Category Archives: Religion

THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 10

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 10

श्रीभगवानुवाच
भूयएवमहाबाहोश्रृणुमेपरमंवचः।
यत्तेऽहंप्रीयमाणायवक्ष्यामिहितकाम्यया।।10.1।।

The blessed Lord said:
Once again, O mighty-armed, listen to My supreme word, which I shall speak to you, who are so loving, out of solicitude for your welfare. (X-1)

नमेविदुःसुरगणाःप्रभवंनमहर्षयः।
अहमादिर्हिदेवानांमहर्षीणांचसर्वशः।।10.2।।

Neither gods nor the great sages know the secret of My origin; for I am the prime cause in all respects of gods as well as the great sages. (X-2)

योमामजमनादिंचवेत्तिलोकमहेश्वरम्।
असम्मूढःसमर्त्येषुसर्वपापैःप्रमुच्यते।।10.3।।

He who knows Me as unborn and beginningless, as the Great Lord of the world, he, undecided among men, is purged of all sins. (X-3)

Where the Laws of nature originate from is not known. But one, who knows that these Laws are overarching, follows them and is purged of all sins.

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहःक्षमासत्यंदमःशमः।
सुखंदुःखंभवोऽभावोभयंचाभयमेवच।।10.4।।
अहिंसासमतातुष्टिस्तपोदानंयशोऽयशः।
भवन्तिभावाभूतानांमत्तएवपृथग्विधाः।।10.5।।

Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint (control over the mind and the senses), joy (pleasure), and sorrow (pain), evolution and dissolution, fear and fearlessness, non-violence, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and disrepute—these diverse feelings of creatures emanate from Me alone. (X-4,5)

The Laws of nature evolve the following metaphysical characteristics as part of awareness:

(1) बुद्धि (intellect): the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions, intelligence, reason, intellect, mind, discernment, judgement etc.

The sense organs convert the interaction with external (physical) energy of Akasha into electro-chemical signals, which are then converted into internal (metaphysical) energy by the cells of the body. The mental matrix then assimilates the incoming with stored internal energy to generate perceptions in real time. This assimilation also leads to the formation of concepts and general notions that are retained to speed up subsequent assimilations. This is the intellect functioning.

(2) ज्ञान (wisdom): knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge, (especially) the higher knowledge (derived from meditation on the one Universal Spirit) etc.

This is the understanding resulting from the assimilation of all mental matrices in the universe. It makes up the Attention field. These ultimate considerations are continuous, harmonious and consistent like the universe they are reflecting.

(3) असंमोह (non-delusion): (noun) calmness, composure, deliberateness, (adjective) not-confused.

Self is composed of the attention field, mental matrix and the body. Attention field forms a continuum, but the mental matrices and bodies are discrete condensations within it. Together the mental matrix and body form an identity, which is like a covering for self. A person generally confuses identity with self. In asammohah, one is aware of the difference between self and identity and the relationship between the two.

(4) क्षमा (forgiveness): patience, forbearance, indulgence etc.

Forgiveness is actually the patience needed to sort out the anomalies (discontinuities, disharmonies and inconsistencies) and not rushing and making mistakes. The mental matrix sorts out the anomalies naturally, and directs the body in its actions appropriately when data is missing. It requires patience to let the mental matrix do its job.

(5) सत्यं (truth): true, real, actual, genuine, sincere, honest, truthful, faithful, pure, virtuous, good, successful, effectual, valid etc.

Truth is the state achieved when all anomalies have been resolved. Truth is the state of continuity, harmony and consistency.

(6) दम (self-restraint): self-command, self-restraint, self-control
सम (self-restraint): equable, neutral, indifferent

Effort may be required in following the rules for self-restraint (morals), when anomalies exist in the mental matrix. But as these anomalies are resolved one no longer needs to put out effort to achieve self-restraint.

(7) सुख (joy): originally “having a good axle-hole” possibly running swiftly or easily (applied to chariots);
दुःख (sorrow): uneasiness, pain, trouble, difficulty.

Such conditions arise due to anomalies and during the process of resolving them.

(8) भव (evolution): coming into existence, birth, production, origin
अभाव (dissolution): non-existence, nullity, absence

Everything is cyclical. The universe, the identities perceiving it, the anomalies, etc., come into existence and then resolve again and again.

(9) भय (fear): alarm, dread, apprehension
अभय (fearlessness): fearless, undaunted

Such conditions also arise due to anomalies and during the process of resolving them, especially where the survival of identity itself is concerned.

[To be continued…]

महर्षयःसप्तपूर्वेचत्वारोमनवस्तथा।
मद्भावामानसाजातायेषांलोकइमाःप्रजाः।।10.6।।

The seven great seers, the more ancient four Sanaka etc., and fourteen Manus, who are all devoted to Me, are born of My mind and all these creatures in the world have come forth from them. (X-6)

एतांविभूतिंयोगंचममयोवेत्तितत्त्वतः।
सोऽविकम्पेनयोगेनयुज्यतेनात्रसंशयः।।10.7।।

He who knows in reality this divine glory and power of Mine is endowed with unfaltering Yoga of devotion; of this there is no doubt. (X-7)

अहंसर्वस्यप्रभवोमत्तःसर्वंप्रवर्तते।
इतिमत्वाभजन्तेमांबुधाभावसमन्विताः।।10.8।।

I am the origin of the whole creation; from Me all things move. The wise knowing this, full of devotion, worship Me. (X-8)

मच्चित्तामद्गतप्राणाबोधयन्तःपरस्परम्।
कथयन्तश्चमांनित्यंतुष्यन्तिचरमन्तिच।।10.9।।

With their minds fixed on Me, with their lives surrendered to Me, enlightening each other about My greatness and ever speaking of Me, they ever remain contented and delighted. (X-9)

तेषांसततयुक्तानांभजतांप्रीतिपूर्वकम्।
ददामिबुद्धियोगंतंयेनमामुपयान्तिते।।10.10।।

To them, ever devout, worshipping me with love, I confer that Yoga of Wisdom (equanimity) by which they attain Me. (X-10)

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजंतमः।
नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थोज्ञानदीपेनभास्वता।।10.11।।

In order to shower my grace on them, I, dwelling in their self (heart), destroy the ignorance—born darkness by the luminous lamp of wisdom. (X-11)

अर्जुनउवाच
परंब्रह्मपरंधामपवित्रंपरमंभवान्।
पुरुषंशाश्वतंदिव्यमादिदेवमजंविभुम्।।10.12।।
आहुस्त्वामृषयःसर्वेदेवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा।
असितोदेवलोव्यासःस्वयंचैवब्रवीषिमे।।10.13।।

Arjuna said:
You are the Supreme Brahma (Eternal) (Pure Consciousness), the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Divine Person, the Prime Deity, the Unborn, the Omnipresent. Likewise all the sages have acclaimed You, as also celestial sage Narada, so also Asita, Devala and Vyasa; and You Yourself also proclaim this to me. (X-12,13)

सर्वमेतदृतंमन्येयन्मांवदसिकेशव।
नहितेभगवन्व्यक्ितंविदुर्देवानदानवाः।।10.14।।

I hold as true all that You tell me, O Kesava. Neither the gods nor the demons, O blessed Lord, know Your manifestation. (X-14)

स्वयमेवात्मनाऽत्मानंवेत्थत्वंपुरुषोत्तम।
भूतभावनभूतेशदेवदेवजगत्पते।।10.15।।

You alone know Yourself by Yourself, O Supreme Person, O Creator of beings, O Lord of beings,  O God of gods, O Lord of the Universe. (X-15)

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेणदिव्याह्यात्मविभूतयः।
याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वंव्याप्यतिष्ठसि।।10.16।।

You alone can describe in full Your divine glories, by which You remain pervading these worlds. (X-16)

कथंविद्यामहंयोगिंस्त्वांसदापरिचिन्तयन्।
केषुकेषुचभावेषुचिन्त्योऽसिभगवन्मया।।10.17।।

How may I know You, O Master of Yoga, by constant meditation? In what various aspects are You, O blessed Lord, to be meditated upon by me? (X-17)

विस्तरेणात्मनोयोगंविभूतिंचजनार्दन।
भूयःकथयतृप्तिर्हिश्रृण्वतोनास्तिमेऽमृतम्।।10.18।।

Tell me again in detail, O Janardana, Your power of Yoga and Your glories; for I lnpw no satiety in hearing Your nectarean words. (X-18)

श्रीभगवानुवाच
हन्ततेकथयिष्यामिदिव्याह्यात्मविभूतयः।
प्राधान्यतःकुरुश्रेष्ठनास्त्यन्तोविस्तरस्यमे।।10.19।।

The blessed Lord said:
Now I shall tell you My divine glories in brief, O best of the Kurus, for there is no end to the details  of My manifestation. (X-19)

अहमात्मागुडाकेशसर्वभूताशयस्थितः।
अहमादिश्चमध्यंचभूतानामन्तएवच।।10.20।।

In the self, O Gudakesa, seated in the hearts of all beings I am the beginning, the middle and also the end of all beings. (X-20)

आदित्यानामहंविष्णुर्ज्योतिषांरविरंशुमान्।
मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मिनक्षत्राणामहंशशी।।10.21।।

I am Visnu among the twelve sons of Aditi; and the bright rayed sun among the luminaries; I am the glory of the Maruts and the moon among stars. (X-21)

वेदानांसामवेदोऽस्मिदेवानामस्मिवासवः।
इन्द्रियाणांमनश्चास्मिभूतानामस्मिचेतना।।10.22।।

Of the Vedas I am the Sāmveda; I am Vāsva (Indra) among the gods; of the senses I am the mind and among living being I am consciousness. (X-22)

रुद्राणांशङ्करश्चास्मिवित्तेशोयक्षरक्षसाम्।
वसूनांपावकश्चास्मिमेरुःशिखरिणामहम्।।10.23।।

Among the Rudras I am Sankara; among the Yaksas (Genies) and Rakshasas (Demons) I am Kubera. Among the Vasus (a class of the gods) I am the god of fire, and of the mountains I am the Meru. (X-23)

पुरोधसांचमुख्यंमांविद्धिपार्थबृहस्पतिम्।
सेनानीनामहंस्कन्दःसरसामस्मिसागरः।।10.24।।

Among priests, O Partha, know me to their chief Brhsapati; among generals I am Skanda; among the seats of water , I am the ocean. (X-24)

महर्षीणांभृगुरहंगिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम्।
यज्ञानांजपयज्ञोऽस्मिस्थावराणांहिमालयः।।10.25।।

Among the great seers I am Bhrgu, of the words I am monosyllable ‘Om’; of sacrifices, I am the sacrifice of the constant repetition of the Lord’s name; and of the immovables, Himalaya. (X-25)

अश्वत्थःसर्ववृक्षाणांदेवर्षीणांचनारदः।
गन्धर्वाणांचित्ररथःसिद्धानांकपिलोमुनिः।।10.26।।

Of all trees I am Asvattha (the holy fig tree); among the celestial sages, Narada; among the Gandharvas (celestial monsters), Citraratha; among the siddhas (the Perfect), the sage Kapila. (X-26)

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानांविद्धिमाममृतोद्भवम्।
ऐरावतंगजेन्द्राणांनराणांचनराधिपम्।।10.27।।

Among horses, know Me to be Uccaihsrava begotten of the churning of the ocean along with nectar; of lordly elephants Airavata (Indra’s elephant); among men, the king. (X-27)

आयुधानामहंवज्रंधेनूनामस्मिकामधुक्।
प्रजनश्चास्मिकन्दर्पःसर्पाणामस्मिवासुकिः।।10.28।।

Of weapons, I am the thunderbolt; of cows, I am the celestial cow Kamadhenu. I am the sexual desire which is attended by procreation; of servants, I am Vasuki. (X-28)

अनन्तश्चास्मिनागानांवरुणोयादसामहम्।
पितृ़णामर्यमाचास्मियमःसंयमतामहम्।।10.29।।

Of the Nagas (serpents) I am ananda (the serpent-god); of aquatic creatures and water-gods, I am Varuna; among the manes I am Aryama; and among rulers I am Yama, the god of death. (X-29)

प्रह्लादश्चास्मिदैत्यानांकालःकलयतामहम्।
मृगाणांचमृगेन्द्रोऽहंवैनतेयश्चपक्षिणाम्।।10.30।।

Among the demons I am Prahalada; among reckoners I am Time; among beasts I am the Lion; and among birds, Garuda (the vehicle of Lord Vishnu). (X-30)

पवनःपवतामस्मिरामःशस्त्रभृतामहम्।
झषाणांमकरश्चास्मिस्रोतसामस्मिजाह्नवी।।10.31।।

Among purifiers, I am the wind; among welders of weapon I am Rāma. Among fishes I am alligator; and among rivers I am the Ganges. (X-31)

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्चमध्यंचैवाहमर्जुन।
अध्यात्मविद्याविद्यानांवादःप्रवदतामहम्।।10.32।।

Arjuna, I am the beginning, the end and also the middle of all creations. Of sciences, I am the science of the self (soul); in debates I am the reason. (X-32)

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मिद्वन्द्वःसामासिकस्यच।
अहमेवाक्षयःकालोधाताऽहंविश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Of letters I am ‘A’; of word-compounds I am the dual (Dvandva). I am verily the endless Time; I am the sustainer of all, having My face on all sides. (X-33)

मृत्युःसर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्चभविष्यताम्।
कीर्तिःश्रीर्वाक्चनारीणांस्मृतिर्मेधाधृतिःक्षमा।।10.34।।

I am the all devouring Death. I am the source of future beings. Of females I am Kirti, Sri, Vāk, Smrti, Medha, Dhrti and Ksamā (the goddesses) presiding over the qualities Fame, Prosperity (Fortune), Speech, Memory, Intelligence, Steadfastness and Forgiveness respectively. (X-34)

बृहत्सामतथासाम्नांगायत्रीछन्दसामहम्।
मासानांमार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनांकुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

Of the Sāma hymns I am Brhatsama; of Vedic verses, I am Gayatri. Of the twelve months of the Hindu calendar I am Margasirsa and of seasons I am the flowery spring. (X-35)

द्यूतंछलयतामस्मितेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्।
जयोऽस्मिव्यवसायोऽस्मिसत्त्वंसत्त्ववतामहम्।।10.36।।

I am gambling of the deceitful practices; I am the glory of the glorious. I am the victory of the victorious, the resolution of the resolute; the goodness of the good. (X-36)

वृष्णीनांवासुदेवोऽस्मिपाण्डवानांधनंजयः।
मुनीनामप्यहंव्यासःकवीनामुशनाकविः।।10.37।।

Among the members of the Vrsni clan, I am Krsa; among the Pandavas, Dhananjaya; among the sages I am Vyasa and among the seers I am the sage Sukra. (X-37)

दण्डोदमयतामस्मिनीतिरस्मिजिगीषताम्।
मौनंचैवास्मिगुह्यानांज्ञानंज्ञानवतामहम्।।10.38।।

I am the ruling-power (punishment) in rulers; I am righteousness in those who seek victory. Of secrets I am silence and I am wisdom of the wise. (X-38)

यच्चापिसर्वभूतानांबीजंतदहमर्जुन।
नतदस्तिविनायत्स्यान्मयाभूतंचराचरम्।।10.39।।

O Arjuna, I am the seed of all beings. There is no creature animate or inanimate that can exist without Me. (X-39)

नान्तोऽस्तिममदिव्यानांविभूतीनांपरंतप।
एषतूद्देशतःप्रोक्तोविभूतेर्विस्तरोमया।।10.40।।

O harasser of foes, there is no end of My divine glories; this is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My glories. (X-40)

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वंश्रीमदूर्जितमेववा।
तत्तदेवावगच्छत्वंममतेजोंऽशसंभवम्।।10.41।।

Every such thing as is glorious, brilliant or powerful, know that to be a manifestation of a spark of My splendor. (X-41)

अथवाबहुनैतेनकिंज्ञातेनतवार्जुन।
विष्टभ्याहमिदंकृत्स्नमेकांशेनस्थितोजगत्।।10.42।।

Or, what need is there, O Arjuna, for the detailed knowledge? I stand supporting the whole universe with a single fragment of Myself. (X-42)

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 9

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 9

श्रीभगवानुवाच
इदंतुतेगुह्यतमंप्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे।
ज्ञानंविज्ञानसहितंयज्ज्ञात्वामोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात्।।9.1।।

The Blessed Lord said:
To you who do not cavil, I shall now unfold the most profound Knowledge (Jñāna), along with Realization (Vijñāna), knowing which you will be released from evil i.e., evil of worldly birth and death. (IX-1)

राजविद्याराजगुह्यंपवित्रमिदमुत्तमम्।
प्रत्यक्षावगमंधर्म्यंसुसुखंकर्तुमव्ययम्।।9.2।।

This knowledge with realization is the sovereign science, the sovereign secret, supremely holy, the most excellent, directly realizable, attended with virtue, very easy to practice and Imperishable. (IX-2)

अश्रद्दधानाःपुरुषाधर्मस्यास्यपरन्तप।
अप्राप्यमांनिवर्तन्तेमृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि।।9.3।।

People devoid of faith in the Dharma, failing to reach Me, O oppressor of the foes, revolve in the path of the mortal world. (IX-3)

Here the worldly birth and death is looked upon as an evil because it means that one’s evolution is not yet complete. The knowledge revealed here will bring about that remaining evolution. This knowledge is the icing on the cake. People who fail to evolve completely lack faith in the laws of nature, and so they keep cycling through the mortal world.

मयाततमिदंसर्वंजगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना।
मत्स्थानिसर्वभूतानिनचाहंतेष्ववस्थितः।।9.4।।
नचमत्स्थानिभूतानिपश्यमेयोगमैश्वरम्।
भूतभृन्नचभूतस्थोममात्माभूतभावनः।।9.5।।

All this universe is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form. All beings abide in Me, but I don’t abide in them. Nor do the beings dwell in Me; look at My divine Yoga (power). Being the creator and sustainer of beings, Myself does not dwell in them. (IX-4, 5)

यथाऽऽकाशस्थितोनित्यंवायुःसर्वत्रगोमहान्।
तथासर्वाणिभूतानिमत्स्थानीत्युपधारय।।9.6।।

As the mighty wind moving everywhere ever rest in ether, likewise know that all beings rest in Me. (IX-6)

“Me” seems to stand for the Laws of Nature. These laws guide the evolution from raw impulse/energy to the electromagnetic configuration of matter and chemicals, which further evolve into self-animation of life, and finally, to self-awareness of humans. Thus, this whole universe is pervaded by the laws of Nature. The self-awareness is the product of these laws of Nature. The laws of Nature are not a product of self-awareness. All beings rest in the Laws of Nature.

सर्वभूतानिकौन्तेयप्रकृतिंयान्तिमामिकाम्।
कल्पक्षयेपुनस्तानिकल्पादौविसृजाम्यहम्।।9.7।।

All beings, O Kaunteya, go into my Prakrti (the Prime cause) at the end of a Kalpa (Brahmā’s day) and I generate them again at the beginning of the next Kalpa. (IX-7)

प्रकृतिंस्वामवष्टभ्यविसृजामिपुनःपुनः।
भूतग्राममिमंकृत्स्नमवशंप्रकृतेर्वशात्।।9.8।।

Laying hold of My Nature, I bring forth, again and again this whole multitude of beings, subject to the influence of their own nature. (IX-8)

नचमांतानिकर्माणिनिबध्नन्तिधनञ्जय।
उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तंतेषुकर्मसु।।9.9।।

O Dhananjya (Arjuna), those actions, however, don’t bind Me, Who remain like one unconcerned, unattached to those actions. (IX-9)

All beings reduce to their basic potential, and then regenerate, as the universe goes through cycles according to its nature. The laws of Nature regenerate totally afresh together with the beings, so the evolution can be unique in each cycle. The beings are obviously subject to the influence of their own nature. The laws of nature, however, are totally independent of the universal cycle.

मयाऽध्यक्षेणप्रकृतिःसूयतेसचराचरम्।
हेतुनाऽनेनकौन्तेयजगद्विपरिवर्तते।।9.10।।

O Son of Kunti, with Me as the supervisor, Nature brings forth the whole creation, both animate and inanimate; the world, therefore, revolves. (IX-10)

अवजानन्तिमांमूढामानुषींतनुमाश्रितम्।
परंभावमजानन्तोममभूतमहेश्वरम्।।9.11।।

Fools disregard Me as one putting on the human body, not knowing My supreme nature as the Great Lord of beings. (IX-11)

मोघाशामोघकर्माणोमोघज्ञानाविचेतसः।
राक्षसीमासुरींचैवप्रकृतिंमोहिनींश्रिताः।।9.12।।

Those fools with vain hopes, vain actions and vain knowledge have embraced a nature which is fiendish, demoniacal and delusive. (IX-12)

Under the supervision of the Ultimate Law of Nature, the whole creation, both animate and inanimate, comes forth at the beginning of the universal cycle. This continues till the end of the universal cycle. Some are aware of this; others are not. Those who are not aware attempt to act vainly in conflict with the Laws of Nature hoping for different outcomes.

NOTE: Postulates that may be able to describe the Laws of Nature are being worked out here: Course on the Universe

महात्मानस्तुमांपार्थदैवींप्रकृतिमाश्रिताः।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसोज्ञात्वाभूतादिमव्ययम्।।9.13।।

But great souls, who possess a divine nature, knowing Me as the prime cause of creation; and imperishable, worship Me constantly with undivided mind. (IX-13)

सततंकीर्तयन्तोमांयतन्तश्चदृढव्रताः।
नमस्यन्तश्चमांभक्त्यानित्ययुक्ताउपासते।।9.14।।

Constantly chanting My names and glories, striving firm in vows, prostrating before Me, they worship Me with devotion, ever stead fast. (IX-14)

ज्ञानयज्ञेनचाप्यन्येयजन्तोमामुपासते।
एकत्वेनपृथक्त्वेनबहुधाविश्वतोमुखम्।।9.15।।

Others worship Me (as the One, Undivided Pure Consciousness) through their offering of Knowledge; while still others worship Me in My Universal Form, taking Me to be diverse in diverse celestial forms. (IX-15)

These verses describe the core of Jnana (knowledge) Yoga, Bhakti (devotional) Yoga, and Karma (Action oriented) Yoga.

अहंक्रतुरहंयज्ञःस्वधाऽहमहमौषधम्।
मंत्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहंहुतम्।।9.16।।
पिताऽहमस्यजगतोमाताधातापितामहः।
वेद्यंपवित्रमोंकारऋक्सामयजुरेवच।।9.17।।
गतिर्भर्ताप्रभुःसाक्षीनिवासःशरणंसुहृत्।
प्रभवःप्रलयःस्थानंनिधानंबीजमव्ययम्।।9.18।।

I am the Vaidika ritual, I am the sacrifice, I am the offering to the departed, I am the medical herb, I am the sacred formula, I am the clarified butter, I am the sacred fire and I am the act of offering oblation into the fire. I am the knowable, the purifier, the sacred syllable Om and the three Vedas—Rk, Sāma and Yajus. I am the father, sustainer, mother, grand-father, goal, supporter, Lord, witness abode, refuge, disinterested friend, origin, end, resting place, store-house and the imperishable seed of this universe. (IX-16, 17, 18)

POSTULATE # 6: The cycle of the universe starts as a universal field of raw impulse and energy called Akasha.
COROLLARY: All forms in the universe evolve from condensation due to innate attractive attributes of Akasha.
In Hinduism, Akasha means the basis and essence of all things in the material world; the first element created. The cycle of the universe starts with Akasha, a continuum of raw impulse and energy. Akasha has inherent attributes of attraction, and, therefore, impulse and energy attract each other. They integrate and condense as a result. From this condensation emerges everything in this universe.

तपाम्यहमहंवर्षंनिगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामिच।
अमृतंचैवमृत्युश्चसदसच्चाहमर्जुन।।9.19।।

Arjuna, I as the sun, radiate heat,  withhold and send forth rain, I am immorality as well as death; I am being and non-being both. (IX-19)

त्रैविद्यामांसोमपाःपूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वास्वर्गतिंप्रार्थयन्ते।
तेपुण्यमासाद्यसुरेन्द्रलोक मश्नन्तिदिव्यान्दिविदेवभोगान्।।9.20।।

Those who perform actions with some interested motive as laid down in the three Vedas and drink the sap of soma plant, and thus purged of sin, worshipping Me as Indra, by sacrifices, pray to seek access to heaven, attaining Indra’s paradise as the result of their good deeds, enjoy the celestial pleasures of the gods. (IX-20)

तेतंभुक्त्वास्वर्गलोकंविशालं क्षीणेपुण्येमर्त्यलोकंविशन्ति।
एवत्रयीधर्ममनुप्रपन्ना गतागतंकामकामालभन्ते।।9.21।।

Having enjoyed the extensive heavenly world, they return to the world of mortals on the exhaustion of their merits. Thus taking recourse to action with interested motive enjoined by the three vedas and seeking worldly enjoyments they repeatedly go and come. (IX-21)

The Laws of Nature have existed even before the life organisms acquired the ability to be aware of life and death. Such awareness is also the outcome of the Laws of Nature. In this world, actions, motivated along the lines of the knowledge from Vedas, and accompanied by sacrifices, do lead to fulfillment. But such fulfillments are narrow in their scope and the cycle of such actions continues.

अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तोमांयेजनाःपर्युपासते।
तेषांनित्याभियुक्तानांयोगक्षेमंवहाम्यहम्।।9.22।।

To those men who worship Me alone, thinking of no one else, who are ever-devout, I provide gain and security. (IX-22)

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्तायजन्तेश्रद्धयाऽन्विताः।
तेऽपिमामेवकौन्तेययजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम्।।9.23।।

Even those devotees who, endowed with faith, worship other gods, worship Me alone, O son of Kunti, though not in accordance with rules. (IX-23)

अहंहिसर्वयज्ञानांभोक्ताचप्रभुरेवच।
नतुमामभिजानन्तितत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्तिते।।9.24।।

I am verily the enjoyer of all sacrifices and I am the Lord. But they don’t know Me in reality; hence they fall. (IX-24)

Those who perceive the Laws of nature in everything are very secure in themselves. Even those who do not perceive the Laws of nature, do so by the Laws of nature. The Laws of nature always prevail. Those who are unaware of these laws suffer.

यान्तिदेवव्रतादेवान्पितृ़न्यान्तिपितृव्रताः।
भूतानियान्तिभूतेज्यायान्तिमद्याजिनोऽपिमाम्।।9.25।।

Those who worship the gods with self-interest, go to the gods after death, those who worship the manes reach the manes, those who adore the evil spirits, reach the evil spirits. But those who worship Me attainMe alone. (IX-25)

पत्रंपुष्पंफलंतोयंयोमेभक्त्याप्रयच्छति।
तदहंभक्त्युपहृतमश्नामिप्रयतात्मनः।।9.26।।

Whoever offers Me with devotion a leaf,  a flower, a fruit or even water, I accept the pious offering offered by him with love. (IX-26)

यत्करोषियदश्नासियज्जुहोषिददासियत्।
यत्तपस्यसिकौन्तेयतत्कुरुष्वमदर्पणम्।।9.27।।

O son of Kunti, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifice, whatever you bestow as gift, whatever you do by way of penance, offer it all to Me. (IX-27)

You go where you direct your attention. If your attention is directed at the Laws of nature, you will attain the understanding of the Laws of nature. Let whatever you do be accompanied by the intention to seek out the Laws of nature.

शुभाशुभफलैरेवंमोक्ष्यसेकर्मबन्धनैः।
संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्माविमुक्तोमामुपैष्यसि।।9.28।।

With your mind firmly set in the Yoga of renunciation I.e., by offering all actions to Me, you will be free from the bondage of action yielding good and bad results; and freed from them, you shall attain Me. (IX-28)

समोऽहंसर्वभूतेषुनमेद्वेष्योऽस्तिनप्रियः।
येभजन्तितुमांभक्त्यामयितेतेषुचाप्यहम्।।9.29।।

I am the same to all beings; to Me there is none hateful, none dear.But those who worship Me with devotion are in Me and I am also in them. (IX-29)

अपिचेत्सुदुराचारोभजतेमामनन्यभाक्।
साधुरेवसमन्तव्यःसम्यग्व्यवसितोहिसः।।9.30।।

Even if the vilest sinner worships Me with exclusive devotion, he should be considered a saint, for he has rightly resolved. (IX-30)

When the focus is on assimilating the mental matrix, one is reducing “karma” and minimizing new “karma”. In this direction lies the total freedom from knowing the Laws of nature. The Laws of nature are the same for everyone. Anyone, who is devoted to seeking out the Laws of nature, can attain total freedom regardless of their background.

क्षिप्रंभवतिधर्मात्माशश्वच्छान्तिंनिगच्छति।
कौन्तेयप्रतिजानीहिनमेभक्तःप्रणश्यति।।9.31।।

Speedily he becomes virtuous and secures lasting peace. O Kaunteya, you vow for certain that My devotee never falls. (IX-31)

मांहिपार्थव्यपाश्रित्ययेऽपिस्युःपापयोनयः।
स्त्रियोवैश्यास्तथाशूद्रास्तेऽपियान्तिपरांगतिम्।।9.32।।

O Partha, women-folk, Vaisyas, Sūdras, and even those that are born of the womb of sin (such as the pariah) taking refuge in Me attain the Supreme God. (IX-32)

किंपुनर्ब्राह्मणाःपुण्याभक्ताराजर्षयस्तथा।
अनित्यमसुखंलोकमिमंप्राप्यभजस्वमाम्।।9.33।।

What wonder then that the holy Brahmanas and devout royal saints should attain Him. Therefore, having obtained this transient and joyless body, do worship Me. (IX-33)

मन्मनाभवमद्भक्तोमद्याजीमांनमस्कुरु।
मामेवैष्यसियुक्त्वैवमात्मानंमत्परायणः।।9.34।।

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, adore Me, bow down to Me, thus making yourself steadfast in Me and entirely depending on Me, you will come to Me. (IX-34)

A person who is seeking out the Laws of nature, cannot help but become part of Nature. This is virtue. This is peace. Caste and sins are no barriers. Privileges are no wonders. This transient and joyless body is not everything. Knowing and living naturally without pretensions is everything.

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Course on The Bhagavad Gita

Reference: Religion

The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna.

A quick reference to translations of a verse of Gita from different sources may be obtained at

GITA SUPERSITE

.

0. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Introduction

1. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 1

2. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 2

3. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 3

4. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 4

5. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 5

6. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 6

7. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 7

8. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 8

9. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 9

10. THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 10

20. Sanskrit Dictionary 1

21. Sanskrit Dictionary 2

22. Glossary of Spiritual Terms

23. Glossary for Bhagavad Gita

24. BOOK: Sanatana Dharma

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 8

Bhagavad Gita- Chapter 8 (Part-1) Akshara Brahma Yogah- Yoga of  Imperishable Brahman

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 8

अर्जुनउवाच
किंतद्ब्रह्मकिमध्यात्मंकिंकर्मपुरुषोत्तम।
अधिभूतंचकिंप्रोक्तमधिदैवंकिमुच्यते।।8.1।।
अधियज्ञःकथंकोऽत्रदेहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन।
प्रयाणकालेचकथंज्ञेयोऽसिनियतात्मभिः।।8.2।।

Arjuna said:
What is that Brahma? What is Adhyātma? What is Karma (Action)? O Best among men! What is said to be Adhibhūta and what is called Adhidaiva? Who and how is Adhiyajña here in this body, O Krsna? And how are You to be realized at the time of death by persons of steadfast mind? (VIII-1, 2)

श्रीभगवानुवाच
अक्षरंब्रह्मपरमंस्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते।
भूतभावोद्भवकरोविसर्गःकर्मसंज्ञितः।।8.3।।

The Blessed Lord said:
The Supreme Imperishable is Brahma; one’s own self (soul) is called Adhyātma, the discharge of spirit which brings forth the existence of beings is called Karma (Action). (VIII-3)

अधिभूतंक्षरोभावःपुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम्।
अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्रदेहेदेहभृतांवर।।8.4।।

O best of the embodied, all perishable objects are Adhibhūta, Brahma is Adhidaiva; and I dwelling as the inner witness in this body, is Adhiyajña. (VIII-4)

At the beginning of Chapter 8, definitions are provided for some basic concepts.

BRAHMA–The Supreme Imperishable… only agaist the backdrop of infinite duration can all changes be perceived.

Adhyātma–The individual self… as the self separates from Brahma it becomes perishable.

Karma–The discharge of spirit which brings forth the existence of beings… it is the lack of assimilation into Brahma that brings about the discontinuity, disharmony, and inconsistency of separate beings.

Adhibhūta–All perishable objects… the very substance of the universe (impulse and energy spectrum) and all the things made from them are perishable.

Adhidaiva–Same as Brahma… (see above)

Adhiyajña–I dwelling as the inner witness in this body… This is the Universal Viewpoint that is resolving all discontinuities, disharmonies and inconsistencies.

अन्तकालेचमामेवस्मरन्मुक्त्वाकलेवरम्।
यःप्रयातिसमद्भावंयातिनास्त्यत्रसंशयः।।8.5।।

He who departs from the body thinking of (remembering) Me alone, even at the time of death, attains Me, there is no doubt about it. (VIII-5)

यंयंवापिस्मरन्भावंत्यजत्यन्तेकलेवरम्।
तंतमेवैतिकौन्तेयसदातद्भावभावितः।।8.6।।

Whatever being (object) a man thinks of at the time of death when he leaves the body, that alone does he attain, O kaunteya (Arjuna), been ever absorbed in the thought thereof. (VIII-6)

तस्मात्सर्वेषुकालेषुमामनुस्मरयुध्यच।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्मामेवैष्यस्यसंशयम्।।8.7।।

Therefore, think of Me at all times and fight. Mind and intellect thus surrendered to Me, you will surely come to Me. (VIII-7)

The clarity of thoughts and their level of attainment at the time of death seems to continue forward. The progress made in one lifetime in terms of evolution of knowledge, understanding and awareness is not lost.

अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेनचेतसानान्यगामिना।
परमंपुरुषंदिव्यंयातिपार्थानुचिन्तयन्।।8.8।।

O Pārtha (Arjuna) he who with his mind established in Yoga in the form of practice of meditation, thinking of nothing else, is constantly engaged in contemplation  of the Supreme Divine Purusa (God) attains Him. (VIII-8)

कविंपुराणमनुशासितारमणोरणीयांसमनुस्मरेद्यः।
सर्वस्यधातारमचिन्त्यरूपमादित्यवर्णंतमसःपरस्तात्।।8.9।।

He who contemplates on the Omniscient, the Ancient, the Ruler, minuter than an atom, Sustainer of all, of Form inconceivable, Shining like the sun and beyond all darkness of ignorance. (VIII-9)

प्रयाणकालेमनसाऽचलेनभक्त्यायुक्तोयोगबलेनचैव।
भ्रुवोर्मध्येप्राणमावेश्यसम्यक्सतंपरंपुरुषमुपैतिदिव्यम्।।8.10।।

By Yogic power firmly holding the life breath in the space between the two eyebrows at the time of death, contemplating on God with a steadfast mind, full of devotion, he reaches the Supreme Divine Purusa (God). (VIII-10)

The Supreme Divine Purusa is the “Universal Self”. The whole point of meditation is to perceive the “Universe” and the “Self” for what it actually is. The universe reduces to atoms, and beyond that to quantum particles and raw energy. The self is the ancient raw impulse that empowers the universe and its energy. All this is perceived by the practice of Yoga whose power comes from a single-pointed concentration. When you maintain this single-pointed concentration steadfastly at the time of death you perceive the “Universal Self”.

यदक्षरंवेदविदोवदन्तिविशन्तियद्यतयोवीतरागाः।
यदिच्छन्तोब्रह्मचर्यंचरन्तितत्तेपदंसंग्रहेणप्रवक्ष्ये।।8.11।।

I shall speak to you in brief that goal which knowers of the Vedas term as the Imperishable, and into which enter recluses, self-controlled and free from attachment, and desiring which strivers practice celibacy. (VIII-11)

सर्वद्वाराणिसंयम्यमनोहृदिनिरुध्यच।
मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनःप्राणमास्थितोयोगधारणाम्।।8.12।।
ओमित्येकाक्षरंब्रह्मव्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन्।
यःप्रयातित्यजन्देहंसयातिपरमांगतिम्।।8.13।।

Having restrained all the media of perception, fixing the mind in the heart and the life breath in the head, remaining steadfast in Yogic concentration, uttering the one syllabled Brahma ‘Om’ thinking of Me, he who departs leaving the body, attains the Supreme State. (VIII-12, 13)

Imperishable seems to be the raw impulse and raw energy that form the universe. Imperishable can be experienced only when one has a completely non-attached and objective viewpoint. Celibacy is a natural outcome of such a viewpoint. Attainment of this experience requires sensitivity of both perception and feeling, and one-pointed concentration. When a person departs in this state he becomes part of the Imperishable.

अनन्यचेताःसततंयोमांस्मरतिनित्यशः।
तस्याहंसुलभःपार्थनित्ययुक्तस्ययोगिनः।।8.14।।

O Pārtha (Arjuna), the Yogi who constantly thinks of Me with undivided mind, always absorbed in Me, I am easily attainable. (VIII-14)

मामुपेत्यपुनर्जन्मदुःखालयमशाश्वतम्।
नाप्नुवन्तिमहात्मानःसंसिद्धिंपरमांगताः।।8.15।।

Having attained Me, the great souls are no more subject to rebirth, which is transitory and the abode of pain; for they have reached the highest perfection. (VIII-15)

आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाःपुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन।
मामुपेत्यतुकौन्तेयपुनर्जन्मनविद्यते।।8.16।।

All worlds from the abode of Brahmā downwards are subject to return; O Arjuna. But O son of Kunti, on attaining Me there is no rebirth. (VIII-16)

Meditation is examining self under the discipline of mindfulness. This is what a Yogi is doing with his one-pointed concentration. Once the discipline is there, the understanding of Self is attained quite easily. Rebirth is simply the process of going through another cycle of life in order to painstakingly sort out the self. But rebirth is no longer necessary when the nature of Self is fully understood. But short of that understanding, rebirth is necessary.

सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणोविदुः।
रात्रिंयुगसहस्रान्तांतेऽहोरात्रविदोजनाः।।8.17।।

Those who know that the day of Brahmā lasts a thousand four-fold Yugas (Ages) and that his night lasts a thousand four-fold Yugas, they know the reality about Brahmā’s day and night. (VIII-17)

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयःसर्वाःप्रभवन्त्यहरागमे।
रात्र्यागमेप्रलीयन्तेतत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके।।8.18।।

All manifest beings emanate from the Unmanifest (Brahmā subtle body) at the commencement of Brahmā’s day; and at the commencement of his night they merge in the same unmanifest. (VIII-18)

भूतग्रामःसएवायंभूत्वाभूत्वाप्रलीयते।
रात्र्यागमेऽवशःपार्थप्रभवत्यहरागमे।।8.19।।

This multitude of beings, being born again and again, under compulsion from Prakrti, merges at the commencement of Brahmā’s night and rises again at the commencement of his day. (VIII-19)

Brahma’s day and night represent one cycle of this universe. It is a very, very long time. At the end of this cycle all karmic effects, that were responsible for rebirths, are washed away. With the new cycle of the universe everything starts anew.

परस्तस्मात्तुभावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात्सनातनः।
यःससर्वेषुभूतेषुनश्यत्सुनविनश्यति।।8.20।।

Beyond this unmanifest (Brahmā’s subtle body) there is yet another unmanifested Eternal Existence which does not perish even though all beings perish. (VIII-20)

अव्यक्तोऽक्षरइत्युक्तस्तमाहुःपरमांगतिम्।
यंप्राप्यननिवर्तन्तेतद्धामपरमंमम।।8.21।।

This Unmanifest, spoken of as Imperishable, is said to be the Supreme Goal; that is My Supreme Abode attaining which there is no return. (VIII-21)

पुरुषःसपरःपार्थभक्त्यालभ्यस्त्वनन्यया।
यस्यान्तःस्थानिभूतानियेनसर्वमिदंततम्।।8.22।।

That Supreme Purusa, O Pārtha, in Whom all beings reside and by Whom all this is pervaded, is attainable only by exclusive devotion. (VIII-22)

Beyond the cyclic universe is the concept of imperishable, eternal, universe that is cycling. This is the ultimate realization, which is the supreme goal of the Yogi. Such a realization puts one above the concern for any cycles, or changes.

यत्रकालेत्वनावृत्तिमावृत्तिंचैवयोगिनः।
प्रयातायान्तितंकालंवक्ष्यामिभरतर्षभ।।8.23।।

Now I shall tell you, O best of the Bharatas, the time when the Yogis depart never to return and also the time when they depart to return. (VIII-23)

अग्निर्ज्योतिरहःशुक्लःषण्मासाउत्तरायणम्।
तत्रप्रयातागच्छन्तिब्रह्मब्रह्मविदोजनाः।।8.24।।

In the path in which are stationed deities presiding over effulgent fire, day light, the bright fortnight and the six months of the northward course of the sun, then going forth after death, the knowers of Brahma (having attained Brahma-lok along with Brahmā) finally reach Brahma. (VIII-24)

धूमोरात्रिस्तथाकृष्णःषण्मासादक्षिणायनम्।
तत्रचान्द्रमसंज्योतिर्योगीप्राप्यनिवर्तते।।8.25।।

In the path in which are stationed the gods presiding over smoke, night, the dark fortnight and the six months of the southern passage of the sun, then going forth, the Yogī (devoted to action with a motive) after death obtains the lunar light and returns to the mortal world. (VIII-25)

The ancients had a good perception of the change in the orientation of the Earth as it rotated around the Sun. As the realization of the ultimate viewpoint grows like the days growing longer, the Yogi achieves his final destination, never to return. But as the Yogi devotes himself to actions with a motive like the days growing shorter, he must return to the mortal world to finish his business.

शुक्लकृष्णेगतीह्येतेजगतःशाश्वतेमते।
एकयायात्यनावृत्तिमन्ययाऽऽवर्ततेपुनः।।8.26।।

These two paths, the bright and the dark, are considered to be the world’s eternal paths. Proceeding by one, a man has not to return, while proceeding by the other, he returns. (VIII-26)

नैतेसृतीपार्थजानन्योगीमुह्यतिकश्चन।
तस्मात्सर्वेषुकालेषुयोगयुक्तोभवार्जुन।।8.27।।

Knowing these two paths, O Pārtha, no Yogi is deluded. Therefore, O Arjuna, be established in Yoga, at all times. (VIII-27)

वेदेषुयज्ञेषुतपःसुचैवदानेषुयत्पुण्यफलंप्रदिष्टम्।
अत्येतितत्सर्वमिदंविदित्वायोगीपरंस्थानमुपैतिचाद्यम्।।8.28।।

The Yogi, who knows this secret, transcends the fruits of meritorious deeds attached to the study of the Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities and charities, and attains the supreme primeval Abode.  (VIII-28)

Essentially we have the summary in these two paths of all that is prescribed in the Vedas.

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 7

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 7

श्रीभगवानुवाच
मय्यासक्तमनाःपार्थयोगंयुञ्जन्मदाश्रयः।
असंशयंसमग्रंमांयथाज्ञास्यसितच्छृणु।।7.1।।

Listen, O Partha (Arjuna), how with your mind attached to Me, and taking refuge in Me and practicing Yoga, you will without any doubt know Me in full. (VII-1)

ज्ञानंतेऽहंसविज्ञानमिदंवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः।
यज्ज्ञात्वानेहभूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते।।7.2।।

I shall unfold to you in full this knowledge (wisdom) along with real knowledge of manifest Divinity, having known which nothing more remains to be known. (VII-2)

मनुष्याणांसहस्रेषुकश्िचद्यततिसिद्धये।
यततामपिसिद्धानांकश्िचन्मांवेत्तितत्त्वतः।।7.3।।

Among thousands of men scarcely one strives for perfection and of those who strive, scarcely one knows Me in reality. (VII-3)

A Yogi who is worshipping the Universal Viewpoint (“Me”), ultimately, acquires that Viewpoint himself. With that Viewpoint all knowledge opens up to him. But very few strive with enough concentration to arrive at this point.

भूमिरापोऽनलोवायुःखंमनोबुद्धिरेवच।
अहङ्कारइतीयंमेभिन्नाप्रकृतिरष्टधा।।7.4।।
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यांप्रकृतिंविद्धिमेपराम्।
जीवभूतांमहाबाहोययेदंधार्यतेजगत्।।7.5।।

Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect, ego—these constitute My nature (Prakrti) eightfold divided. This is my lower (insentient) nature; but different from it, O mighty armed, is My higher (sentient) nature—the life element by which this universe is sustained. (VII-4, 5)

एतद्योनीनिभूतानिसर्वाणीत्युपधारय।
अहंकृत्स्नस्यजगतःप्रभवःप्रलयस्तथा।।7.6।।

Know that all beings have evolved from this twofold Prakrti (the insentient and the sentient nature) and I am the origin (source) of the entire creation and again it dissolves in Me. (VII-6)

The above is reflected in the following three postulates:
POSTULATE # 1: The universe is not just physical; it is metaphysical too. The universe includes everything whether physical, metaphysical, real, imaginary, postulated or speculated. Nothing is excluded from the universe.
COROLLARY: The universe includes everything that we observe and experience as body, mind and spirit and more.
POSTULATE # 2: The universal fabric is both physical and metaphysical in nature. We may call the physical aspect “energy”, and the metaphysical aspect “impulse”. We, therefore, see energy pervaded with innate impulse.
COROLLARY: All things are made of energy, and are pervaded with innate impulse. This is evident in light and its propagation.

POSTULATE # 3: The universe manifest itself and then unmanifests itself in a cyclical fashion.
COROLLARY: The universe has neither an absolute beginning, nor an absolute end.

मत्तःपरतरंनान्यत्किञ्चिदस्तिधनञ्जय।
मयिसर्वमिदंप्रोतंसूत्रेमणिगणाइव।।7.7।।

O Arjuna, there is nothing else besides Me. Like clusters of Yarn-beads formed by knots on a thread, all this is threaded on Me. (VII-7)

रसोऽहमप्सुकौन्तेयप्रभास्मिशशिसूर्ययोः।
प्रणवःसर्ववेदेषुशब्दःखेपौरुषंनृषु।।7.8।।

O son of Kuntī, I am sapidity in water, radiance in the moon and the sun; I am the sacred syllable Om in the Vedas, sound in ether and manliness in men. (VII-8)

पुण्योगन्धःपृथिव्यांचतेजश्चास्मिविभावसौ।
जीवनंसर्वभूतेषुतपश्चास्मितपस्विषु।।7.9।।

I am sweet fragrance in earth, combustion in fire; I am life in all beings and austerity in ascetics. (VII-9)

There is nothing else beside the universe. The fundamental impulse and energy of the universe forms everything in the universe.

बीजंमांसर्वभूतानांविद्धिपार्थसनातनम्।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मितेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्।।7.10।।

O Partha, know me as the eternal seed of all beings; I am the intelligence of the intelligent, the glory (splendor) of the glorious (splendid). (VII-10)

बलंबलवतामस्मिकामरागविवर्जितम्।
धर्माविरुद्धोभूतेषुकामोऽस्मिभरतर्षभ।।7.11।।

I am the strength of the strong devoid of desire and passion (attachment); in beings I am desire not in conflict with virtue or scriptural injunction. (VII-11)

येचैवसात्त्विकाभावाराजसास्तामसाश्चये।
मत्तएवेतितान्विद्धिनत्वहंतेषुतेमयि।।7.12।।

Whatever other entities there are born of Sattva (the mode of goodness or purity), of Rajas (the mode of activity or passion) and Tamas (the mode of inertia or ignorance) know them all as evolved from Me; still neither I am in them, nor are they in Me. (VII-12)

It is the basic impulse that evolves into intelligence, splendor, strength, and detached observation. All things with their properties of goodness, purity, activity, passion, inertia or ignorance are evolved from fundamental impulse and energy.

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिःसर्वमिदंजगत्।
मोहितंनाभिजानातिमामेभ्यःपरमव्ययम्।।7.13।।

Deluded by these threefold dispositions of Nature, the world does not know Me, who am above them and imperishable. (VII-13)

दैवीह्येषागुणमयीमममायादुरत्यया।
मामेवयेप्रपद्यन्तेमायामेतांतरन्तिते।।7.14।।

This Divine illusion of Mine consisting of the three gunas (modes of Nature) is hard to surmount; however, those who take refuge in Me alone cross it. (VII-14)

नमांदुष्कृतिनोमूढाःप्रपद्यन्तेनराधमाः।
माययापहृतज्ञानाआसुरंभावमाश्रिताः।।7.15।।

The evil-doers, the deluded, the lowest of men, deprived of discrimination (wisdom), having embraced the demoniac nature do not take refuge in Me. (VII-15)

The play of impulse and energy evolves into all the dispositions of nature, whether good or bad. Most people look at these dispositions and are not aware of the play beyond them. Deluded by these dispositions people lose their ability to discriminates and commit evil deeds. They are lost in their unawareness of the fundamentals.

चतुर्विधाभजन्तेमांजनाःसुकृतिनोऽर्जुन।
आर्तोजिज्ञासुरर्थार्थीज्ञानीचभरतर्षभ।।7.16।।

Four type of virtuous men worship Me, O Arjuna; the distressed, the seeker of knowledge, the seeker of wealth and the man of wisdom. (VII-16)

तेषांज्ञानीनित्ययुक्तएकभक्ितर्विशिष्यते।
प्रियोहिज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहंसचममप्रियः।।7.17।।

Of these the best is the man of wisdom ever steadfast and exclusively devoted to Me; for extremely devoted am I to the wise and he is extremely dear to me. (VII-17)

उदाराःसर्वएवैतेज्ञानीत्वात्मैवमेमतम्।
आस्थितःसहियुक्तात्मामामेवानुत्तमांगतिम्।।7.18।।

All these are noble, but the man of wisdom is verily My own self; this is My view. For this devotee who is steadfast in mind, is established in Me alone, as the supreme goal. (VII-18)

The man who who exclusively seeks wisdom, evolves most rapidly.

बहूनांजन्मनामन्तेज्ञानवान्मांप्रपद्यते।
वासुदेवःसर्वमितिसमहात्मासुदुर्लभः।।7.19।।

In the very last of all births viz; in this human birth, the man of wisdom takes refuge in Me, realizing that all this is God. Such a great soul is very rare indeed. (VII-19)

कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाःप्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः।
तंतंनियममास्थायप्रकृत्यानियताःस्वया।।7.20।।

Those whose discrimination has been led astray by various desires, constrained by their own nature, take refuge in other gods undertaking vows relating to each. (VII-20)

योयोयांयांतनुंभक्तःश्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति।
तस्यतस्याचलांश्रद्धांतामेवविदधाम्यहम्।।7.21।।

Whatever celestial form a devotee seeks to worship with faith, I make the faith of that devotee in that form steady. (VII-21)

The human form is the peak of evolution, in which wisdom can be manifested. The peak of wisdom is the awareness of the innate impulse that inhabits everything. There are all sorts of impulses that determine a person’s nature but all are different forms of the same innate impulse. It is the awareness of the impulse driving one that counts.

सतयाश्रद्धयायुक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते।
लभतेचततःकामान्मयैवविहितान्हितान्।।7.22।।

Endowed with that faith he worships that god and obtains his desired enjoyment as ordained by Me. (VII-22)

अन्तवत्तुफलंतेषांतद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम्।
देवान्देवयजोयान्तिमद्भक्तायान्तिमामपि।।7.23।।

The fruit gained by these people of meagre intellect is perishable. The worshippers of the gods attain the gods; whereas My devotees attain Me alone. (VII-23)

अव्यक्तंव्यक्ितमापन्नंमन्यन्तेमामबुद्धयः।
परंभावमजानन्तोममाव्ययमनुत्तमम्।।7.24।।

Men of poor understanding think of Me, the unmanifest as an ordinary human being not knowing My supreme state immutable and unsurpassed. (VII-24)

When a person dedicatedly follows the impulse driving him, he achieves the goal of that impulse. But men of poor understanding achieve considerably lesser goals than those who are driven toward ultimate wisdom.

नाहंप्रकाशःसर्वस्ययोगमायासमावृतः।
मूढोऽयंनाभिजानातिलोकोमामजमव्ययम्।।7.25।।

Veiled by My divine potency (Yoga Maya) I am not manifest to all. Hence these ignorant folk do not recognize Me as the unborn and imperishable Supreme-Spirit. (VII-25)

वेदाहंसमतीतानिवर्तमानानिचार्जुन।
भविष्याणिचभूतानिमांतुवेदनकश्चन।।7.26।।

I know, O Arjuna, the beings of the past, the present and the future, but no one knows Me. (VII-26)

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेनद्वन्द्वमोहेनभारत।
सर्वभूतानिसंमोहंसर्गेयान्तिपरन्तप।।7.27।।

By the delusions of the pairs of opposites arising from desire and aversion, all beings, O scorcher of foes in Bharata family, are subject to illusion viz; birth and death. (VII-27)

Not everybody is aware of the ultimate innate impulse. It is that awareness that makes you aware of everything else. The pair of opposites are actually the continuous dimensions of the universe that extend to infinity in either direction. Lack of understanding of dualities as dimensions create delusions and the illusion of birth and death. (see POSTULATE #11).

येषांत्वन्तगतंपापंजनानांपुण्यकर्मणाम्।
तेद्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ताभजन्तेमांदृढव्रताः।।7.28।।

But those men of virtuous deeds whose sins have come to an end, being freed from the delusion of the pairs of opposites, worship Me with a firm resolve in every way. (VII-28)

जरामरणमोक्षायमामाश्रित्ययतन्तिये।
तेब्रह्मतद्विदुःकृत्स्नमध्यात्मंकर्मचाखिलम्।।7.29।।

Those who having taken refuge in Me, strive for deliverance from old age and death, know Brahma (the Infinite), the individual self and entire field of action. (VII-29)

साधिभूताधिदैवंमांसाधियज्ञंचयेविदुः।
प्रयाणकालेऽपिचमांतेविदुर्युक्तचेतसः।।7.30।।

Those, who realize Me in the Adhibhuta (the field of matter), in Adhidaiva (Brahma) and in Adhiyajna (the unmanifest divinity), having steadfast mind realize Me even at the hour of death. (VII-30)

A person who has nothing to hide about himself from himself is free of all sins. He is not deluded by the pair of opposites once he sees them as the dimensions of the universe. Using the universal viewpointe he is firmly resolved to evolve to higher levels. He steadfastly studies both physics and metaphysics to the end to realize the ultimate principles.

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