## The Conservation of Force

##### Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Conservation of Force is a non-mathematical principal that Faraday developed and used to come up with new areas to investigate. See Faraday: On the Conservation of Force . It was this principal that helped him realize that there is no empty space between the atoms. Any space is filled with force. This force terminates at atoms, where it gets very concentrated. Faraday used this realization to explain how the action of gravity is communicated across large distances such as, from the sun to its planets. See Faraday: Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.

Faraday’s concept of force was much richer than the Newton’s mathematical concept of Force. Faraday had great difficulty in communicating this idea to other scientists. After all Faraday was an experimentalist and had never attended a university. He did not have credibility as a theorist.

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In his article Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter of January 25, 1844, Faraday writes,

“We recognize the substance by its properties. The properties of the substance cannot be separated from the substance… Hence matter will be continuous throughout, and in considering a mass of it we have not to suppose a distinction between its atoms and any intervening space. The powers around the centres give these centres the properties of atoms of matter; and these powers again, when many centres by their conjoint forces are grouped into a mass, give to every part of that mass the properties of matter. In such a view all the contradiction resulting from the consideration of electric insulation and conduction disappears.”

To Faraday, mass is represented by concentrated force, and atoms are the centers of forces. The shape of an atom is defined by the forces that extend from it. The forces thin out as they expand in all directions and fill the space. There is no “empty space.” Such forces terminate at other atoms. Therefore, atoms are always in contact with each other through their forces. There is no real distinction between atoms and the space between them. Thus, atom is the concentrated force, and space is the thinned out force. The concentrated force is mass, and the thinned out force is radiation. The force is the substance and its properties.

Newton also saw inherent force in matter, which he called inertia. But, Faraday’s concept of force is much richer and it introduces the idea of continuum of substance. To Faraday, substance is substantial because of this force, which is perceived as sensation. This sensation is then interpreted as substance and its properties.

In Faraday’s model, substance, is present everywhere as force. Molecules are formed by these forces mutually penetrating each other. Such molecules have identity of their own. Void is an absence of all substance or force. Void is an abstraction because one cannot be aware of it. The forces involved in heat, electricity, magnetism, chemical action and relative motion represent substance. So does gravity.

The law of conservation in physics accounts for matter, energy and momentum in a relative sense only. Faraday’s principle of Conversion of Force, however, accounts for the inherent consistency and motion of all substance.

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## Inherent Consistency and Motion

Matter and Energy are substantial because they can be sensed in varying degrees. They are part of the spectrum of substance where matter appears at the upper end and light at the lower end. The substance thins out throughout the spectrum from matter to light.

Substance has inherent consistency and motion. The inherent consistency appears as ‘mass’ in matter; and as ‘frequency’ in energy. The inherent motion appears as the motion of the planets; and as the ‘speed of light’ universally.

In the context of the law of conservation of Physics, ‘energy’ means heat, electricity, magnetism, chemical action and relative motion. It has the connotation of ‘action.’ But when Einstein talks about the equivalence of mass and energy, ‘energy’ has the connotation of ‘substance.’ In an atomic explosion, the matter thins out into ‘energy’.

We identify the infra-red radiation as ‘heat energy’ because it is sensed as heat. Thus, the ‘substance’ of lower part of the spectrum is identified by the ‘action’ it causes in matter at the upper part of the spectrum. We observe that the ‘substance’ becomes relatively more dynamic as it thins out down the spectrum. Light is many orders of magnitude more dynamic than matter. Electron is much more dynamic than the proton. Atoms display Brownian motion. This dynamic characteristic is inherent. We may call it inherent motion. We observe that the inherent motion increases as the consistency of substance decreases.

Physics limits the concept of mass and inertia to matter only. Mass and inertia express themselves as momentum. Light is discovered to possess momentum, but it is considered to have neither mass nor inertia. So we use the concept of consistency common to all substance. Consistency in matter has the properties of mass and inertia.

Inertia of an object keeps its acceleration in check. In other words, inertia keeps the object moving at a constant velocity. But this velocity cannot be perceived when there are no other objects around. We may say that the inertia is responsible for the inherent motion. In general, the inherent consistency and motion of substance are related. As consistency decreases with substance thinning out, the inherent motion increases.

The law of conservation in Physics does not seem to account for the inherent motion and consistency at the lower part of the spectrum. It ignores the “substance” that does not have mass. Light is considered to have no mass, and therefore, it has no substance. The momentum of light is taken into account only in a relative sense. The consistency of light and inherent motion are ignored otherwise.

Faraday’s Conservation of Force accounts for the inherent consistency and motion of the massless substance too as clarified above.

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## Dark Matter and Energy

Physics has no concepts that account for inherent motion or consistency of anything other than matter. It is possible that,

Dark Matter is the consistency of the massless substance; and Dark Energy is the inherent motion of that massless substance.

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