*Reference: **A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics*

The phenomenon of **black body radiation** showed that the energy of light (black body radiation) depended on the frequency of radiation and not on the amplitude of the wave form. In other words, the energy of the black body radiation was a type of “kinetic energy”, and not “wave energy”.

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## The Nature of Light

This meant that light was some kind of a substance moving at the speed of light. It was not a wave formed in some stationary medium as postulated by the wave theory. This seemed to validate Newton’s corpuscular theory of light.

The only difference was that these corpuscles did not have a center of mass, so they could not be approximated as point particles. Light was, therefore, a fluid-like continuum in space with a certain density. This density, or mass concentration, was represented by its frequency. A cycle of this frequency was like a corpuscle. As frequency increased, the concentration of these corpuscles also increased, and light became denser by a very small amount.

**Light is continuum in space with a density made up of electromagnetic cycles.**

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## Wave-Particle Confusion

These corpuscles also acted as “discrete energy quanta” because of how they interacted in the photo-electric phenomena. But that does not imply that they are not a fluid-like continuum in space.

**The continuum property appears as “wave”; and the density property appears as “energy particles”.**

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## Quantum Mechanics

The quantum mechanics came about because of the discreteness of energy interactions at the subatomic level.

A material particle also implies discreteness of energy interactions, but, in addition, it implies discreteness of mass in space. This identity of energy and mass did not carry forward to subatomic area, but it was assumed to be so.

**This assumption of mass-energy equivalence, or identity, has made quantum mechanics very mathematical and difficult to understand.**

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## Comments

A substance may be represented by particles or by a fluid-like continuum. When a fluid-like continuum of low density moves rapidly it acquires wave-like characteristics (de Broglie’s hypothesis). This is the case with all non-atomic substances, such as, the electronic flow and the light.

Quantum particles like gluons, bosons or leptons are actually fluid-like continua of different densities that have, primarily, a mathematical significance only. Their discrete mathematical properties come from energy interactions and not from assumed “discreteness in space”. The “particle” in wave-particle property is due the confusion of discrete energy interaction with assumed “discreteness in space”.

Please see above.