Relativistically, The velocity in space cannot be defined in terms of absolute coordinates ‘x’ and ‘t’. It can be defined only in terms of relavistic coordinates of ‘frequency’ and ‘wavelength’ in four-dimensional spacetime.

Back to the notion of discreteness: If spacetime were at its root discrete, then each moment would begin a zero velocity for light. Remember, we are still exploring how light propagates. In a discrete universe, propagation would not mean what we are accustomed to thinking it means, motion would not mean what we usually think it means.

Not really. Time is all about order of events. Light has a frequency. It will simply maintain that frequency in the next moment and the next. So moment to moment light will propagate with the same frequency.

Discreteness is introduced by frequency. The following seems to be the fundmanetal arrangement.

(1) The concept of space lies at the foundation of physics.

(2) Time enters as disturbance of space.

(3) Space is like undisturbed surface of a lake.

(4) When space is disturbed there are ripples that propagate in all directions.

(5) These ripples are made of electric and magnetic fields instead of peaks and valleys.

(6) Disturbed space appears as an electromagnetic field vibrating at a frequency.

(7) The electromagnetic field is like the disturbed surface of a lake.

(8) Theoretically, space is “electromagnetic field” of zero frequency.

(9) This means that fundamental reality of space is continuous.

(10) Discreteness then appears as frequency of disturbed space.

(11) Undisturbed space has no motion.

(12) Motion enters in with disturbance of space.

(13) All motion occurs within space.

(14) Thus, space at zero frequency acts as reference point for all motion.

(15) The motion appears as varying electrical and magnetic fields.

(16) Thus, disturbed space appears as energy with a whole spectrum of frequencies

(17) At extremely high frequencies energy condenses into matter.

(18) Space, time, energy and matter cannot be defined independently of each other.
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I think what is expanding is not the space, but disturbance in space. Space is something mysterious. It is already there as an undisturbed state to infinity.

If it is the disturbance in space that is expanding then this outward “spherical” expansion must be occurring at the “speed of light” in all directions.

“Linear” expansion in any direction would be constant. But “Volume” expansion would appear to be accelerating.
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(1) The electromagnetic field is like the disturbed surface of a lake vibrating at various frequencies.

(2) Frequency introduces inertia (rigidity) in the fluidity of space

(3) Frequency also introduces discreteness among continuity of space.

(4) Frequency further introduces discreteness in energy interactions.

(5) We see these discrete energy interactions as photons.

(6) The wavelength to period ratio is a constant of space.

(7) More energy pumped into electromagnetic field increases its frequency.

(8) The path of disturbance seems to curve increasingly with increasing frequency and inertia.

(9) With more energy pumped the disturbance cannot go any faster, and the frequency backs upon itself to make the disturbance rotational within the larger electromagnetic field.

(10) This rotational disturbance forms the electronic field that coalesces into electrons.

(11) With more energy pumped in the disturbance cannot rotate any faster, and the frequency collapses into compacting the disturbance.

(12) This compacted disturbance forms a nucleus within the rotating electronic field, and coalesces into protons and neutrons.

## Comments

Back to the notion of discreteness: If spacetime were at its root discrete, then each moment would begin a zero velocity for light. Remember, we are still exploring how light propagates. In a discrete universe, propagation would not mean what we are accustomed to thinking it means, motion would not mean what we usually think it means.

Not really. Time is all about order of events. Light has a frequency. It will simply maintain that frequency in the next moment and the next. So moment to moment light will propagate with the same frequency.

Discreteness is introduced by frequency. The following seems to be the fundmanetal arrangement.

(1) The concept of space lies at the foundation of physics.

(2) Time enters as disturbance of space.

(3) Space is like undisturbed surface of a lake.

(4) When space is disturbed there are ripples that propagate in all directions.

(5) These ripples are made of electric and magnetic fields instead of peaks and valleys.

(6) Disturbed space appears as an electromagnetic field vibrating at a frequency.

(7) The electromagnetic field is like the disturbed surface of a lake.

(8) Theoretically, space is “electromagnetic field” of zero frequency.

(9) This means that fundamental reality of space is continuous.

(10) Discreteness then appears as frequency of disturbed space.

(11) Undisturbed space has no motion.

(12) Motion enters in with disturbance of space.

(13) All motion occurs within space.

(14) Thus, space at zero frequency acts as reference point for all motion.

(15) The motion appears as varying electrical and magnetic fields.

(16) Thus, disturbed space appears as energy with a whole spectrum of frequencies

(17) At extremely high frequencies energy condenses into matter.

(18) Space, time, energy and matter cannot be defined independently of each other.

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“(12) Motion enters in with disturbance of space.”

As does time. Undisturbed space in this universe would be theoretical without objective example, would it not?

I have no idea. It could be that both space and time come into focus with disturbance. What is there before disturbance cannot be asserted..

We are calling it “undisturbed space” for conveniemce only.

You are right, relativity is observed through the Doppler effect and is relative to the c of the propagation of EMR.

“Thus, velocity (of light?) will also depend on the wavelength of light.”

Is this what you meant to write?

No. The problem is how do you measure the velocity of a spaceship in intersteller space.

It seems that the only way you can measure it is by the Doppler Effect as described above.

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I wonder at the solution for measuring the Doppler Effect in expanding interstellar space. It is written that the rate of expansion is accelerating.

I think what is expanding is not the space, but disturbance in space. Space is something mysterious. It is already there as an undisturbed state to infinity.

And so it follows that the observed universe is a disturbance of that infinite space?

Yes.

“The following seems to be the fundmanetal arrangement.”

We need to remember that this is a model. The fundamental arrangement

seemsto the model.Of course! Anything can change.

“Not really.”

Not really, it wouldn’t be like that if the universe were discrete; or, not really, it wouldn’t be like that because the universe is not discrete? Or?

I really don’t know what is before disturbance, I am assuming it is something continuous.

Discreteness enters as frequency of disturbance so we can now count the “peaks”. But those peaks are connected by continuous states.

Time is how one thing follows another. it is the order of things.

“(17) At extremely high frequencies energy condenses into matter.”

What frequencies do you suppose? Big Bang type frequencies? And what would these be? It seems to me that these ideas are already worked out.

From the rest mass of neutron and proton this frequency seems to be about 2^78 in the upper gamma range. Please see

https://vinaire.me/2015/12/17/speed-of-light-revision-1/

Average frequency of 939.6 Mev neutron = 2.271 x 10^23 Hz = 2^78 Hz

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How would I transpose that frequency to temperature?

The only thing I can thlnk of in relation to heat are infra-red rays.

If it is the disturbance in space that is expanding then this outward “spherical” expansion must be occurring at the “speed of light” in all directions.

“Linear” expansion in any direction would be constant. But “Volume” expansion would appear to be accelerating.

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I do not see the universe collapsing back. I simply see the disturbance petering out throughout.

RELATIVITY

(1) In theory of relativity matter is looked upon as moving in a rigid space with time.

(2) The background of space is represented by “speed of light”.

(3) Time is considered to be tied with space through “speed of light”.

(4) But light, acting as a disturbance, is moving through a flexible space.

(5) Space is not rigid as assumed in the Theory of Relativity.

(6) “Speed of light” is actually the constant “wavelength to period” ratio of light.

(7) “Wavelength to period” ratio ties space and time together.

(8) Motion of matter needs to be considered through a flexible space.

(9) The Doppler Effect describes this relativity of motion more accurately.

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MATHEMATICS

(1) The fundamental reality of undisturbed space appears to be continuous.

(2) When space is disturbed, discreteness enters in the form of frequency.

(3) Numbers in mathematics deal with reality as discrete.

(4) Sine and cosine functions deal with the continuity of space.

(5) Integration using infinitesimals of space deals only with rigid space.

(6) Wave mechanics deals with the flexibility of space.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

(1) The electromagnetic field is like the disturbed surface of a lake vibrating at various frequencies.

(2) Frequency introduces inertia (rigidity) in the fluidity of space

(3) Frequency also introduces discreteness among continuity of space.

(4) Frequency further introduces discreteness in energy interactions.

(5) We see these discrete energy interactions as photons.

(6) The wavelength to period ratio is a constant of space.

(7) More energy pumped into electromagnetic field increases its frequency.

(8) The path of disturbance seems to curve increasingly with increasing frequency and inertia.

(9) With more energy pumped the disturbance cannot go any faster, and the frequency backs upon itself to make the disturbance rotational within the larger electromagnetic field.

(10) This rotational disturbance forms the electronic field that coalesces into electrons.

(11) With more energy pumped in the disturbance cannot rotate any faster, and the frequency collapses into compacting the disturbance.

(12) This compacted disturbance forms a nucleus within the rotating electronic field, and coalesces into protons and neutrons.

..

It would be interesting to plug in this Doppler view of velocity in the Lorentz factor.

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