Newton, Einstein and Motion

Distinct Motions

With the analogy of a pool filled with water, there are two different kind of motions we are looking at.

  1. Motion of the wave in the water
  2. Motion of the whole pool of water.

Let’s consider a “particle” made of a material of certain consistency. Then we have two distinct motions:

  1. Motion of the material within the particle.
  2. Motion of the particle itself.

Motion type 1 is “continuous motion.” Motion type 2 is “discrete motion.”

When we are looking at the motion of a particle, we are looking at discrete motion. This is the kind of motion that Newton studied.


Visualization of Motion

Newton visualized the motion of particles as the heavenly bodies moving in space. Here we have mass moving within an environment containing no mass. This is discrete motion. It would not be much different from neutrons moving in free space.

We find that discrete motion has to be relative because we are considering the speed of a particle relative to the speed of another particle. That is how Newton looked at all motion.

The speed of light was at first considered to be the motion of light corpuscles in the inertial frame of reference defined by Earth. It was, therefore, expected to be relative to the speed of Earth and other planets in the Solar system. When the Michelson-Morley experiment first determined that the speed of light was constant in different inertial frames, it came as a shock because it violated Newton’s relativity. In other words, it the speed of light was found to be independent of the motion of the observer against all expectations.


The Speed of Light

Einstein then postulated the speed of light to be a universal constant. With the mathematics derived from this postulate Einstein was able to explain the anomaly observed in the orbit of planet Mercury. Einstein’s relativity essentially shifted the frame of reference from inertial mass to mass-less light.

Einstein also found that light was made of quanta, which was real, but he stopped short of calling light a substance. Like Newton, Einstein also looked at the motion of light corpuscles (as light quanta) relative to the motion of material particles assuming both to be point particles. Einstein’s mathematics was right but it was limited to the mathematical interpretation of light quantum as a point particle.


The Particle

Light does not have mass, but it has momentum. This means that light has a mass-like consistency. Therefore, light is a substantial wave much like the wave of sound. The only difference is that light is not made of atoms.

Only those “particles” with center of mass may be conceptualized as point particles. Light does not have mass; and, therefore, it cannot be considered to be made of point particles.

The size of the particle shall be related to the wavelength of the material. The wavelength of the mass inside a neutron is extremely small. So, when we consider a neutron as a particle, we know it to be very small.

When we consider an electron to be a particle, we know its wavelength to be much larger than that of neutron. Compared to the size of the neutron, the electron would be about the size of a hydrogen atom.

When it comes to light, its particle is incredibly large. And, the particle of gravity may be as large as the universe.

So, in the case of light, we may visualize, the substance of light moving within the light particle, which would be continuous motion (motion type 1).


Relative vs. Absolute Motion

Whereas, discrete motion is always relative, we find a different situation with respect to continuous motion. Here we are looking at the speed of substance to be determined by its own medium, and not relative to something external to it.

For example, the speed of sound is determined from the characteristics of its medium. In this sense, the speed of sound may be looked upon as absolute because it does not depend on the speed of the observer. Similarly, Maxwell could determine the speed of light from the permeability and permittivity of space. This proved the speed of light to be independent of the observer as well.


The Substance

The consistency of substance arises as a result of repetitive motion. Therefore, we may postulate,

The consistency of substance is proportional to its repetitive motion.

The constant of proportionality will be a universal constant.

Let us assume the motion of an object to be represented by its speed.

We observe that the speed of matter is negligible compared to the speed of light, whereas, the consistency of light is negligible compared to the consistency of matter.

Therefore, mathematically, the speed of substance is inversely proportional to its consistency. In other words, the ratio of two different consistencies should be inverse of the ratio of corresponding speeds.

Let us assume the ratio of the speed of light to the speed of matter to be of the order of the speed of light, which is 3 x 108.

We will then expect the ratio of consistency of matter to the consistency of light to be of the same order of magnitude,

We have related the consistency of substance to its frequency: See The Spectrum of Substance.

Let us assume the consistency of matter to be close to the consistency of neutron, which is 277.6 .

Let us take the consistency of light to be the average value of 249.

The desired ratio is 277.6 / 249 = 228.6 = 4 x 108

This is of the same order of magnitude as the approximate ratio of the speeds of light and matter. This value is higher because the consistency of neutron is slightly higher than the average consistency of matter. Therefore, it is quite possible that the consistency and motion of substance are inversely proportional to each other.

This may be interpreted as follows:

Motion of 1 cycle within the light particle is equivalent to motion of the order of 108 cycles in the neutron.

At the moment, this is merely a hypothesis. It needs to be examined more rigorously.


Speed and Consistency

The above postulate has many possible consequences:

  1. Every physical object has a natural speed in free space that depends on its consistency (mass).
  2. When an object is accelerated from its natural speed with the application of an external force, its consistency decreases by an infinitesimal amount.
  3. When the external force is removed, the acceleration of the object returns to zero. If the object now continues to move at the higher speed, its consistency also stays at the infinitesimally lower value.
  4. If the consistency of the object returns to its original value, then its natural velocity shall also return to its original value.

The above anticipates the Higgs Mechanism.


  1. A physical object can never be accelerated to the speed of light without reducing its mass to consistency of light.


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