Subject: HINDUISM

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

This glossary is an attempt to provide scientifically precise definitions of the key terminology related to HINDUISM. The tool for generating these definitions is Subject Clearing. These definitions shall be regularly updated with clarity in mind.

This is a work in progress.

KEY WORD LIST:

  1. HINDUISM: GOD, YOGA
  2. JNANA YOGA: JÑĀNA, JIVA, ĀTMAN, JIVĀTMAN, PARAMĀTMAN, BRAHMA, MOKSHA, NIRVĀNA, DEHIN, DEHA, CHIT, ANTAHKARANA, MANAS, BUDDHI, CHITTA, AHAMKĀRA, ATTACHMENT, SMRTI, SAṂSKĀRA
  3. KARMA YOGA: KARMA, SANCHIT KARMA, KARMA YOGA, SACRIFICE
  4. BHAKTI YOGA: BHAKTI, BHAKTI YOGA, KIRTAN, SURRENDER TO GOD, AVATĀR, KRISHNA, DEITY, PURĀNA, BHAKTI MOVEMENT, MYTH, REBIRTH, KURU, MAHABHARATA, ĀSTIKA (THEIST), NĀSTIKA (ATHEIST), VISHNU, SHIVA, PRAKRITI, PURUSHA, KALI
  5. OTHER: ABSOLUTE, ANOMALY, DIVINITY, MAYA, STATIC VIEWPOINT, STHULA SHARIRA (GROSS BODY), SUBJECT CLEARING, SUKSHMA SHARIRA (SUBTLE BODY), BHAGAVĀN, CHANGE & CHANGELESS, DESIRE, DHARMA, ENLIGHTENED ACTION, GUNA, IMMORTALITY, ĪŚVARÁ, KSHATRIYA, SAMKHYA, SIN, SVADHARMA,

HINDUISM
Hinduism is an organization of spiritual thought that started with the Vedic period and has continued till today. The Vedic period (c. 1500 -500 BCE) was a period of rapid development of thought with little organization. This is the period during which Krishna, very likely, existed as a yogi and had such a great impact that his name became synonymous with Hinduism.

At the end of the Vedic period (500 BCE) there was organization of spiritual thought in the form of Jnana Yoga. Jnana Yoga separated all ritualism, and focused primarily on meditation. It clarified the concept of self, and the goal of meditation became accessing and becoming aware of the samskāras (unassimilated impressions) in one’s Chitta (mental processes). This awareness brings up unknown sensations, emotions and thoughts that have been buried for a long time. This is followed by the process of assimilation, during which many realizations occur. This phase of spiritual organization became synonymous with Buddha. However, Jnana Yoga just happens to be very cerebral and was successfully followed by relatively few people.

During the next phase of the organization (400-200 BCE) Patanjali and Ved Vyas expanded Jnana to Karma Yoga of detached action. Karma Yoga required giving up the fixation on worldly affairs. There was a fine line here. One engaged in the worldly affairs to the degree that the actions were in line with the natural laws. One’s disposition suited one to follow a certain class of activity in the society. It was mandatory for the person to perform his assigned duty to the best of his ability. This allowed the person to focus on developing his abilities in a detached manner. Karma Yoga is the main subject of the Bhagavad Gita (BG). It has less focus on the mind and more on detached action. In writing BG, Vyasa used the legendary character of Krishna to popularize Karma Yoga. BG introduces Jnana Yoga briefly in Chapter 2, with the concept of Atman, and then focuses on Karma Yoga as a step preliminary to Jnana Yoga. However, Karma Yoga ended up alienating people from their emotions. Like Jnana Yoga, it was successfully followed by relatively few people.

In the centuries following the Bhagavad Gita, the emotional dimension of spiritual thought was explored. This led to Bhakti Yoga. Unlike Jnana and Karma, Bhakti was able to win the hearts and minds of people in large numbers. This makes Bhakti Yoga a fascinating subject.

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GLOSSARY

ABSOLUTE

AGNI
The Vedas start with homage to Agni. Agni implies energy in all its forms. It is animated by an innate impulse. Energy is the basic substance of the universe. Everything physical, spiritual, real, imaginary, postulated or considered, is made of energy.

AHAMKĀRA (अहंकार )
Ahamkāra is the conception of “I” (ego) of the identity (body-mind system). The identity functions according to laws that are inherent in nature, which makes “I” naturally fluid. In plants the identity is very simple and the “I” hardly stands out. But, in man, the identity is very sophisticated and the “I” acquires an individuality. This idea is expressed in BG 3:27. The “I” can be naturally fluid or it can become attached and solid. The latter condition is known as egotism.

ANOMALY
Anomaly is anything that does not make sense because it is inconsistent, discontinuous or disharmonious. It generates doubts, perplexities and problems.

ANTAHKARANA (अन्तःकरण)
Antahkarana literally translates as the “internal organ.” It consists of four parts: Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahamkara.

ĀSTIKA (THEIST)
Astika (आस्तिक; from Sanskrit: asti, ‘there is, there exists’) means one who views deities existing as supernatural beings. 

ĀTMAN (आत्मन्)
Ātman represents the whole range of consciousness. Please see C-SCALE in the Other Glossary.

ATTACHMENT
Attachment starts with with the consideration that one’s identity is above the laws of nature. This fixation on identity then translates to fixation on worldly affairs. Such a person is calm only when he is within his worldly zone of comfort.

AVATĀR
Avatār literally means, “to make one’s appearance.” From its usage in Hinduism, an avatar appears to be a major step forward in evolution. Some of the avatars are: Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narasimha (animal-man), Vamana (dwarf), Parshuram (warrior-sage), Rama (model of ethics), Krishna (model of love), Buddha (model of wisdom), Kalki (prophesied to end evil). NOTE: An Avatar is a symbol for a major step toward evolution.

BECOMING ONE
To “become one” is to know something so intimately that there is no distance left. For example, when you are expert in riding a bicycle, you have become one with that bicycle. You push pedals and apply brakes without putting attention on them. But you are fully aware of those actions, and you can change them whenever you want. To “become one with God” is to know the universal laws so well that you operate according to them without having attention on them. When one says, “the seer and scenery has become one,” it implies knowingness. See KNOWINGNESS.

BHAGAVĀN
Bhagavān literally means “fortunate”, “blessed”, and hence “illustrious”, “divine”, “venerable”, and “holy”. It refers to one who understands the creation and dissolution, the appearance and disappearance of beings, the wisdom and ignorance. In Bhāgavad Gīta, Krishna is referred to as bhagavān.
BHAGAVĀN
Bhagavān literally means “fortunate”, “blessed”, and hence “illustrious”, “divine”, “venerable”, “holy”, etc. Please see Etymology and meaning.
“He who understands the creation and dissolution, the appearance and disappearance of beings, the wisdom and ignorance, should be called Bhagavān.” — Vishnu Purana, VI.5.78

BHAKTI
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means “attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity”. Bhakti is “emotional devotionalism”, particularly to a personal God or to spiritual ideas. Thus, bhakti requires a relationship between the devotee and the deity. NOTE: A bhakta feels deep emotions, but these emotions should not cut across the faculty to reason and understand.

BHAKTI MOVEMENT
The Bhakti movement refers to the trend in medieval Hinduism. It was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta. It was a revival, reworking and recontextualisation of ancient Vedic traditions. Bhakti refers to passionate devotion (to a deity) to achieve salvation. It provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one’s birth or gender. The Bhakti movement preached using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. NOTE: Bhakti movement has been a great effort to bring Vedic knowledge broadly to the uneducated masses. It has inspired much progress in arts and culture. However, the diverse symbolism has created much confusion and it requires careful deciphering.

BHAKTI YOGA
Bhakti yoga is a spiritual practice focused on loving devotion towards a personal deity. The personal god varies with the devotee. It may include a god or goddess such as Ganesha, Krishna, Radha, Rama, Sita, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, and Surya among others. In Bhakti Yoga, the personal deity may encourage the person to focus on certain attributes all the time. That is a type of meditation. NOTE: Bhakti Yoga is an effort to popularize knowledge using the emotion of devotion. In no way does it minimize Jnana and Karma Yoga. A Bhakta should, by all means, make an effort to understand self and perform actions according to the natural laws. Some say that Bhaktas use more heart (emotions) than mind (logic). That may be so with common people, but the principles of Jnana and Karma yoga cannot be ignored and have to be followed, ultimately, even by the bhaktas. Bhakti Yoga has inspired much progress in arts and culture. However, the knowledge has become diluted by all the diverse symbolism. This makes it necessary to decipher the symbolism correctly.

BRAHMA (ब्रह्म)
Brahma represents the ultimate metaphysical reality that is self-created. Sākār (साकार) means ‘having form, having any shape or definite figure.’ Sākār Brahma is the qualitative description of the universal reality that is always changing. Nirākār (निराकार) means ‘formless, shapeless, incorporeal.’ Nirākār Brahma is the abstract unifying principle underlying the universal reality. According to this principle, all reality is one, meaning it is continuous, consistent and harmonious.
BRAHMA
The one self-existent Spirit, the Absolute. This is the highest metaphysical reality. More practically, Brahma represents the innate impulse that permeates the fabric of the universe. It lies at the core of what we call SELF. Bhagavad Gita talks about “desire” to exist at this level. That is why desire is so difficult to control. (Verse 2:17)
Brahma is the innate impulse manifested as energy in the form of the whole universe. In modern language one would say that the highest metaphysical reality is the innate impulse, which is the characteristic of all energy. This impulse, on a universal scale, is understood as Brahma (the universal viewpoint). But, on the scale of an entity, it is understood as Atman (the individual viewpoint). There is quite a distance from Atman (or Paramatman) to Brahma in terms of broadness of the viewpoint.

BUDDHI (बुद्धि)
Buddhi is derived from the Vedic Sanskrit root Budh (बुध् ), which literally means “to wake, to know, be conscious again”. The same root is the basis for the more familiar masculine form Buddha and the abstract noun bodhi. Buddhi means the intellectual faculty and the ability to “discern, judge, comprehend, understand” something. It translates as the analytical mind. Please see ANALYTICAL MIND in the Other Glossary.

CHANGE & CHANGELESS
Ātman that carries mental impressions never perishes, but the mental impressions carried by ātman are forever changing. (Verse 2:12-14).

CHIT (चित्)
Chit meaning consciousness or awareness. Chit is associated with Jivatman, Atman and Paramatman meaning that there are different levels of consciousness associated with these viewpoints. Please see CONSCIOUSNESS in the Other Glossary.

CHITTA (चित्त)
Chitta is the term used to refer to the quality of mental processes as a whole. One’s state of mind at any given time affects one’s actions, speech, and thoughts. The chitta is said to go off with a will of its own if not properly controlled. Generally speaking, a person will operate with a collection of changing mindsets, and some will occur regularly. While these mindsets determine the personality, they are not in control of themselves, but fluctuate and alternate. It translates as the reactive mind. Please see REACTIVE MIND in the Other Glossary.

CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousness is the level of awareness of the mind. The greater is the refinement of the data elements (and the relationships among them) from perception, the higher is the consciousness. Human consciousness is much higher than the consciousness in animals, because the data elements are much more refined with greater number of relationships among them. See MIND.

DEHIN (देहिन्)
Dehin means ‘having a body, corporeal’. It translates as soul. Please see SOUL in the Other Glossary.

DEHA (देह)
Deha means ‘to plaster, mould, fashion’. It translates as the body. Please see BODY in the Other Glossary.

DEITY
A deity or god serves as a symbol for the unknown cosmic influence. It is often defined as a supernatural being whose actions affect the world and the lives of human beings. It is considered divine and sacred. Formation of deities are essentially attempts to understand one’s life and how it is influenced in this universe. Through the “worship” of deities one evolves to new levels of consciousness. The Bhagavad Gita visualizes Krishna as the God teaching Jnana, Karma and Bhakti yoga. The Bhagavata Purana focuses on the worship of Krishna as the cosmic deity, which essentially demonstrates Bhakti yoga.

DESIRE
All desires have deep roots in innate impulse, and they are shaped by the self. (Verse 2:42).

DHARMA
Dharma means, “Established in nature”. For example, the “Dharma” of the sun is to shine and give warmth. Dharma is the basis of all science—physical and spiritual. Nature is continuous, harmonious and consistent. Therefore, dharma exists when there is continuity, harmony and consistency.
DHARMA
Dharma means, literally, “the Law of Being.”  It refers to the natural purpose of something. For example, the “Dharma” of the sun is to shine and give warmth.

DIVINITY
When you meditate on divinity you simply end up realizing that you and the universe are one. Your mental matrix is totally assimilated. You are free of anomalies.

ENLIGHTENED ACTION
When one engages in an action simply to restore the truth of the natural order, then it is an enlightened action. (Verse 2:47).

ENLIGHTENED PERSON
A person who is established in the truth of natural order; who is always seeing things as they are. (Verse 2:46).

GOD
God is perceived as a supernatural being (भगवान्) in Bhakti Yoga only. One worships God in order to seek solutions to their problems. In Jnana Yoga, God is perceived as the Supreme Ātman (परमात्मन्) or The Static Viewpoint. One sees Paramātman as the state he wants to evolve to.

GUNA
Guṇas are “modes of existence” (tendencies, qualities, attributes). It is a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy. There are three gunas: sattva (goodness, constructive, harmonious), rajas (passion, active, confused), and tamas (darkness, destructive, chaotic). All of these three gunas are present in everyone and everything, it is the proportion that is different. The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life. (Verse 2:45).

IMMORTALITY
Immortality is not identifying with perishable mental impressions of sense-objects. It is the freedom from fixations due to samskaras (karmic impressions). (Verse 2:15).

ĪŚVARÁ
Īśvará means, “one who is capable of”, It is used for master, lord, prince, king, mistress, and queen.
ISHVARA (ईश्वर)
The composite word, Ishvara literally means “owner of best, beautiful”, “ruler of choices, blessings, boons”, or “chief of suitor, lover”. As a concept, Ishvara in ancient and medieval Sanskrit texts, variously means God, Supreme Being, Supreme Soul, lord, king or ruler, rich or wealthy man, god of love, deity Vishnu… [in Vedas,] the contextual meaning, however as the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini explains, is neither god nor supreme being. Please see Etymology.

JIVA (जीव)
Jiva means ‘to breathe or to live’. It is the human self that is made of deha, antahkarana and jivātman. Please see HUMAN SELF in the Other Glossary.

JIVĀTMAN (जीवात्मन्)
Jivātman is an individual’s level of consciousness that acts as his frame of reference. Please see C-POINT in the Other Glossary.

JÑĀNA (ज्ञान)
Jñāna means ‘knowledge’. It refers to knowledge that is assimilated. Jñāna yoga (Yoga of Knowledge) is one of the three main paths, which are supposed to lead towards moksha.

KALI
Kālī (काली) is the power (SHAKTI) that emerges from SHIVA. It destroys all ignorance and leads one to the understanding of the ultimate reality (BRAHMA). Kali, as deity, is portrayed standing on Lord Shiva, with one foot forward. Her skin color appears to be dark, and she is wearing a garland of 51 skulls, denoting 51 letters of sanskrit alphabet. She is four armed, holding a Kharag, in her top left arm, denoting strength of divine knowledge. In her lower hand, she is holding a severed head denoting ego. Both of her right hands are in the abhaya (fearlessness) and varada (blessing) mudras. She is often depicted naked which symbolizes her being beyond the covering of Maya since she is far above Prakriti. NOTE: Kali symbolizes the concentrated effort to overcome the very source of ignorance.

KALPA
One day of Brahma equal to 1000 Yugas, equal to 4320 million years. See Hindu units of time.

KARMA
Karma means “action.” In Hinduism, karma refers to an anomaly that is left unresolved after some action is taken. Such anomaly is carried forward until it is resolved. All doubts, perplexities and problems come from such anomalies.

KARMA, SANCHIT
Sanchit (संचित) means “accumulated”. Sanchit karma is the karma accumulated over time.

KARMA YOGA
Karma Yoga is essentially the surrender of the arrogant egotism and letting it reduce to the humble ego by going along with the laws of nature in one’s action. This requires certain faith in the laws of nature.

KIRTAN
Kirtan is a Bhakti Yoga technique in which attention is diverted away from mental fixations, so that mind is temporarily free to resolve anomalies in a natural fashion. Kirtan includes singing of bhajans and chanting. Bhajan refers to any devotional song with a religious theme or spiritual ideas. The term bhajanam means reverence and originates from the root word bhaj, which means to revere, as in ‘Bhaja Govindam’. NOTE: A technique to more deeply free the mind of fixations is meditation. Of course, one needs to resolve fixations themselves to keep the mind permanently free. Subject Clearing helps in resolving the fixations themselves.

KRISHNA
In Bhagavata Purana, Krishna is considered an avatar that did not undergo a human birth. NOTE: As an avatar Krishna has become a symbol for a major step toward evolution. This means that, at one time, Krishna must have been an actual person who became a great yogi and attained moksha through his efforts. 

KSHATRIYA
Kshatriya is one who protects from hurt or wound. A Kshatriya is a member of the second of the four great Hindu castes, the military caste. The traditional function of the Kshatriyas is to protect society by fighting in wartime and governing in peacetime. (Verse 2:32).

KURU
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and some parts of western part of Uttar Pradesh, which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.

MAHABHARATA
Mahabharata describes the first civil war among the Kurus. It seems to have been composed about 800 to 1000 years later after the actual event. Krishna and Arjuna seems to be characters created by the author based on legends.

MAYA
Maya is actually the condition of perplexity, confusion or delusion. But this condition is impermanent, and it can be cleared up.
MAYA
Maya consists of filters generated by karmic impressions that cloud one’s vision.

MANAS (मनस्))
Manas translates as mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers). The embodied ātman is aware. It has the natural capacity to recognize what is there and what is not. This is its mind. (Verse 2:16).

MOKSHA (मोक्ष)
Moksha is derived from the root, muc, which means “to free, let go, release, liberate”. It refers to freedom from the cycle of death and rebirth. In the context of Hinduism, Moksha is the realization that Paramātman and Brahman are one and the same.

MYTH
Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world, nature, and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society’s religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. NOTE: God is a mythological explanation for an unknown cosmic influence that does not have a face or personality. Ultimate authority resides in universal principles.

NĀSTIKA (ATHEIST)
Nāstika (from Sanskrit: na, ‘not’ + āstika) means one who views deities to be the symbolization of elements of nature.

NIRVĀNA (निर्वाण)
Nirvāṇa literally means, “blown out”, as in an oil lamp. It represents the ultimate state of release from dukkha and saṃsāra. In the Buddhist context, Nirvāṇa is the realization that there is nothing substantial and permanent underlying the concept of Atman.

PARAMĀTMAN (परमात्मन्)
Paramātman (Supreme Atman) is the ultimate level of consciousness to which all jivātmans converge upon expansion. Selflessness is the attribute of Paramatman, where all personality/individuality vanishes. Please see ETERNAL C-POINT in the Other Glossary.

PRAKRITI
Prakriti (प्रकृति) is “the original or natural form or condition of anything” and connotes “nature, body, matter, phenomenal universe”. It is a key concept in Hinduism, where it includes all the cognitive, moral, psychological, emotional, sensorial and physical aspects of reality. Prakriti has three different innate qualities (guṇas): sattva (goodness, calmness, harmonious), rajas (passion, activity, movement), and tamas (ignorance, inertia, laziness). The equilibrium of these qualities is the basis of all observed empirical reality. Prakriti refers to the feminine aspect of all life forms. It contrasts with the male aspect, Purusha, which is pure awareness and metaphysical consciousness.

PURĀNA
Purāna (पुराण) literally means “ancient, old”. It is a vast genre of Indian literature woven with the Bhakti movement. It includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy. Several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Shakti. The Puranas are known for the intricate layers of symbolism depicted within their stories. They present a form of religion, wherein bhakti ultimately leads to self-knowledge, salvation (moksha) and bliss. They have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism.

PURUSHA
Purusha (पुरुष) means the cosmic being or self, consciousness, and universal principle. It is atman working toward the state of parmātama. Brahma combines Prakriti (nature, matter) and Purusha (spirit, soul) to create a dazzling variety of living creatures, and tempest of causal nexus. NOTE: It is the universal viewpoint that still suffers from some fixations as it works its way towards becoming the static viewpoint.
PURUŚA
Puruśa is abstract essence of the Self, Spirit and the Universal Principle that is eternal, indestructible, without form and is all pervasive.

REBIRTH
The idea of rebirth comes from variations in the characteristics that one is born with, along with the continuation of certain characteristics from one life cycle to the next. Both these factors may be explained through the phenomenon of genes and the programming they carry. However, it still remains to be explained what this genetic programming is and how it comes about. The genetic programming is the blue print that shapes the identity (body-mind system) of the organism. Its content comes from life cycles that have already occurred. Some of this programming contains anomalies that needs to be resolved. It is the resolution of these anomalies that drives the evolution. In Hinduism, these anomalies are referred to as “karma”, because they come to light through one’s actions.

SACRIFICE
Sacrifice means ‘to make holy’. It is an action performed for its natural purpose without self-interest or attachment. It has the effect of freeing you up. This is Karma Yoga.
SACRIFICE
Sacrifice is surrendering one’s self-interests and devotedly working for the sake of the welfare of the world.

SAMĀDHI (समाधि)
Samādhi means concentration of the thoughts, profound or abstract meditation, intense contemplation of any particular object (so as to identify the contemplator with the object meditated upon); this is the eighth and last stage of yoga; with Buddhists samādhi is the fourth and last stage of dhyāna or intense abstract meditation. The deep sleep like state of samadhi is the period of assimilation in which you completely reset your system. But you don’t live in that state. Samadhi leads you toward the universal viewpoint. Being “established in God” would means being established in the universal viewpoint.

SAMKHYA
Samkhya refers to the philosophical school in Hinduism based on systematic enumeration and rational examination. It ‘enumerates’ twenty-five Tattvas or true principles; and its chief object is to effect the final emancipation of the twenty-fifth Tattva, i.e. the puruṣa or Self. (Verse 2:39).

SAṂSKĀRA (संस्कार)
Samskāras  are mental impressions, recollections, or psychological imprints. These samskāras manifest as tendencies, impulses, subliminal impressions, habitual potencies or innate dispositions. Please see FACSIMILE in the Other Glossary.
SAMSKARAS
Karmic impressions brought about by one’s actions and their consequences

SAT-CHIT-ANAND
The bliss of pure thought energy

SHIVA
Shiva (शिव) means “auspicious, propitious, gracious, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly”. The term Shiva also connotes “liberation, final emancipation” and “the auspicious one”. It is the supreme power that recognizes the true nature of reality and destroys all illusion. Shiva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. As a deity, Shiva is identified as the creator of the cosmos and liberator of Selfs from the birth-rebirth cycle. NOTE: The Static Viewpoint comes closest to describing Shiva.

SIN
Sin consists of acting against one’s inherent beingness, or not acting according to it. (Verse 2:33).

SMRTI (स्मृति)
Smrti means “remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind”, or simply “memory”. The word is found in ancient Vedic literature. In later usage, the term refers to tradition, memory, as well as “tradition that is remembered”. Please see MEMORY in the Other Glossary.

STHULA SHARIRA (GROSS BODY)
The Sthula Sharira is a synonym for Jiva (identity).

SUBJECT CLEARING
Subject Clearing is the general technique employed to clear up the confusion of relationships among different concepts. This handles the source of many problems the person is having.

SUKSHMA SHARIRA (SUBTLE BODY)
The Sukshma Sharira is a synonym for Jivātman (viewpoint).

SURRENDER (TO GOD)
To surrender to God means to let the laws of nature take over. You do not avoid, suppress, deny, or resist your tendencies but face them for what they are. This will make you become aware of your conditioning in depth and the laws of nature. This will help you become free of your conditioning and be able to navigate successfully with your basic nature. People suppress their tendencies and think they have surrendered. They have not.
SURRENDER (in yoga)
Surrendering is “not avoiding, not denying, not resisting, and not suppressing.” It is experiencing fully what is there. You free yourself from an unwanted condition only by becoming fully aware of it. Suppressing is not the same thing as surrendering. If a person is suppressing bad habits to become good, he has not surrendered yet. After you have surrendered, only your basic nature is left. The basic nature operates according to the universal laws

SVADHARMA
Svadharma is “one’s own duty”. These are actions that follows naturally from beingness. Svadharma is a property peculiar to the beingness. (Verse 2:31).

VIDHATA
Vidhata means “inherent principles of existence.” Duality is a natural consequence of these principles. Any imbalance straightens out by itself.

VISHNU
Vishnu (विष्णु) literally means the pervader. It is the all pervasive cosmic order that maintains cosmic equilibrium. It forms into universal principles. Vishnu, along with Brahma and Shiva, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are part of extensive Hindu mythology. NOTE: Vishnu seems to be the description of the innate impulse that energizes every atom of this universe, and, therefore, our very beingness. Obviously, it is formless and the very root of everything. It generates the very sense organs that perceive. It manifests as space,  time, knowledge and all characteristics. It is the ultimate realization that one can have.

YAJNA
Yajna means selfless action done for the welfare of the world. For example, Jnana yajna is performed to spread jnana for larger benefit of community. The ritual of yajna is a symbol for such action. See SACRIFICE.

YOGA (योग)
Yoga means ’yoke or union’. It is the practice of uniting atman with brahma (see MOKSHA) from which develops the detached ‘witness-consciousness’ (See The Static Viewpoint). Discrimination, resolute intellect and devotion is present in all yoga; but in Jnana Yoga there is predominance of discrimination, in Karma Yoga there is predominance of resolute intellect, and in Bhakti Yoga there is predominance of devotion. See MEDITATION in the Other Glossary.
YOGA
Yoga school of philosophy is closely related to Samkhya school. It systematically studies to better oneself physically, mentally and spiritually by renouncing attachment and attaining equanimity(Verse 2:39, 2:48).

Ego Painting by Zuzana R. | Victory Art | Artworks | Victory Art

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Comments

  • VNRAI  On September 19, 2021 at 10:27 PM

    Totally agree with you

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