The Spectrum of Substance

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

When we consider the scale of density of substance, we usually consider matter on a macroscopic scale. Matter is an aggregate of atoms separated by space. The space between atoms is filled by the continuum of electrons, the electromagnetic spectrum and gravitational force. The density of matter depends on the concentration of atoms in space. Beyond space we have the void. Earlier, we considered this spectrum of substance as

MATTER – SPACE – VOID

Matter is made up of particles of substance, but space is a continuum of substance. There are layers of particle and continua of different concentrations and densities. These layers may be listed broadly as follows.

MATERIAL PARTICLES
NUCLEAR “PARTICLES”
ELECTRONS
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
VOID

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Material Particles

We are very familiar with material particles. They have the property of center of mass, which allows them to be treated as point particles in classical mechanics. They collide with each other and have discrete energy of impact. Therefore, they are energy particles as well.

The material particles are a collection of smaller particles called atoms. Atoms are separated by space, which is filled with the continua of electrons, electromagnetic radiation and gravitational force. The concentration of atoms within a volume determines material density.

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Nuclear “particles”

At close quarters the nuclear “particles” (neutrons and protons) appear to form a continuum of very high density. They may still be treated as point particles. The energy of their nuclear interactions also appears to be discrete. Therefore, they are “particles” in terms of energy also.

In space, however, they form a highly dense continuum that exists within the continuum of electrons. We assume neutrons and protons to be spherical, and the mass to be distributed evenly throughout that spherical volume. The density of this nuclear region is higher than the average density of matter because there is no space mixed within it to dilute it.

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Electrons and Charge

The electronic region surrounds the nuclear region, and it is in equilibrium with it. The largest drop in mass density occurs from the nuclear to electronic region. This is also the interface where the phenomenon of charge appears as a significant force.

The electrons are 1840 times less dense than the nucleus. They do not have a center of mass. Therefore, they form a continuum in space. But there is a gradient of density within the electronic region along the radius of the atom. This gradient appears as discrete “energy levels” within the atom, because of the interactions occurring with photons.

It is possible that the phenomenon of charge is related directly to the sharp gradient in mass density between the electronic and nuclear regions. It seems that force is produced by this density gradient, which is different from electron-photon interactions forming energy levels.

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the continuum surrounding the continuum of electrons. It is in equilibrium with the electronic region as observed in the black body radiation. The density continues to decrease on a gradient from the electronic region through the electromagnetic spectrum. Here density seems to be represented by frequency.

The quantum “particles” appear throughout the nuclear region down to the bottom of electromagnetic spectrum. These are the unique energies of interactions scattered throughout this part of substance spectrum. Each quantum is part of a continuum of certain density. There is a continuous gradient of mass density from the nuclear region down to the bottom of electromagnetic spectrum.

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Gravitational Force

From the bottom of electromagnetic spectrum down to the void is the region of extremely low frequency and extremely large wavelengths. In this region the mass density is so rarefied that it appears as pure force. This is the region of gravitational force, or gravity.

Gravity is the lowest common denominator of the spectrum of substance. This explains why gravity acts on everything in this universe. This also explains why no “gravitons” have been detected because we may be dealing with just one graviton of the size of the universe.

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Void

Beyond gravitational force is the void of zero density. Void is absence of all substance. Therefore, it cannot be sensed.

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