## Thinning Out of Matter

##### Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As covered earlier, matter does not end abruptly at some boundary beyond which lies the void. Instead, matter “thins out” into the void. Thus, there is a spectrum of substance between matter and void. At one end of this spectrum we have matter; and, at the other end we have light (electromagnetic radiation) thinning out into the void.

Classically, matter thins out as atoms move away from each other. But how does matter thin out at the atomic level?

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## Proton to Electron

At the core of the atom, we have the nucleus; and at the core of the nucleus we have the neutron. The neutron thins out about 0.1 % to the surface of the nucleus, where we have the proton. The first significant thinning occurs from proton to electron at the boundary of the nucleus. The thinning occurs by a factor of 1836 within is very short distance. There is no gap, only a sharp and continuous thinning of substance from proton to electron.

Maybe this sharp gradient of substance is what we call ‘charge.’

The proton is rigid with a fixed center of mass. it thins out into a fluid electron that does not have distinct center of mass. For this reason, the electron does not have a location as a particle. The “location” of electron can only be estimated by a probability function. For the same reason, the electron cannot be distinguished clearly from another electron around the nucleus. Therefore, it does not have a well-defined boundary as a particle. Electron is essentially a fluid-like continuum that has thick consistency; and, this consistency fluctuates around the nucleus. This gives the illusion of electron moving as a particle. The electron does have sub-atomic reactions that are obviously discrete.

The mathematical treatment of discrete reactions makes sub-atomic particles appear as if they are “discrete.”

There is an exchange of substance back and forth between proton and electron, but it is balanced, and this thinning pattern exists as part of the structure of the atom.

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The next significant thinning occurs from the electrons to electromagnetic radiation at the surface of the atom. This is like a fluid substance with thick consistency interfacing with a fluid substance of much thinner consistency.

During this thinning out, the mass reduces and duration of any particular configuration reduces too; and the space expands. The center of mass property goes away, which means that the substance cannot be located at a point location. The discreteness in terms of sub-atomic interactions also disappears.

Again, there is exchange of substance back and forth between electron and the electromagnetic radiation, but it is balanced, and this thinning pattern forms the surface of the atom.

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## Particle-Wave Duality

Particle properties involve having momentum along with a discrete existence with a fixed center of mass. Fixed center of mass means that the relative distribution of substance is fixed within definite boundaries. When the boundaries and the distribution is changing rapidly, the center of mass will also be changing rapidly and can be determined only as a probability function. As the particle starts transitioning to wave, the center of mass starts to lose its fixed relationship to the rest of the particle, and becomes diffused. When the center of mass disappears, the particle also loses its discrete existence. The last property to disappear is the momentum, which means there is no consistency and no substance.

The particle-wave duality, essentially, points to a fluid state of substance that has momentum because of its consistency, but without a rigid structure at sub-atomic levels.

The consistency is inherent to the substance. It disappears only when the substance disappears.

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## Substance and Force

The force in nuclear matter is pretty much concentrated at a location. The force as charge is not so concentrated as in the nucleus, but it can move around, especially when there is a conductor. This charge also flow out in vacuum as cathode rays and exerts its force. The flow of this force can be manipulated by magnetic fields.

Basically, atoms are centers from which substance spreads out into space much like Faraday’s force and connects to other atoms. See A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter.

There seems to be a relationship between substance and force that needs to be examined closely.

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• Chris Thompson  On January 21, 2022 at 3:01 PM

Maybe this sharp gradient of substance is what we call ‘charge.’

Yes, maybe. Maybe its substance whether charge, energy or as matter is as abstraction ever-only.

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• Chris Thompson  On January 21, 2022 at 3:03 PM

Does your concept seem consistent along with the expanding (thinning) universe?

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• vinaire  On January 21, 2022 at 3:28 PM

All “empty” space is actually filled with energy. Maybe that energy is thinning out. That gives the impression of an expanding universe. There is no void out there.

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• Chris Thompson  On January 28, 2022 at 5:40 AM

That may be true. Also, people “know” all sorts of things. But we do not know, we assert, we posit, we reflect and we imagine. Void is a relative term. There is a void of planets between here and the moon. The JWST will look into the void until it sees across it to something less of a void. This is a fascinating but rigorous discussion if one is to follow or to keep up. I am endeavoring to delete superlative words from my writing. The best, worst, least, most, biggest, smallest, etc., are deceitful to me now.

An important consequence of what you write here is for me to admit what I do not know such as what is energy? And to take care and cautious about trying to know things that I do not know.

I postulate that matter, energy, space and time will one day be found to not give sufficient columns or organization to the actual features and states of existence. It is not so much a matter of our physics being wrong as it is that our physics sees “through a glass darkly.” Yet not to be negative, but to be positive that much will be revealed as the people who have minds to grok what our eyes cannot see, even with help.

Nevertheless, I am excited to follow the James Webb Space Telescope adventure as it unravels. The Hubble Space Telescope set us up to expect huge discoveries from these instruments and my heart has quickened as JWST has reached its L2 halo orbit way out beyond the Moon. After 10 billion dollars, many delayed starts, and over 20 years of development, it has not only left Earth but its packed arms and instruments have fully deployed and it has been successfully inserted into its final orbit around Lagrange point 2. It will take weeks more for it to cool to its final and stable low temperature and months more of commissioning before it will be declared “operational.” Then I am giddy with anticipation for what it will be able to detect within and also beyond the visible light spectrum. This is going to get really cool! (no pun)

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• vinaire  On January 28, 2022 at 10:27 AM

We make our best approximation of what is out there. The lesser are the anomalies (after intense search), the closer is our approximation to the “thing in itself.” The word “void” may have been used in a relative sense, but I am using it here in the sense of “absence of substance,” so there is nothing to be aware of in a void.

The word “energy” has been used in two different senses in physics. In the context of the law of conservation of Physics, ‘energy’ means heat, electricity, magnetism, chemical action and relative motion. It has the connotation of ‘action.’ But when Einstein talks about the equivalence of mass and energy, ‘energy’ has the connotation of ‘substance.’ In an atomic explosion, the matter thins out into ‘energy’. See https://vinaire.me/2022/01/26/the-conservation-of-force/

The subject clearing approach is to keep resolving anomalies; and based on those resolutions, keep defining various terms more exactly. I have been applying that to the basic terms, such as, matter, energy, space and time.

I am excited about James Webb Space Telescope adventure too. We must be ready with the right “glossary” to correctly interpret the data received from JWST. And that data may help redefine some of terms of our “glossary.” These are exciting times.

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