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*Reference:*

*Propagation of Light*

*Disturbance Levels of Space*

*A New Model of Atom*

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From the article on **Inertia** from Wikipedia:

##### Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion (including a change in direction). In other words, it is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at constant linear velocity. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles of classical physics that are used to describe the motion of objects and how they are affected by applied forces. Inertia comes from the Latin word, *iners*, meaning idle, sluggish. Inertia is one of the primary manifestations of mass, which is a quantitative property of physical systems. Isaac Newton defined inertia as his first law in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which states:

*The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.*

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Einstein’s concept of inertia remained unchanged from Newton’s original meaning. However, this concept of inertia may be extended to motion that does not involve mass.

A very fundamental motion appears as light. Light is made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The formation of electric and magnetic fields encounter resistance, called permittivity and permeability respectively. Since light has no mass and it travels in space where no medium exists, this resistance may be viewed as an inherent property of light. Thus, light has inertia. Inertia is defined in this article as follows.

**Inertia is the inherent tendency of motion to maintain its status quo.**

Per Maxwell’s equations, the speed of light is the inverse of the square root of the product of permittivity and permeability. Thus inertia acts to define the speed of light. We may express this as follows.

**Inertia defines the boundaries of motion.**

Inertia resists any change in uniform speed regardless of what that speed is. Therefore inertia is the same in all inertial frames of reference. That means inertia is a universal property.

**Inertia provides a universal frame of reference.**

Thus, inertia underlies all phenomena. It applies to electromagnetic waves throughout the spectrum as frequency, or quantization levels. It applies to all matter throughout the spectrum of elements, compounds and mixtures as mass.

**Inertia underlies all phenomena whether wave or a particle.**

The inertia may be pictured over a scale that extends from zero to infinity. This picture may look like Gabriel’s Horn.

When inertia is decreasing toward zero (left end of the scale) it may said to be increasingly spreading out in the form of space. When inertia is increasing toward an infinite value (right end of the scale) it may said to be increasingly concentrated at a point. Space is a continuous entity, while the point is discrete.

**Space may be filled with points; but space is continuous, and not a set of discrete points.**

Inertia appears as mass on the right of the scale. Mathematically, mass may be treated as if located at a point. But inertia that appears on the left of the scale as quantization levels, cannot be represented by a point location. This was expressed by Heisenberg as uncertainty of location. That view erroneously assumes that the location of inertia must always be defined in terms of points. That is not so. Location of inertia may be defined as a region of continuous space. Euclidean “point” is not always appropriate to describe a physical location.

**Heisenberg’s uncertainty occurs because physical space and location are being interpreted mathematically through dimensionless points.**

Somewhere in the middle of the above scale, inertia transitions in its characteristics from “quantization” to “mass.” In reality, this transition occurs inside the atom at the interface of the electron region and the nucleus.

**Inertia transitions from “quantization” to “mass” inside the atom.**

This view of inertia brings about a new understanding to the phenomena occurring at subatomic levels. It extends classical mechanics to explain the phenomena which currently lies in the domain of quantum mechanics.

Inertia seems to transition in some way at the boundary of an atom, and at the boundary of the nucleus. These transitions need to be investigated.

Concept of inertia seems to be more basic than the concept of space, time, and spacetime. This needs to investigated.

Inertia arises only when there is “change” This compares to the arising of the sense of motion. It is conjectured that the sense of gravity may also be comparative. Better understanding of inertia may lead to a deeper understanding of gravity.

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*Notes added February 25, 2015*

- The surface of an atom seems to provide the threshold quantization level at which light starts to slow down and converge as if by a lens.
- The surface of the nucleus of an atom seems to provide the threshold quantization level at which transition takes place from electromagnetic disturbance to mass.

*Notes added November 30, 2018*

- In the above essay, the word “disturbance” is replaced by an already existing word “quantization”. Therefore, the
*disturbance levels*are now referred to as*quantization levels*. Quantization comes from the word quanta that was introduced by Einstein in 1905, to describe the particle-like behavior of light. Einstein observed that as the frequency of the blackbody radiation increased, the wave-like radiation appeared increasingly as particle-like packets (quanta) of energy. This is the process of quantization. An example of quanta is the photon of light. - Inertia basically refers to substance. Since light has a finite velocity it has inertia. Therefore, light is an electromagnetic substance that is different from material substance.

## Comments

After the initiation of the current ongoing big bang there came space-time.

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After the initiation of the current ongoing big bang there came space-time. This is probably not a beginning or an initial envelope or barrier than say the sound barrier.

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It seems that each wavelength of electromagnetic disturbance provides a layer of space of its own kind.

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In my opinion, most experimental data already exists. It is a matter of demonstrating better consistency among that data using the “Disturbance” atomic model proposed recently on this blog.

It is a matter of working out the mathematics for this model, and showing its simplicity and greater power of prediction. This reminds me of the simplicity of the math involved in constructing the heliocentric model, compared to the math used to explain the earlier earth-centric model of the solar system.

I have already expressed my doubts about the math being used in Quantum Mechanics to explain the subatomic phenomena. I have alluded to the inappropriateness of it in the article above.

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Quantum Mechanics was a short cut that is currently going nowhere.

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You always have discrete solutions to equations, and conditions. You can call them quantum.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_electron_radius

Quantum mechanics says that electron has no structure, but I do not agree with that assertion. I believe that electron has a structure, and determing that shall resolve a lot of problems.

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Somehow a linearly propagating Gamma ray wraps itself around to form an electron. How does that happen?

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How does the transition at the surface of the atom come about, where electromagnetic disturbance suddenly starts converging toward a center?

It is like a three-dimensional whirlpool forming in space.

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It is like a disturbance forming in space in the first place.

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Asimov: “With the advent of the nuclear atom, it came to be realized that these radioactive radiations must originate out of events taking place within the nucleus. For instance, there are no energy level differences among the electrons of atoms, which are large enough to produce photons as energetic as those of most gamma rays. Presumably there are nuclear energy levels within the nucleus, with differences large enough to produce gamma ray photons.”.

It is interesting to note that there are possible energy levels in the nucleus too.

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Asimov: “Yet the division between X rays and gamma rays is not a sharp one. While X rays, as a whole, have the longer wavelength’s, some of the more massive atoms can produce X rays that are rather shorter in wavelength than some of the longest wave gamma rays originating from nuclei.”.

Energy level differences in electron region of massive elements are comparable to energy level differences in nuclear region of lighter elements.

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It seems that the boundary of the atom consists of a disturbance level reached by electromagnetic radiation at which speed of radiation starts to decrease from c. From then on speed decreases rapidly (as disturbance levels increase) making the electromagnetic disturbance converge toward a center.

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Asimov: “The existence of electrons in the nucleus also seemed satisfactory from another standpoint. The nucleus could not very well consist of protons only, it seemed, for all the protons would be positively charged and there would be a colossally strong repulsion among them when forced into the ultra-narrow confines of an atomic nucleus. The presence of the negatively-charged electrons acted as a kind of “cement” between the protons.”.

Is there really “repulsion” in the nucleus because of positive charge? Or is the charge simply the result of rotation of the nucleus, and it is simply an attribute of the whole nucleus?

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From

Propagation of Light:8. Inertia increases with faster vector rotation. It is expected that this increase in inertia may slow down the forward propagation to some degree.

This may be the threshold disturbance level at which light starts to slow down and start to converge as by a lens. This disturbance level shall occur at the surface of an atom, and also at the surface of an electron.

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9. As the closeness of threads crosses a certain threshold, they may start to congeal into a motion that resembles more like a fast rotating disk. Thus come about the mass type characteristics of inertia.

This may be the threshold disturbance level at which transition from disturbance to mass takes place. This disturbance level shall occur at the surface of the nucleus of an atom. This disturbance level may only be approached in an electron but not reached.

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The theoretical ground state for this universe is inertia-less primordial field, which, when disturbed, gives rise to the electromagnetic phenomenon with inertia.

Motion is not infinite because motion is defined by inertia. The universe is kept together only because there is inertia.

We can walk only because there is friction. This earth can exist only because there is inertia.

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There is a speed-limit to light because of inertia.

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