field. We recognize these forces as gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, etc. These forces differ in their nature depending on the sharpness of the gradient as well as on their relative position in the spectrum.

The gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear forces exists in the continuum (field) because of frequency or density gradients.

As forces become stronger with frequency, inertia also increases to balance them. If forces are represented by frequency gradient (increased oscillations relative to itself) then inertia is represented by quantization (increased condensation). Basic inertia appears as permeability and permittivity. It balances the conversion between electric (kinetic and linear) and magnetic (potential and rotational) aspects of a cycle. This shows up in the constant rate of propagation of the electromagnetic disturbance within the field.

The forces within the field are balanced by quantization (inertia).

With increasing frequency gradient the increased quantization seems to develop into a dense structure of mass. This structure appears to be made up of high frequency of infinitesimal cycles. The quantization into mass starts out like “eddies in flow”. This shows the primary characteristic of mass to be rotational. We may identify these “eddies” as the multitudes of quantum particles.

Quantum particles arise out of the condensation of EM radiation.

The rotational nature of mass tends to pin it down and reduce its linear motion. This also increases inertia (density). As the density of quantum particles increases their intrinsic motion decreases (see The Universal Frame of Reference).

Rotation is the characteristics that accompanies increasing condensation into mass, and inertia.

The application of external force invokes inertia, and inertia seems to add to the density of the substance, thus decreasing its intrinsic linear motion. This may describe the conservation of force of Faraday. This appears to contradict Newton’s laws of motion, which describe force in terms of acceleration of an object. This contradiction is resolved when we notice that the “acceleration” in terms of distance cannot be observed when there is no other object around. A continually “accelerated” object simply feels as if it has mass added to it.

External force converts into internal mass or density.

This brings up the difference in the perception of absolute motion from relative motion. This topic is taken up in the next chapter.


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