Another View of the Universe

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(The following are conjectures based on the Disturbance Theory of Light.)

From “The Tao of Physics”

To have a better idea of the way in which the universe expands, we have to remember that the proper framework for studying its large-scale features is Einstein’s general theory of relativity. According to this theory, space is not ‘flat’, but is ‘curved’, and the precise way in which it is curved is related to the distribution of matter by Einstein’s field equations. These equations can be used to determine the structure of the universe as a whole; they are the starting point of modern cosmology.

Outer edge of the universe is made up of the lowest frequency of disturbance. As one moves through the universe, the frequency changes to make the disturbance appear as energy, electrons, atoms, etc., all the way up to stars, planets and galaxies.

Space and time basically describe the wavelength and period of the disturbance (awareness or light). Together space-time describes the frequency of the disturbance along with its characteristic wavelength and period.

Frequency of disturbance seems to determine the curvature of its path. As frequency increases, the curvature of the path also increases. The direction of curvature may determine the charge of the light after the frequency crosses a certain threshold. The disturbances then curves upon itself. Here is the region of electron.

As the frequency continues to increase the disturbance continues to condense into smaller region. When the frequency crosses another threshold, we have the region of the nucleus. This transition of electronic to nuclear region needs to be investigated.

Other fundamental particles appear only when atoms are made to disintegrate through collisions. But such particles are high frequency disturbances curving upon themselves. They are stable only to the degree that their frequencies are able to form “standing wave” type configurations within themselves.

Space that seems to form the background is apparently made up of disturbances of lowest frequencies. Beyond that there seem to be absence of disturbance, or non-awareness.

There seems to be negative disturbance levels that describe the gradients of non-awareness. The disturbance level zero may act as a threshold where non-awareness transitions into awareness.

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From “The Tao of Physics”

According to the physicist and and philosopher Ernst Mach, the inertia of a material object – the object’s resistance against being accelerated – is not an intrinsic property of matter, but a measure of its interaction with all the rest of the universe. In Mach’s view, matter only has inertia because there is other matter in the universe. When a body rotates, its inertia produces centrifugal forces…, but these forces appear only because the body rotates ‘relative to the fixed stars’, as Mach has put it. If those fixed stars were suddenly to disappear, the inertia and the centrifugal forces of the rotating body would disappear with them.

Per relativity, the higher frequencies of disturbance are relative to the lower frequencies. Matter consists of these higher frequencies. Since the surrounding environment consists of lower frequencies matter can develop relative to it, without requiring other matter in its environment.

It is the higher frequencies of matter that curve within themselves. They reinforce themselves in that rotation and resist moving in any other direction. This is the cause of inertia.

This model shows that inertia is an intrinsic property of matter and it does not depend on other matter in the universe as Mach hypothesized.

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Comments

  • freebeeing  On November 14, 2014 at 10:16 AM

    Have you formulated any math for these speculations?

    • vinaire  On November 14, 2014 at 12:25 PM

      I plan to work on the math when I get back to USA after the current vacation in Maldives and India. I don’t expect the math to be that difficult.

      The first thing I would like to check is the threshold frequencies for the photoelectric effect and how does those frequencies compare to the frequency of the electron.

  • vinaire  On November 28, 2014 at 3:40 PM

    This universe has a boundary even when the universe is considered to be infinite. This is because there is a limit to what one can be aware of. Thus there is a boundary of what one can be aware of, beyond which there is non-awareness.

    This boundary of the universe is very likely diffused. There are gradients of decreasing awareness of what is there. These gradients ultimately disappear into non-awareness.

    We may assume the shape of the universe to be spherical or close to being spherical. In any case, the surface of the universe is expected to be curved with a convex curvature.This means that light or EMR ultimately curves onto itself even when its curvature appears to be negligible.

    It is cojectured that as the frequency of EMR increases, its curvature increases as well, and the volume enclosed by that EMR decreases. Thus, the density of EMR increases with increasing frequency.

    The electronic shells in an atom and its nucleus may ultimately by the result of this condensation of EMR. When the EMR curves upon itself it also seems to lock up as a “standing wave.” This gives rise to quantum levels, as visible in the electronic shells of an atom.

    universe

    • vinaire  On November 28, 2014 at 3:49 PM

      Those fundamental particles are more stable in which the condensing EMR shell locks up as a “standing wave.”

    • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 5:31 AM

      The conjecture above explains the wave-particle duality. It is the wave curving and locking into itself that appears as having particle properties. Such particle properties are manifested primarily during wave-wave or wave-field interactions.

    • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 5:53 AM

      A particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume or mass…. if an object’s own size is small or negligible, or if geometrical properties and structure are irrelevant, then it can often be considered a particle… It can be used to make simplifying assumptions concerning the processes involved.

      Treatment of large numbers of particles is the realm of statistical physics. When studied in the context of an extremely small scale, quantum mechanics becomes important and gives rise to several phenomena demonstrated in the particle in a box model including wave–particle duality, or theoretical considerations, such a whether particles can be considered distinct or identical.

      Elementary particles (also called fundamental particles) refer to particles that are not made of other particles. According to our current understanding of the world, only a very small number of these exist, such as the leptons, quarks or gluons.

      Both elementary and composite particles are known to undergo particle decay. Those that don’t are called stable particles… In general, a particle decays from a high-energy state to a lower-energy state by emitting some form of radiation, such as the emission of photons.

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  • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 5:36 AM

    From Wave–particle duality

    The idea of duality originated in a debate over the nature of light and matter that dates back to the 17th century, when Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton proposed competing theories of light: light was thought either to consist of waves (Huygens) or of particles (Newton). Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa). This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely short wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected.
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  • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 4:00 PM

    I think that I found part of the logic I was looking for in context of Black Body Radiation. It is as follows:

    From Radiation quantization

    “The solution arrived in 1900 when Max Planck hypothesized that the frequency of light emitted by the black body depended on the frequency of the oscillator that emitted it, and the energy of these oscillators increased linearly with frequency (according to his constant h, where E = hν). This was not an unsound proposal considering that macroscopic oscillators operate similarly: when studying five simple harmonic oscillators of equal amplitude but different frequency, the oscillator with the highest frequency possesses the highest energy (though this relationship is not linear like Planck’s). By demanding that high-frequency light must be emitted by an oscillator of equal frequency, and further requiring that this oscillator occupy higher energy than one of a lesser frequency, Planck avoided any catastrophe; giving an equal partition to high-frequency oscillators produced successively fewer oscillators and less emitted light. And as in the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, the low-frequency, low-energy oscillators were suppressed by the onslaught of thermal jiggling from higher energy oscillators, which necessarily increased their energy and frequency.”

    I can see now how Planck’s assumption, help resolve the ultraviolet catastrophe. The calculated results matched the experimental curve, and that gave credence to the assumption that the frequency of light emitted by the black body depended on the frequency of the oscillator that emitted it, and the energy of these oscillators increased linearly with frequency. In other words, E = hʋ.

    Here the energy quanta is based on the frequencies that could fit in the cavity. Thus, neither frequency, nor energy emission is continuous.

    • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 5:41 PM

      It appears that the energy quanta is some kind of a resonance phenomenon.

      From Resonance

      “Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others… Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a pendulum)… Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical resonance, acoustic resonance, electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions. Resonant systems can be used to generate vibrations of a specific frequency (e.g., musical instruments), or pick out specific frequencies from a complex vibration containing many frequencies (e.g., filters).

    • vinaire  On November 29, 2014 at 6:31 PM

      The black body radiation is due to the resonance at specific frequencies. That is why we have energy quanta. The amplitude peaks to the highest at the resonant frequencies of the atoms making up the lattice of the material.

      ENERGY QUANTA = Energy at resonance.

      Resonance
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    • vinaire  On November 30, 2014 at 5:57 AM

      (1) In any resonance the amplitude peaks. Amplitude denotes intensity and also the energy. This is the energy that is emitted from the black body as radiation.

      (2) In Black Body Radiation, the body is being heated and that makes it color change to red first and then to white. So,the external energy source is the heat being applied. The absorpton of this heat is reflected as vibrations, but these vibrations are those, which are naturally allowed by the composition of the black body. They convert the heat energy into radiation at natural frequencies of the atomic structure of the black body. That is how line spectra is generated. The energy quanta seems to appear as the energy of the radiation at specific frequencies..

      .

    • vinaire  On November 30, 2014 at 6:13 AM

      From Resonance

      “The system stores vibrational energy at resonant frequencies… Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a pendulum)… then even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations.”

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  • vinaire  On November 30, 2014 at 8:24 AM

    From Resonators

    “The resonant frequencies of resonators, called normal modes, are equally spaced multiples of a lowest frequency called the fundamental frequency. The multiples are often called overtones. There may be several such series of resonant frequencies, corresponding to different modes of vibration.”

    .

  • vinaire  On November 30, 2014 at 9:24 AM

    In thermodynamics, we are looking at vibrational modes of atoms within a lattice structure. In black body radiation we are looking at vibrational modes within the structure of an atom itself.

    200px-Waves_in_Box

  • vinaire  On November 30, 2014 at 10:32 AM

    From Normal mode

    A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation. The motion described by the normal modes is called resonance. The frequencies of the normal modes of a system are known as its natural frequencies or resonant frequencies. A physical object, such as a building, bridge or molecule, has a set of normal modes that depend on its structure, materials and boundary conditions.

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  • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 6:53 AM

    The significance of energy quanta seems to lie in the normal modes within an atom. The energy associated with these modes is proportional to the frequency of those modes.
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  • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 7:14 AM

    From Radiation quantization

    The most revolutionary aspect of Planck’s treatment of the black body is that it inherently relies on an integer number of oscillators in thermal equilibrium with the electromagnetic field. These oscillators give their entire energy to the electromagnetic field, creating a quantum of light, as often as they are excited by the electromagnetic field, absorbing a quantum of light and beginning to oscillate at the corresponding frequency. Planck had intentionally created an atomic theory of the black body, but had unintentionally generated an atomic theory of light, where the black body never generates quanta of light at a given frequency with an energy less than hν. However, once realizing that he had quantized the electromagnetic field, he denounced particles of light as a limitation of his approximation, not a property of reality.

    .

    • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 7:31 AM

      Energy of a wave is associated with its amplitude. But the amplitude at resonance increases in an asymptotic manner.

      It seems that when we compare energies at resonances (normal modes), they vary in proportion to their frequency.

    • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 7:36 AM

      A photon is therefore the peak energy of a normal mode in a resonating atom, which is transmitted in the form of a radiation.

  • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 8:25 AM

    from Photoelectric effect illuminated

    Yet while Planck had solved the ultraviolet catastrophe by using atoms and a quantized electromagnetic field, most physicists immediately agreed that Planck’s “light quanta” were unavoidable flaws in his model. A more complete derivation of black body radiation would produce a fully continuous, fully wave-like electromagnetic field with no quantization. However, in 1905 Albert Einstein took Planck’s black body model in itself and saw a wonderful solution to another outstanding problem of the day: the photoelectric effect, the phenomenon where electrons are emitted from atoms when they absorb energy from light. Ever since the discovery of electrons eight years previously, electrons had been the thing to study in physics laboratories worldwide.

    In 1902 Philipp Lenard discovered that (within the range of the experimental parameters he was using) the energy of these ejected electrons did not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but on its frequency. So if one shines a little low-frequency light upon a metal, a few low energy electrons are ejected. If one now shines a very intense beam of low-frequency light upon the same metal, a whole slew of electrons are ejected; however they possess the same low energy, there are merely more of them. In order to get high energy electrons, one must illuminate the metal with high-frequency light. The more light there is, the more electrons are ejected. Like blackbody radiation, this was at odds with a theory invoking continuous transfer of energy between radiation and matter. However, it can still be explained using a fully classical description of light, as long as matter is quantum mechanical in nature.

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    • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 8:26 AM

      Looks like the photoelectric effect has to do with resonances within an atom too.

    • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 10:38 AM

      In a photoelectric effect the excited normal mode discharges itself in the form of an electron instead of radiation (photon). I need to understand the difference in the process involved.

      What are the differences and similarities between an electron and a photon?

      • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 10:47 AM

        In black body radiation the input is most probably in infra-red range. It never gets to the ultraviolet range.

        In photoelectric effect, the input is closer to ultraviolet range. Electrons require higher energy of formation than photons.

  • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 11:02 AM

    From Photoelectric effect illuminated

    If one used Planck’s energy quanta, and demanded that electromagnetic radiation at a given frequency could only transfer energy to matter in integer multiples of an energy quantum hν, then the photoelectric effect could be explained very simply. Low-frequency light only ejects low-energy electrons because each electron is excited by the absorption of a single photon. Increasing the intensity of the low-frequency light (increasing the number of photons) only increases the number of excited electrons, not their energy, because the energy of each photon remains low. Only by increasing the frequency of the light, and thus increasing the energy of the photons, can one eject electrons with higher energy. Thus, using Planck’s constant h to determine the energy of the photons based upon their frequency, the energy of ejected electrons should also increase linearly with frequency; the gradient of the line being Planck’s constant. These results were not confirmed until 1915, when Robert Andrews Millikan, who had previously determined the charge of the electron, produced experimental results in perfect accord with Einstein’s predictions. While the energy of ejected electrons reflected Planck’s constant, the existence of photons was not explicitly proven until the discovery of the photon antibunching effect, of which a modern experiment can be performed in undergraduate-level labs.[18] This phenomenon could only be explained via photons, and not through any semi-classical theory (which could alternatively explain the photoelectric effect). When Einstein received his Nobel Prize in 1921, it was not for his more difficult and mathematically laborious special and general relativity, but for the simple, yet totally revolutionary, suggestion of quantized light. Einstein’s “light quanta” would not be called photons until 1925, but even in 1905 they represented the quintessential example of wave-particle duality. Electromagnetic radiation propagates following linear wave equations, but can only be emitted or absorbed as discrete elements, thus acting as a wave and a particle simultaneously.

    This is because absorption and emission seems to occur through normal modes within the atom.

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  • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 3:38 PM

    From Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect

    Einstein explained this conundrum by postulating that the electrons can receive energy from electromagnetic field only in discrete portions (quanta that were called photons): an amount of energy E that was related to the frequency f of the light by

    E = h f

    where h is Planck’s constant (6.626 × 10−34 J seconds). Only photons of a high enough frequency (above a certain threshold value) could knock an electron free. For example, photons of blue light had sufficient energy to free an electron from the metal, but photons of red light did not. More intense light above the threshold frequency could release more electrons, but no amount of light (using technology available at the time) below the threshold frequency could release an electron. To “violate” this law would require extremely high intensity lasers which had not yet been invented. Intensity-dependent phenomena have now been studied in detail with such lasers.

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    It seems that electrons are released by the very high intensity generated in a resonance. A threshold frequency equal to the normal mode of the electronic region of the atom is required for this purpose.

    How does an incident radiation interacts with the “bound radiation” of the electronic region?

    NOTE: I am not assuming electrons to be already there in the atom. They may be created as the result of interaction.

    • vinaire  On December 1, 2014 at 5:29 PM

      The minimum energy required to free the electron from the metal is called the Work Fuction.

      The work function can be as low as 2.1 eV (for Cesium), and as high as 6.35 eV (for Platinum). The average value for most metals is between 4 and 5 eV.

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