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Exercises: Buddha on Mind (Final Set)

Mindfulness

Reference: Mindfulness Approach
Note: These exercises are derived directly from Buddhist scriptures, specifically, from Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness.

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In this exercise one contemplates on the Four Noble Truths.

  1. This is suffering
  2. This is the origin of suffering
  3. This is the cessation of suffering
  4. This is the road leading to the cessation of suffering

These truths are part of the mental objects that one needs to be mindful of.

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EXERCISE # 1

PURPOSE: The Contemplation on the First Noble Truth.

STUDY: The First Noble Truth – DUKKHA

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

  1. Contemplate on the meaning of the First Noble Truth – DUKKHA.

  2. Contemplate on each paragraph of the above study.

  3. Contemplate on dukkha as observed internally within you and also externally in others.

  4. Contemplate on factors that shape dukkha and/or which dissolve dukkha.

  5. Contemplate on dukkha existing to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness.

  6. Repeat this exercise in “20 minute sessions”, until you can comfortably view dukkha objectively.

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EXERCISE # 2

PURPOSE: The Contemplation on the Second Noble Truth.

STUDY:  The Second Noble Truth – The Arising of Dukkha.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

  1. Contemplate on the meaning of the Second Noble Truth – The arising of Dukkha.

  2. Contemplate on each paragraph of the above study.

  3. Contemplate on arising of dukkha as observed internally within you and also externally in others.

  4. Contemplate on factors that shape the arising of dukkha and/or which dissolve the arising of dukkha.

  5. Contemplate on the arising of dukkha existing to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness.

  6. Repeat this exercise in “20 minute sessions”, until you can comfortably view the arising of dukkha objectively.

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EXERCISE # 3

PURPOSE: The Contemplation on the Third Noble Truth.

STUDY: The Third Noble Truth – The Cessation of Dukkha.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

  1. Contemplate on the meaning of the Third Noble Truth – The Cessation of Dukkha.

  2. Contemplate on each paragraph of the above study.

  3. Contemplate on the cessation of dukkha as observed internally within you and also externally in others.

  4. Contemplate on factors that shape the cessation of dukkha and/or which dissolve the cessation of dukkha.

  5. Contemplate on the cessation of dukkha existing to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness.

  6. Repeat this exercise in “20 minute sessions”, until you can comfortably view the cessation of dukkha objectively.

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EXERCISE # 4

PURPOSE: The Contemplation on the Fourth Noble Truth.

STUDY: The Fourth Noble Truth – The Path.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE: The Discipline of Mindfulness

STEPS:

  1. Contemplate on the meaning of the Fourth Noble Truth – The Path.

  2. Contemplate on each paragraph of the above study.

  3. Contemplate on the path as observed internally within you and also externally in others.

  4. Contemplate on factors that shape the path and/or which dissolve the path.

  5. Contemplate on the path existing to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness.

  6. Repeat this exercise in “20 minute sessions”, until you can comfortably view the path objectively.

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Remedial Physics

CircumhorizonArcAcon

Physical Science 8th grade

The Physics Classroom

Schaum Beginning Physics I

Schaum beginning Physics II

Schaum Modern Physics

Asimov: Understanding Physics Volume 1

Asimov: Understanding Physics Volume 2

Asimov: Understanding Physics Volume 3

Maxwell: A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism – Volume 1

Maxwell: A Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism – Volume 2

Faraday: Experimental Researches in Electricity – Volume 3

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COMMENTS: Einstein’s 1905 Paper on Relativity (Part 2)

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ReferenceDisturbance Theory

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This is continuation of the examination of Einstein’s postulates underlying his theory of Relativity, specifically, how these postulates were translated into his mathematics.

Einstein’s 1905 paper: http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/#tex2html1

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I. KINEMATICAL PART – § 1. Definition of Simultaneity

“Let us take a system of co-ordinates in which the equations of Newtonian mechanics hold good. In order to render our presentation more precise and to distinguish this system of co-ordinates verbally from others which will be introduced hereafter, we call it the ‘stationary system’.” 

Einstein takes up a system of co­ordinates in which equations of Newtonian mechanics hold well. These he calls inertial frames in which a body remains at rest or moves with constant linear velocity unless acted upon by forces. This property of a body is called inertia.

Inertia represents the resistance to change in motion of a body in space. When this resistance is overcome there is acceleration. We have assumed all along that space is completely permeable to matter. This is not so as evidenced by inertia.

Therefore, matter is ‘stationary’ relative to space when there is no acceleration. All inertial frames in “uniform motion” are actually stationary relative to space. This we identified earlier as the space reference frame (SRF).

“If a material point is at rest relatively to this system of co-ordinates, its position can be defined relatively thereto by the employment of rigid standards of measurement and the methods of Euclidean geometry, and can be expressed in Cartesian co-ordinates.”

A particle is essentially a disturbance propagating through space. This particle of disturbance has a configuration. As the complexity of this configuration increases, the inertia of the particle also increases, and its speed of propagation decreases. A light particle has the simplest configuration and its speed of propagation is ‘c’. An electron is a particle of complex configuration, whose speed is less than 1% of the speed of light. A neutron is a still more complex particle whose speed is thousand times still less.

Einstein’s “material point” refers to a matter particle that has a configuration more complex than that of a neutron. In its most complex configuration a matter particle shall have a speed that is infinitesimal compared to ‘c’. Euclidean geometry and Cartesian co-ordinates apply only to this extreme case of a matter particle. They do not apply to light particles.

All motion considered by Einstein is in reference to matter. This we identified earlier as the material reference frame (MRF). MRF represents a limiting case of a more general SRF that addresses a much wider range of particle configurations.

“If we wish to describe the motion of a material point, we give the values of its co-ordinates as functions of the time. Now we must bear carefully in mind that a mathematical description of this kind has no physical meaning unless we are quite clear as to what we understand by ‘time.’ We have to take into account that all our judgments in which time plays a part are always judgments of simultaneous events. If, for instance, I say, ‘That train arrives here at 7 o’clock,’ I mean something like this: ‘The pointing of the small hand of my watch to 7 and the arrival of the train are simultaneous events’.”

The natural speed of propagation in space then depends on the complexity of configuration of a disturbance as particle. This we perceive as motion that is balanced by the inertia of the particle. Any change in this balance is perceived as acceleration. Acceleration implies presence of force.

Motion is described by the property of TIME. Time essentially describes the sequence of change. A change is referred back to the previous step in the sequence. Thus, time lies in the continuity of a sequence, and it is unique to the configuration of that sequence.

To compare two time sequences in terms of simultaneity they must have comparable configurations. This is reflected in comparability in terms of inertia of the particles. The property of time shall then be a function of inertia. The “time” that we are used to is tied with the material level of inertia. In other words, our experience of time depends on the inertial characteristic of MRF (material reference frame).

The “time” associated with light shall depend on the configuration of the light particle or its inertia. To consider simultaneity of time for matter and light particles, their relative inertia shall have to be taken into account.

“It might appear possible to overcome all the difficulties attending the definition of ‘time’ by substituting ‘the position of the small hand of my watch’ for ‘time.’ And in fact such a definition is satisfactory when we are concerned with defining a time exclusively for the place where the watch is located; but it is no longer satisfactory when we have to connect in time series of events occurring at different places, or—what comes to the same thing—to evaluate the times of events occurring at places remote from the watch.”

The “time characteristics” of particles of different inertia shall be measurable from a “particle” that has no inertia.  Such a particle may be postulated as “undisturbed space”. We can then assess the “simultaneity” of two particles by determining their “time characteristics” in terms of their inertia.

The complexity of configuration, and thus the inertia of a particle may be measured in terms of “disturbance levels” as described earlier in The Disturbance Theory. On this scale the disturbance level of zero is a frequency of 1. The disturbance level of 77.6 represents a neutron. All higher disturbance levels represent matter. Earth has a disturbance level of about 235.

At the disturbance levels of matter the wavelength, period and speed become infinitesimal; and the sinusoidal variations in time and space become imperceptible. Time and space then acquire an appearance of constancy that does not exist at electrodynamic and quantum levels.

“We might, of course, content ourselves with time values determined by an observer stationed together with the watch at the origin of the co-ordinates, and co-ordinating the corresponding positions of the hands with light signals, given out by every event to be timed, and reaching him through empty space. But this co-ordination has the disadvantage that it is not independent of the standpoint of the observer with the watch or clock, as we know from experience. We arrive at a much more practical determination along the following line of thought.”

The idea of observer basically represents the characteristics of the reference frame that is being used to interpret motion. The time measured by Einstein’s clocks follows the inertial characteristics of matter. To combine the velocity of light with material velocity would be equivalent to assuming light to have same inertial characteristics as matter. Any mathematics that combines the velocity of light with material velocity using simple addition or subtraction shall lead to erroneous results. It would be like adding a penny to a dollar and calling it two coins of same magnitude.

Unfortunately, Einstein’s mathematics does just that in the rest of this section. We shall skip this mathematics and focus on those aspects of Einstein’s theory that make correct predictions of physical phenomena. Hopefully, a closer look at such aspects will provide better insight into Einstein’s thinking.

[To be continued…]

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Exercises: Mindfulness (Set 1)

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Reference: Mindfulness Approach

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Mindfulness is seeing things as they are. It provides the discipline for looking and contemplation

The following exercises help you see things as they are. You may do them while sipping coffee in a café, or strolling along a river. You may even find a place where you can sit comfortably for a while without being disturbed, and then patiently observe the world go by.

Desires make one want certain outcomes. This leads to speculations that have no basis other than one’s expectations. But, it is only when you know what is there can you predict future in a reasonable and consistent manner.

Familiarity makes one assume certain things to be there. The visualization is already there in the mind, and it gets superimposed over what is there. However familiar something may be it is never permanent and it may not actually be there.

If something is missing then recognize that it is missing. Do not imagine something in its place. If someone asks you a question and no answer comes up in your mind, then do not feel obliged to make up an answer. Accept that you do not have an answer..

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EXERCISE # 1: Desires and Expectations

PURPOSE:  To discern the influence of desires and expectations on the perception of what is there.

PREREQUISITE:  Review Exercises: Discerning the Environment.

STEPS:

  1. In this exercise you simply become aware of desires and expectations that may influence observation.

  2. Notice the environment and the people in a causal, easygoing manner.

  3. Notice if there is a desire and expectation accompanying your observation.

    For example, you may see a person in priestly robes and have a desire to trust him implicitly. This is one expects from a man of God.

  4. Simply become aware of that desire, and move on. Do not interfere with the desire present. Do not avoid, resist, suppress, or deny any other thoughts or feelings arising in the mind.

  5. If there are extraneous thoughts arising in your mind, notice if they is an underlying desire. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  6. If there is uncontrolled thinking going on in your mind, notice if there is an effort to predict something. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  7. If there are unanswered questions swirling around, notice if there are expectations attached to them. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  8. If a question is really important, and it needs to be resolved, then note it down to be researched later. Do not avoid, resist, suppress, or deny any question. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  9. Expand your span of attention to as wide a context as possible, and let the physical and mental perceptions pour in, while doing this exercise.

  10. This exercise is done for 20 minute, which is the normal duration of a session. Several sessions may be given during a day, and over the course of days, until progress is observed.

  11. This exercise is completed when it becomes effortless.

  12. When this exercise is completed you may proceed to the next exercise.

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EXERCISE # 2: Assumptions

PURPOSE:  To discern the influence of assumptions on the perception of what is there.

PREREQUISITE:  Exercise # 1 above.

STEPS:

  1. In this exercise you simply become aware of assumptions that may influence observation.

  2. Notice the environment and the people in a causal, easygoing manner.

  3. As you observe, see if the actual perceptions are different from how they should be according to the ideas in your mind.

    For example, you may see only the profile of a stranger, and see only one ear. But your mind tells you that he has two ears, because “all men have two ears.” He may have two ears but you don’t see them. The chances are slim but this stranger may have only one ear. Those, who are aware of their assumptions, are mindful.

  4. Simply become aware of the assumptions, and move on. Do not interfere with the assumptions present. Do not avoid, resist, suppress, or deny any other thoughts or feelings arising in the mind.

  5. As you observe, see if you are being judgmental about some situation.

    For Example: You may look at a person of certain sex, color, profession or cultural background. This may bring up certain preconceived ideas. Separate the actual perception from the ideas contained in the mind.

  6. Notice the preconceived ideas present one by one. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  7. As you observe, see if there is something that does not make sense. Notice if any of your own ideas are contributing to that confusion. Simply become aware of what is there and move on.

  8. Expand your span of attention to as wide a context as possible, and let the physical and mental perceptions pour in, while doing this exercise.

  9. This exercise is done for 20 minute, which is the normal duration of a session. Several sessions may be given during a day, and over the course of days, until progress is observed.

  10. This exercise is completed when it becomes effortless.

  11. When this exercise is completed you may proceed to the next exercise.

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EXERCISE # 3: Something Missing

PURPOSE:  To discern the influence of something missing on the perception of what is there.

PREREQUISITE:  Exercise # 2 above.

STEPS:

  1. In this exercise you simply become aware of something missing that may influence observation.

  2. Notice the environment and the people in a causal, easygoing manner.

  3. Notice something that is puzzling, and about which full understanding is missing. Do not feel obliged to accept the explanations given; instead focus on what is puzzling.

  4. Carefully consider the broad context of the scene, and the purpose of the activity. Notice something specific that really does not make sense. Examine it closely including your viewpoint with respect to it.

  5. Observe your mind imagining reasons to fill the uncomfortable gap in understanding. Simply become aware of what is missing and move on.

  6. Notice questions you have for which satisfactory “answers” are missing. Examine the answers you have and notice what really does not make sense.

  7. Notice the impulse to come up with an answer. If there is no answer then acknowledge the fact. Do not make up an answer. Simply become aware of what is missing and move on.

  8. Repeat the above steps noticing things that are puzzling and for which satisfactory answers re not available.

  9. Expand your span of attention to as wide a context as possible, and let the physical and mental perceptions pour in, while doing this exercise.

  10. This exercise is done for 20 minute, which is the normal duration of a session. Several sessions may be given during a day, and over the course of days, until progress is observed.

  11. This exercise is completed when it becomes effortless.

  12. When this exercise is completed you may proceed to the next exercise.

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Dianetics Axioms 16 – 30

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Reference: The Dianetic Axioms

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SYMBOLS:

THETA: The symbol for the LIFE STATIC

DELTA: The symbol for DISTURBANCE

MEST: (matter, energy, space and time)

ICAD: (identity, consciousness, awareness and desire)

LAMBDA: The symbol for living organisms

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DN AXIOM 16: The basic food of any organism consists of light and chemicals.

Organisms can exist only as higher levels of complexities because lower levels of converters exist.

THETA evolves organisms from lower to higher forms and supports them by the existence of lower converter forms.

DN AXIOM 16 (revised): Life organisms evolve from light and chemicals.

Organisms form a food chain to sustain higher level organisms.

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DN AXIOM 17: THETA, via LAMBDA, effects an evolution of mest.

In this we have the waste products of organisms on the one hand as those very complex chemicals which bacteria make and, on the other hand, we have the physical face of the Earth being changed by animals and men, such changes as grass holding mountains from eroding or roots causing boulders to break, buildings being built and rivers being dammed. There is obviously an evolution in mest in progress under the incursion of THETA.

DN AXIOM 17 (revised): Living organisms bring about an evolution of the physical environment on a large scale.

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DN AXIOM 18: LAMBDA, even within a species, varies in its endowment of THETA.

MEST provides the outer formation, and ICAD provides the inner essentials of LAMBDA. Both MEST and ICAD configurations are unique for organisms even within the same species.

DN AXIOM 18 (revised): Each life organism, even within a species, has its own unique capacity to change the environment.

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DN AXIOM 19: The effort of LAMBDA is toward survival. The goal of LAMBDA is survival. The penalty of failure to advance toward that goal is to succumb.

DEFINITION: Persistence is the ability to exert continuance of effort toward survival goals.

This is a universe of change. A form appears, survives for some time, and then disappears. No form survives forever. Therefore, the natural goal in this universe is evolution and not survival. Evolution comes about as greater alignment takes place in terms of continuity, harmony and consistency.

DN AXIOM 19 (revised): The effort of LAMBDA is toward evolution. The goal of LAMBDA is evolution. The penalty of failure to evolve is extinction.

DEFINITION: Persistence is the ability to exert continuance of effort toward evolutionary goals.

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DN AXIOM 20: LAMBDA creates, conserves, maintains, requires, destroys, changes, occupies, groups and disperses mest.

LAMBDA survives by animating and mobilizing or destroying matter and energy in space and time.

Hubbard is focused on the evolution of MEST, but there is also the evolution of ICAD.

DN AXIOM 20 (revised): LAMBDA evolves through the alignment of ICAD; and it aligns MEST in its environment.

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DN AXIOM 21: LAMBDA is dependent upon optimum motion. Motion which is too swift and motion which is too slow are equally contra survival.

Per axiom 14, a harmonious rate of progression is necessary for the evolution. LAMBA is dependent upon an optimum rate of change or motion.

DN AXIOM 21 (revised): LAMBDA is dependent upon an optimum rate of change. Rate that is too swift and rate that is too slow are equally destructive.

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DN AXIOM 22: THETA and thought are similar orders of static.

DN AXIOM 22 (revised): Thought brings about the change needed for evolution.

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DN AXIOM 23: All thought is concerned with motion.

DN AXIOM 23 (revised): All thought is concerned with change.

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DN AXIOM 24: The establishment of an optimum motion is a basic goal of reason.

DEFINITION: LAMBDA is a chemical heat engine existing in space and time motivated by the life static and directed by thought.

ICAD consists of the metaphysical elements that determine physical motion. Thought is the vector of ICAD, which directs this motion that is intended to bring alignment. This direction is the reason.

DN AXIOM 24 (revised): The establishment of an optimum rate of change is a basic goal of reason.

DEFINITION: LAMBDA is a MEST engine motivated by DELTA and directed by thought.

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DN AXIOM 25: The basic purpose of reason is the calculation or estimation of effort.

DN AXIOM 25 (revised): The basic purpose of reason is the calculation or estimation of the effort to evolve.

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DN AXIOM 26: Thought is accomplished by THETA FACSIMILES of physical universe, entities or actions.

Reasoning is there to align the perception of the physical universe with experiential matrix of the mind. Alignment starts with free association. As gaps exist in alignment, thought makes postulates to fill them. Such aligned data in the experiential matix is referred to as “THETA FACSIMILES” by Hubbard.

DN AXIOM 26 (revised): Thought is accomplished by postulation and free association of various scenarios, entities or actions.

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DN AXIOM 27: THETA is satisfied only with harmonious action or optimum motion and rejects or destroys action or motion above or below its tolerance band.

The fundamental principle that needs to be satisfied is continuity, harmony and consistency of everything in this universe. This is the principle used for the alignment of reality.

DN AXIOM 27 (revised): Evolutionary progress occurs only when there is harmonious action or optimum rate of change.

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DN AXIOM 28: The mind is concerned wholly with the estimation of effort.

DEFINITION: Mind is the THETA command post of any organism or organisms.

DN AXIOM 28 (revised): The mind is concerned wholly with the estimation of effort required to evolve.

DEFINITION: Mind is the ICAD command post of any organism or organisms.

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DN AXIOM 29: The basic errors of reason are failure to differentiate amongst matter, energy, space and time.

The failure to differentiate comes from looking through a filter. The filter is created by a postulate that is fixed and not being associated freely with what is being perceived. The reason underlying the fixation is that the person is limited in his context he is using. This is narrow-mindedness.

DN AXIOM 29 (revised): The basic error of reason is to look through the filter of narrow-mindedness.

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DN AXIOM 30: Rightness is proper calculation of effort.

DN AXIOM 30 (revised): Rightness is calculation of effort in appropriate context.

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