The World of Atom (Part I)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

PART I – THE FOUNDATIONS OF ATOMIC THEORY

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

Chapter 1: Atomism in Antiquity (Lucretius ca. 99 – 55 B.C.)

Ancients surmised that all matter reduces to atoms that are very small, solid, permanent and indivisible. The atoms move of themselves and are ceaselessly in motion in infinite space.

Today we know that there are atoms, and the core of an atom (the nucleus) is very small and solid. It is made of nucleons whose number is conserved. The nucleons are made up of “condensed energy” according to the theory of Einstein. Energy has inherent impulse to move.

Chapter 2: Vortices and Particles (Rene Descartes 1596 – 1650)

The world is essentially a group of vortices whose centers appear as the heavenly bodies. Thus, there is continuum of substance, and neither void nor action at a distance exist. Extension cannot be there without substance being there.

Today we may view an atom as a vortex whose center appears as the solid nucleus. We may view the atom as infinitely divisible rotating substance extending out from a solid nucleus. Thus, there is a continuity of substance throughout space, and neither void nor action at a distance can exist.

Chapter 3: Particles in the Atmosphere (Robert Boyle 1627 – 1691)

Boyle hypothesized that air is composed of several kinds of particles that have different functions. That elasticity (compressibility) of the air arises from static elastic atoms on contact, or alternatively from atoms being caught up in a whirling motion. 

Today we can say that the source of elasticity is the energy surrounding the solid nucleus of the atom. This energy must become thicker in consistency as it is compressed. This may explain the attractive-repulsive nature of the electric charge.

Chapter 4: Matter & Motion (Robert Hooke 1635 – 1703)

Unlike Newton, Hooke considered the particles of all bodies to be in incessant motion, those of different mass having different speeds. A heavy particle has a low vibration frequency, and a light one a high frequency.

Today we may view energy moving around the nucleus as in a vortex. This energy is denser in consistency, and slower in velocity as it gets closer to the nucleus. In a broader context the nuclei of various atoms slow down as their mass increases.

Chapter 5: A Wave Theory of Light (Christian Huygens 1629 – 1695)

Huygens accepted Descartes vortices as the scheme of the world and rejected Newton’s universal gravitation, as he was not convinced of the distant-action theory. He supported Descartes’ idea of ether and proposed the wave theory of light. He introduced the idea of partial waves and wavefronts to explain the properties of light.

Today we know that energy is the basic substance of the universe. Continuum of energy forms the ether in which shorter wavelengths of heavier consistency are formed with longer wavelengths of lighter consistency as the background. As the consistency increases the wave motion starts to slow down causing a curvature. Thus, comes about vortex type motion.

Chapter 6: Newton on Particles and Kinetics (Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727)

Newton’s mechanics deals with matter that has mass. Newton argued that the geometric nature of reflection and refraction of light could only be explained if light were made of corpuscles because waves do not tend to travel in straight lines. 

The corpuscle of Newton and the quantum of Einstein refer to the consistency (a degree of density, firmness, viscosity, etc.) of energy and not to the mass of a particle. The consistency of light imparts inertia (resistance to motion) because its speed is finite. Anything without inertia will have runaway motion. Light’s inertia balances its runaway acceleration. That is why light has momentum. Therefore, a beam of light travels in a straight line in spite of its wave characteristics.

Mass appears only at the center of the atomic vortex (the nucleus), but there is inertia in the energy around the nucleus. This inertia lies in the consistency of energy.

Chapter 7: A Kinetic Theory of Gases (Daniel Bernoulli 1700 – 1782)

Daniel Bernoulli introduced the kinetic theory of gases. He postulated that gas particles have intrinsic motion that cannot be suppressed. Heat increases the speed of particles. Thus, heat is converted into mechanical energy.

Today we know that atoms have intrinsic motion that depends on their mass. The greater the mass density the smaller is the velocity. Heat reduces mass density by creating expansion.

Chapter 8: The Atom as a Center of Force (Roger Joseph Boscovich 1711 – 1787)

Boscovich pointed out that atoms as hard, rigid and massive spheres require instantaneous change of velocity upon collision. But instantaneous change of velocity presents a discontinuity. Therefore, atoms cannot be hard, rigid and massive spheres. They are point particles with the space between them filled with force. Thus, compression and expansion can occur. 

Today we see an atom as a vortex of energy that is condensing toward the center into a point mass. It doesn’t have a rigid boundary.

Chapter 9: Atomic Chemistry Before Dalton (Bryan Higgins 1737-1820, William Higgins 1769 – 1825)

It seems that the ancient elements may be expressed as, earth = solids, air = gases, water = liquids, and fire = energy. According to Higgins, fire (energy) is opposed to attraction (force) as it turns solids into liquids, and liquids into gases. In his theory all different atoms were assumed to have the same weight. The concept of ratios in which atoms combine is not very clear.

We know today that matter consists of different elements whose atoms are different from each other.

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POSTULATES:

  1. An atom is a vortex in a sea of energy.
  2. The energy condenses into mass at the center of the atom.
  3. The nucleus spins as part of the atomic vortex.
  4. Energy is a substance with consistency (a degree of density, firmness and viscosity).
  5. The consistency of energy increases as it condenses.
  6. Energy has inherent motion that decreases with increase in consistency.
  7. The whole atom itself is naturally in motion.
  8. The velocity of atom decreases as its mass increases.

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Comments

  • vinaire  On June 26, 2021 at 4:07 AM

    June 26, 2021–I have now reviewed and updated this document.

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