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The Dimension of “Mass”

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

A quantum was, at first, proposed as a mathematical concept by Max Planck that explained the distribution of the Black body radiation. It was a groundbreaking concept in the sense that it expressed energy as a function of frequency instead of amplitude of the waveform.

Einstein, in his groundbreaking paper on Light quanta, was able to show that the entropy of monochromatic radiation follows the same rules as the entropy of a perfect gas. Einstein thus showed that Planck’s postulate of energy quanta was more than a mathematical device. Light quanta had actual substantiality like a gas molecule.

A quantum of light has substantiality. That indicates mass of certain concentration.


Classical to the Quantum View

Newton’s corpuscular theory viewed light as having substance. The wave theory changed this view to light being energy of a wave traveling through a stationary aether. In wave theory the particles of medium oscillate about a stationary location and do not move with the wave. The energy of the wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave.

But this view encountered a major setback with Einstein’s theory of Light Quanta. Einstein showed that light approximated particle behavior, therefore, the medium of stationary aether was not required. The light energy was more like the kinetic energy of a particle—a function of mass and velocity. In the case of light, however, that “mass” was determined by a variable “frequency”.

The frequency of light represents a “mass concentration” that becomes denser as frequency increases.


Quanta as “Mass Particle”

A variable mass concentration based on frequency was a revolutionary concept, because matter has a constant mass concentration in terms of atoms. Einstein had difficulty in accepting the variability of mass concentration. He proposed a mass-energy equivalence as E = mc2 and declared quantum to be an “energy particle”. For Einstein, light did not have mass, because it did not have the same “mass concentration” as that in a material particle.

Einstein concludes in his 1905 paper on light quanta:

According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localized in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole.

But a particle can be treated as discrete in space only when it can be viewed as a point particle. A material particle can be viewed as a point particle because its mass can be treated as being concentrated at a center. That is called the center of mass. The uncertainty principle essentially says that a quantum particle does not have a center of mass because its location cannot be pinned down. In other words, as particles are continued to be divided, they lose their center of mass beyond a certain limit, and they merge into each other forming a fluid-like continuum.

Einstein’s conclusion about discreteness of quanta was based on the assumption of “constant concentration of mass” Einstein did not become aware of the inconsistency of his assumption because he conflated energy with mass. It is true that quantum can have discrete energy interactions, and that the concentration of mass could be so low that its significance can be appreciated in energy units only. But it is also true that there can be no concept of energy without an underlying concept of substance.

Unlike matter quanta has variable “mass concentration”. It is a fluid-like continuum with rapid intrinsic motion.


Variable Mass Concentration

In matter, mass has a concentration that we find in a neutron or a proton. These particles have a certain volume, but they may be treated as point particles because of their center of mass property. This property arises because of their rigid structure.

Mass is 1840 times less concentrated in an electron that makes the size of the electron about 1840 times larger than the size of the proton. An electron is no longer rigid, it does not have the center of mass property and it flows like a fluid. An electron cannot be treated like a point particle.

Mass is still less concentrated in a photon, and its size may be considered much larger than an electron. It flows more like a fluid without center of mass. Richard Feynman, in his book QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, shows calculations that treats light as such a fluid. Feynman, however, thinks of those calculated values as “probabilities” because he thought of photon as a “point particle”.

Mass, as it loses its concentration, becomes a fluid field, which is an actual reality as visualized by Faraday with his lines of force. Field is not just a mathematical reality as considered by Maxwell and Einstein. There is no limit to which the concentration of mass can be diluted as a field. The ultimate limit may be the gravitational field as “space”.

Current physics does not acknowledge the dimension of “mass” that exists at every location in space due to varying concentrations.


Einstein 1920: Simple Derivation of the Lorentz Transformation

Reference: Einstein’s 1920 Book

This paper presents Appendix 1 from the book RELATIVITY: THE SPECIAL AND GENERAL THEORY by A. EINSTEIN. The contents are from the original publication of this book by Henry Holt and Company, New York (1920).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.


Simple Derivation of the Lorentz Transformation

Please see Appendix 1 at the link above.



The math of Lorentz transformation is based on the consideration that the velocity of light is constant regardless of the velocity of the observer. This means that the space-time characteristics of the observer must change depending on his velocity, such that, from the viewpoint of light the velocity of the observer is zero. This produces the following equations.

When the velocity of the observer is negligible compared to the velocity of light, we have the familiar Galilean transformation. But when the velocity becomes a sizable fraction of the velocity of light the denominator in the above equations becomes less than 1, and the space-time characteristics expand.

When the velocity of the observer is very close to the velocity of light, the space time characteristics have expanded to near infinite. We may relate this to the electromagnetic spectrum. At the frequencies of light, the space-time characteristics are really magnified. At the frequency of electron inside the atom, the space-time characteristics have shrunk. When one reaches the frequency of the nucleus of atom, we have solidity due to extreme shrinkage of space-time characteristics. This is the frequency we are most familiar with. It is the frequency of the material universe.

The frequency spectrum extends from light to matter. It is a spectrum of substance that is manifested in the dimension of inertia. Inertia is how substantive the substance is. It is measured as the “duration” of substance. This is the fourth dimension and not some abstract notion of time.

The Lorentz transformation was not interpreted this way. The special theory of relativity hinted at it but did not relate it to the electromagnetic spectrum. But now we can say that the greatest contribution of the special theory of relativity is to bring this dimension of inertia to our awareness.


Comments on Books


Newton 1687: Principia

Einstein’s 1920: Relativity: The Special & General Theory

Eddington’s 1927: The Nature of the Physical World

Einstein’s 1938: The Evolution of Physics

Einstein’s 1952 Appendix



Durant 1926: The Story of Philosophy

Hubbard 1948: The Original Thesis

Hubbard 1953: Scientology 8-8008


OT 1948: Engram Chains

Reference: DIANETICS: The Original Thesis

This paper presents Chapter 14 from the book DIANETICS: THE ORIGINAL THESIS by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Hubbard Dianetic Foundation, Inc. (1948).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.


Engram Chains

More than one engramic chain will be found in every aberree. When this person becomes a preclear the dianeticist does well to discover the earliest chain. It is not always possible to do this with accuracy since a preclear is sometimes in such a nervous condition that he cannot be worked on his basic chain but must be alleviated in a greater or lesser degree by the exhaustion of a later and more available chain. This last, however, is not the usual case.

The model of many aberrated nodes in a mental matrix of data elements works much better.

The dianeticist should clearly understand certain working principles and definitions. By an engram is meant a moment of unconsciousness accompanied by physical pain and conceived  antagonism. The basic engram is the earliest engram on an engram chain. Also there may be engrams of the same character and kind on the same driveline as the basic engram of the chain. An engram chain is composed of a basic engram and a series of similar incidents. Engram chains also contain locks which are instances of mental anguish more or less known to the analytical mind. These are often mistaken by the preclear for the cause of his conduct. A true engram is unknown to the conscious computer of the preclear but underlies it as a false datum on which are erected almost equally unknown similar incidents and an enormous number of locks.

From the perspective of the auditee an engram is a physically painful experience that is not assimilated in the mental matrix. It forms an engramic node that corrupts other nodes of the matrix it is linked to.

In order to release an engram chain it is vital and absolutely necessary to discover the basic of that chain. An individual will have more than one engram chain but he has a basic chain. This must be released as soon as possible after auditing is begun on the preclear.

The dianetic theory aims for the “basic of the chain”, which violates the principle of gradient. The mindfulness approach lets the mind unwind without interference at the proper gradient.

When an engram is discovered by the dianeticist, he must examine the aspect of it to determine whether or not it is the basic. Discovering it is not, he must immediately determine an earlier basic, and so forth until he is obviously on the scene of the basic engram.

The mind can do this automatically better than the dianeticist.

There are certain tests which he can apply. A basic engram will rise to laughter, “sag” slightly, and then rise to tone four and vanish. Successive engrams will then erase from that chain with very little work. Almost any engram on an engram chain can be exhausted, but if it is not a basic engram it will recede and vanish at times but will rise in part again when the basic engram has been reached and the preclear is brought forward into its area.

The mind will unwind in the order necessary. No order should be imposed from the outside.

An engram not basic is subject to “sag.” Which is to say that it may be brought to the two point zero (2.0) tone, but after a certain length of time has elapsed— from one to two days—it will be found to have “sagged” and to be, for instance, in a one point one (1.1) tone. It can be successively lifted until it is apparently in a three point zero (3.0) tone, at which point much of its content will disappear. This is reduction.

Any engram chain can be reduced to some degree without reaching the basic but when it has been reached the basic itself and subsequent engrams can be brought rapidly to tone four providing no engrams are skipped on the return up the time track.

When an engram chain has been brought to tone four, it can be considered to have vanished. The preclear can no longer find it on the time track (he may even be unable to recall some of its most painful and disheartening aspects). The mind apparently has been proofed against the data it has contained. A search for an engram chain after it has been exhausted and a tone four has been achieved should, for purposes of auditing, be entirely fruitless.

Engramic node vanishes when its contents are merged with rest of the mental matrix.

Once the basic has been discovered and the engram chain has been brought to tone four the locks will vanish of their own accord. If this does not occur then there is something remaining or the auditor has been too optimistic about the selection of his basic engram for the chain and has not, in reality, discovered it.

All engram chains should be exhausted from a preclear. These may be discovered to lie along the various dynamics but any chain may influence more than one dynamic.

Another type of engram is the cross engram. This is usually a childhood or adult engram which embraces more than one engram chain. The receipt of the cross engram, containing as it does the convergence of two or more engram chains, is often accompanied by a “nervous breakdown” or the sudden insanity of an individual. A cross engram may occur in a severe accident, in prolonged or severe illness under antagonistic circumstances, or a nitrous oxide operation. Cross engrams are very easy to locate but should not be addressed by the dianeticist as such since an enormous amount of work upon them will not exhaust them until the basic and the chains on which the cross engram depends have been brought to tone four.

Post-battle neurasthenia is almost always traceable to the receipt of a cross engram. This must be, of course, an engram in its own right on more than one chain. It is conceivable that it may be so severe that it “breaks” the individual even if it lies on only one chain.

No complications come about when the mind is allowed to freely associate without interference.

There are certain rules the dianeticist may employ to establish the basic engram of a chain. In first entering a case these rules apply as well to the first goal which is the location of the basic engram of the basic chain.

Number one: No engram will lift if the basic of that chain has not been lifted.

Number two: The basic engram will not lift until the basic instant of the basic engram has been reached, which is to say, the first moment of the engram. Ordinarily this is the most obscure.

Number three: If after two or three test recountings of an engram it does not seem to be improving, the auditor should attempt to discover an earlier engram.

Number four: No engram is valid unless accompanied by somatic pain. This may be mild. Incidents which do not contain somatics are either not basic (the chain having been suspended by some such command as “can’t feel” in the basic) or else it may not even be an engram.

The goal is to assimilate all data into the mental matrix. One knows when this goal is being accomplished.

Cases should be entered as near as possible to the basic engram. Then they should be returned to earlier incidents until the basic is discovered.

The running of locks themselves may accomplish some alleviation of a case.

The case is entered with the awareness of the difficulty.



The Dianetic theory believes that engrams exist in chains and that the whole chain can be removed rapidly by finding the basic of the chain and removing it. It, therefore, aims at finding the basic of the chain. This gets the dianetic procedure into a lot of difficulties. These difficulties come about because this dianetic procedure violates the principle of gradient.

The Mindfulness model looks at engram as a node that could not be assimilated in the mental matrix. Whenever this engramic node is used as part of any circuit of the mental matrix, it leads to aberration. This generates aberrated nodes around the engramic node. Thus, engramic and other aberrated nodes are networked together, and they do not exist in simple linear chains.

The auditee first decides the difficulty he wants to handle. He then enters his case fully aware of his difficulty. He concentrates on the difficulty while letting the mind freely associate all related data.  No complications arise when the mind is allowed to freely associate without interference. This allows the mind to follow its natural gradient in assimilating the aberrated circuits.

The goal is to assimilate all data into the mental matrix. Aberrated and engramic nodes vanish when their contents are assimilated into rest of the mental matrix. One is fully aware of the progress.


OT 1948: The Tone Scale

Reference: DIANETICS: The Original Thesis

This paper presents Chapter 7 from the book DIANETICS: THE ORIGINAL THESIS by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book by The Hubbard Dianetic Foundation, Inc. (1948).

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.


The Tone Scale

The tone scale denotes numerically, first the status of an engram in the reactive mind, next its erasure or reduction, and provides a measure for sanity in an individual.

The derivation of this scale is clinical and is based upon observation of engrams being worked. When an engram is located and developed, the extreme range it can follow begins with apathy, develops into anger (or the various facets of antagonism), proceeds into boredom, and arrives at last in cheerfulness or vanishes utterly.

The tone scale is essentially an assignation of numerical value by which individuals can be numerically classified. It is not arbitrary but will be found to approximate some actual governing law in nature.

Zero is equivalent to death. An individual with a zero tone would be dead.

Ranging upwards from zero to one then is that emotional bracket which may be denoted as apathy along its graduated scale from death to the beginnings of apathetic resentment.

From one to two is the range of antagonism, including suspicion, resentment, and anger.

Boredom and its equivalents, by which is denoted minor annoyance, begin at two and end at three.

From three to four are the emotions which range from carelessness to cheerfulness.

The term tone four denotes a person who has achieved rationality and cheerfulness.

Each engram residual in the reactive mind has its own independent tonal value. Serious engrams will be found in the apathy range. Dangerous engrams will be found in the anger range. Above two point five an engram could not be considered to have any great power to affect the analytical mind. Each engram in the reactive mind then can be said to possess a tone value. The composite sum of these engrams will give, if added, a numerical value to the reactive mind.

Engrams can be computed as they lie along the dynamics, and to each dynamic may be assigned a tone. The sum of the tones of the dynamics, divided by the number of the dynamics, will give a potential numerical value for an individual. This, of course, is variable depending on the existence of restimulators in his environment to reactivate the engrams.

The probable average of mankind at this writing may be in the vicinity of 3.0. Complete rationality depends upon exhaustion of the reactive mind and complete rationality is invariably the result of reaching tone four.

The initial diagnosis is done by the assignation of a general tone to denote the condition of an individual’s reactive mind. His methods of meeting life, his emotional reaction to the problems in his environment, can be evaluated by the use of the tone scale.

In auditing, as will be covered later, an engram normally can be expected to run from its initial value in the apathy or anger range to tone four. Very shortly after it reaches tone four it should vanish. If it vanishes without attaining the laughter of tone four it can be assumed that the individual’s basic engram has not been erased.

The tone scale has value in auditing and should be thoroughly understood.



A person’s tone generally changes in the following sequence as he improves:

0 to 1 ………. Range of Apathy
1 to 2 ………. Range of Antagonism
2 to 3
………. Range of Boredom
3 to 4 ………. Range of Cheerfulness

A dead person is assigned a tone level of 0. A person who has achieved rationality and cheerfulness is assigned the tone level of 4. In general, a person has a chronic tone level somewhere between 0 and 4. His actual tone fluctuates around this chronic tone level. The chronic tone level can be improved with mindfulness meditation. Dianetics auditing is a form of guided meditation.

When you are handling an engramic node in meditation or in auditing, your tone may reflect the tone of the painful experience but it will soon discharge with the real tone taking its place. The more the tones from the painful incidents are discharged, the greater is the improvement in the real tone. Progress may be measured by the improvement in the real tone.