## Particle, Continuum and Atom

##### Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Particle and continuum are the subcategories of substance (see Matter, Void and Space). Their extents are defined by space. Both are absent in the void. Current physics has no proper definitions for them.

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## Material Particle & Continuum

The idea of particle is a “distinct entity”. Material objects exist as discrete entities in space. A material object  may be broken down into smaller parts, each of which exist as distinct entities. These are particles of matter. The smallest particle of matter is an atom.

A classical atom is is considered to be made up of substance that is distributed uniformly throughout the atom. The configuration of an atom is rigid. The substance of the atom is identified as mass. A rigid arrangement of atoms then constitutes a solid material body. This rigidity produces a “center of mass” such that forces acting on the body may be reduced to a single resultant force acting on that center. Moments due to the forces may also be reduced to a single resultant torque at that center. This center is called the “center of mass”. It allows a rigid material body to be treated as a “point particle”.

A material particle is distinguished from another material particle in space because of its center of mass. Billiard balls striking each other on a table are material particles. The dust particle floating in a beam of sunlight across the room are also such material particles. Each have a center of mass.

A MATERIAL PARTICLE in space is defined by its center of mass.

If there is no center of mass, then a material particle cannot be distinguished from its surrounding. There exists simply a continuum of substance. Light filling the space is such continuum of substance.

A CONTINUUM of substance has mass density but no center of mass.

An atom of matter may be considered indivisible because it loses its characteristics when divided further. But light is infinitely divisible because it never loses its characteristics when divided.

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## The Energy Particle

The “energy particle” is defined by an interaction. It refers to the amount of the substance involved in an interaction. It is not the amount existing in space by itself. A quantum of light is the amount of light involved in an interaction within the detector.  A quantum of light is different for different interactions. This is similar to a chemical agent reacting in different amounts in different chemical reactions.

An ENERGY PARTICLE is the amount of substance participating in an interaction.

A light quantum is created out of a continuum of light. Such energy particle is always discrete because the interactions can be counted. This is what happens in the photoelectric phenomenon. Discrete interactions do not necessarily imply that light is discrete and indivisible in space. Light is a continuum and infinitely divisible in space though its interactions are discrete and “indivisible”.

A quantum is an energy particle. It has a specific value determined from how it interacts, but that value is part of a continuum.

A QUANTUM is a discrete amount drawn from a continuum by an interaction at the atomic level.

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## The Atom

The atom is a material particle. It has a center of mass. It also has an intrinsic motion as observed indirectly in Brownian motion. The kinetic theory of gases is built on the intrinsic motion of atoms and molecules.

The atom itself consists a nucleus at the center surrounded by an electronic region. The nucleus is only 0.01% of the atom. The rest 99.99% of the atom is the electronic region. The nucleus is extremely dense and almost stationary compared to the electronic region that is 1840 times less dense and moving extremely rapidly. The whole atom is like a flat whirlpool much like a galaxy. It is incorrect to think of atom as being spherical because of the motion inside it. Even the nucleus itself, when magnified, may appear like a flat whirlpool.

The electronic region does not contain center of mass. It is, therefore, a fast-moving continuum in space. There are no orbits of electron particles. There are simply different interactions at different distances from the nucleus. The electronic region seems to decrease in density and increase in motion as it spreads out from the nucleus.

Similarly, the nuclear region appears to increase in density toward the center of the atomic whirlpool. The different nuclear particles are just different interactions within the nucleus.

There is, obviously, a large density gradient between the electronic and nuclear regions. It is possible that this large gradient of density appears as “charge”. More on this later.

The ATOM is a flat whirlpool of a fast-moving continuum of electrons that is thinning in density and increasing in speed as it spreads out from the nucleus.

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## The Belief in Physics

Newton’s corpuscular theory of light considered corpuscles of light to be infinitely divisible. In other words, Newton looked at light as a continuum from which any amount could be drawn for energy interaction.

But there seems to be an assumption in physics that energy particles cannot form a continuum in space, that they must have discrete and indivisible existence. This belief goes back to atomism, which considers atoms to be indivisible.

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• vinaire  On September 20, 2019 at 7:51 PM

The continuum is called the field.

• Rafael  On September 21, 2019 at 2:05 PM

But how do you explain the twio slain experiment?
In one slain the particles do not behave like a wave as in two slains

• vinaire  On September 21, 2019 at 3:28 PM

Here is my first attempt to explain wave-particle duality.

https://vinaire.me/2019/09/01/wave-particle-duality/

The two-slit experiment can be explained by the fact that light is a continuum in space because it does not have center of mass. There are not “mass” particles of light that need to be split into two for the two slits. Light splits as if it is an infinitely divisible fluid.

But the interactions with the detector is in terms of “energy” particles. A certain amount of light must come together for the interaction to occur. Photon is the amount of light that takes part in this interaction.

• vinaire  On September 21, 2019 at 3:56 PM

Rafael, your question has helped me fine tune the paper above. I hope it makes more sense now. I am writing another paper to explain the results of the two-slit experiment.

• vinaire  On October 27, 2019 at 6:20 AM