Category Archives: Religion

THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 13

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Sivananda with my comments in color.

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Chapter 13

अर्जुनउवाच
प्रकृतिंपुरुषंचैवक्षेत्रंक्षेत्रज्ञमेवच।
एतद्वेदितुमिच्छामिज्ञानंज्ञेयंचकेशव।।13.1।।

13.1 Arjuna said I wish to learn about Nature (matter) and the Spirit (soul), the field and the knower of the field, knowledge and that which ought to be known, O Kesava.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
इदंशरीरंकौन्तेयक्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।
एतद्योवेत्तितंप्राहुःक्षेत्रज्ञइतितद्विदः।।13.2।।

13.2 The Blessed Lord said This body, O Arjuna, is called the field; he who knows it is called the knower of the field, by those who know of them.

क्षेत्रज्ञंचापिमांविद्धिसर्वक्षेत्रेषुभारत।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानंयत्तज्ज्ञानंमतंमम।।13.3।।

13.3 Do thou also know Me as the knower of the field in all fields, O Arjuna. Knowledge of both the field and the knower of the field is considered by Me to be “the” knowledge.

The discourse now begins on the difference between Nature and what underlies that nature. The nature includes this body-mind system and the impulse that energizes it. Standing apart from Nature is the knowingness of that nature. Nature is everywhere manifested in all different forms, but the knowingness stands apart as One.

तत्क्षेत्रंयच्चयादृक्चयद्विकारियतश्चयत्।
सचयोयत्प्रभावश्चतत्समासेनमेश्रृणु।।13.4।।

13.4 What the field is and of what nature, what are its modifications and whence it is and also who He is and what His powers arehear all that from Me in brief.

ऋषिभिर्बहुधागीतंछन्दोभिर्विविधैःपृथक्।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैवहेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्िचतैः।।13.5।।

13.5 Sages have sung in many ways, in various distinctive chants and also in the suggestive words indicative of the Absolute, full of reasoning and decisive.

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारोबुद्धिरव्यक्तमेवच।
इन्द्रियाणिदशैकंचपञ्चचेन्द्रियगोचराः।।13.6।।

13.6 The great elements, egoism, intellect, and also the Unmanifested Nature, the ten senses and one (mind), and the five objects of the senses.

Here we have knowingness of Nature being expressed through great research since ancient times. The substance of the universe is energy that is known through the electromagnetic fields of increasing frequency which gradually solidify into matter. From these fields springs the animation of life and its assumptions about its own nature. This develops into a thinking intellect, which ponders over its unmanifested nature. Manifested is the mind that senses the external world in various ways, its object being the perception of light, sound, touch, taste and smell.

इच्छाद्वेषःसुखंदुःखंसङ्घातश्चेतनाधृतिः।
एतत्क्षेत्रंसमासेनसविकारमुदाहृतम्।।13.7।।

13.7 Desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the aggregate (the body), intelligence, fortitude the field has thus been briefly described with its modifications.

The nature of the body-mind system is briefly described here. Desire is the earnest longing for an object. It is an urge, a thought wave to get hold of some object. Its basis is an impression in the subconscious mind. Hatred arises when the desire is thwarted. Pleasure results from fulfillment of desire, and pain from the unfulfillment of it. But the body is imbued with awareness, intelligence and steadfastness to accomplish its fundamental objective of evolution.

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसाक्षान्तिरार्जवम्।
आचार्योपासनंशौचंस्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः।।13.8।।

13.8 Humility, unpretentiousness, non-injury, forgiveness, uprightness, service of the teacher, purity, steadfastness, self-control.

These are the qualities that constitute wisdom or lead to wisdom. These are the attributes of the man whose mind is turned towards the inner wisdom. If these characteristics are seen in a man in their entirety, you can infer that the knowledge of the Self has dawned in him.

इन्द्रियार्थेषुवैराग्यमनहङ्कारएवच।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम्।।13.9।।

13.9 Indifference to the objects of the senses and also absence of egoism; perception of (or reflection on) the evil in birth, death, old age, sickness and pain.

असक्ितरनभिष्वङ्गःपुत्रदारगृहादिषु।
नित्यंचसमचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु।।13.10।।

13.10 Non-attachment, non-identification of the Self with son, wife, home and the rest, and constant even-mindedness on the attainment of the desirable and the undesirable.

मयिचानन्ययोगेनभक्ितरव्यभिचारिणी।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि।।13.11।।

13.11 Unswerving devotion unto Me by the Yoga of non-separation, resort to solitary places, distaste for the society of men.

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वंतत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्।
एतज्ज्ञानमितिप्रोक्तमज्ञानंयदतोन्यथा।।13.12।।

13.12 Constancy in Self-knowledge, perception of the end of true knowledge this is declared to be knowledge, and what is opposed to it is ignorance.

ज्ञेयंयत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामियज्ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते।
अनादिमत्परंब्रह्मनसत्तन्नासदुच्यते।।13.13।।

13.13 I will declare that which has to be known, knowing which one attains to immortality, the beginningless supreme Brahman, called neither being nor non-being.

सर्वतःपाणिपादंतत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।
सर्वतःश्रुतिमल्लोकेसर्वमावृत्यतिष्ठति।।13.14।।

13.14 With hands and feet everywhere, with eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, with ears everywhere, He exists in the worlds enveloping all.

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासंसर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्।
असक्तंसर्वभृच्चैवनिर्गुणंगुणभोक्तृच।।13.15।।

13.15 Shining by the functions of all the senses, yet without the senses; unattached, yet supporting all; devoid of alities, yet their experiencer.

बहिरन्तश्चभूतानामचरंचरमेवच।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयंदूरस्थंचान्तिकेचतत्।।13.16।।

13.16 Without and within (all) beings the unmoving and also the moving; because of Its subtlety, unknowable; and near and far away is That.

अविभक्तंचभूतेषुविभक्तमिवचस्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृचतज्ज्ञेयंग्रसिष्णुप्रभविष्णुच।।13.17।।

13.17 And undivided, yet It exists as if divided in beings; It is to be known as the supporter of being; It devours and It generates.

ज्योतिषामपितज्ज्योतिस्तमसःपरमुच्यते।
ज्ञानंज्ञेयंज्ञानगम्यंहृदिसर्वस्यविष्ठितम्।।13.18।।

13.18 That, the Light of all lights, is said to be beyond darkness: knowledge, the knowable and the goal of knowledge, seated in the hearts of all.

इतिक्षेत्रंतथाज्ञानंज्ञेयंचोक्तंसमासतः।
मद्भक्तएतद्विज्ञायमद्भावायोपपद्यते।।13.19।।

13.19 Thus the field, as well as knowledge and the knowable have been briefly stated. My devotee, knowing this, enters into My Being.

प्रकृतिंपुरुषंचैवविद्ध्यनादीउभावपि।
विकारांश्चगुणांश्चैवविद्धिप्रकृतिसंभवान्।।13.20।।

13.20 Know thou that Nature (matter) and the Spirit are both beginningless; and know also that all modifications and alities are born of Nature.

कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वेहेतुःप्रकृतिरुच्यते।
पुरुषःसुखदुःखानांभोक्तृत्वेहेतुरुच्यते।।13.21।।

13.21 In the production of the effect and the cause, Nature (matter) is said to be the cause; in the experience of pleasure and pain, the soul is said to be the cause.

पुरुषःप्रकृतिस्थोहिभुङ्क्तेप्रकृतिजान्गुणान्।
कारणंगुणसङ्गोऽस्यसदसद्योनिजन्मसु।।13.22।।

13.22 The soul seated in Nature experiences the alities born of Nature; attachment to the alities is the cause of its birth in good and evil wombs.

उपद्रष्टाऽनुमन्ताचभर्ताभोक्तामहेश्वरः।
परमात्मेतिचाप्युक्तोदेहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषःपरः।।13.23।।

13.23 The Supreme Soul in this body is also called the spectator, the permitter, the supporter, the enjoyer, the great Lord and the Supreme Self.

यएवंवेत्तिपुरुषंप्रकृतिंचगुणैःसह।
सर्वथावर्तमानोऽपिनसभूयोऽभिजायते।।13.24।।

13.24 He who thus knows the Spirit and Matter together with the alities, in whatever condition he may be, he is not born again.

ध्यानेनात्मनिपश्यन्तिकेचिदात्मानमात्मना।
अन्येसांख्येनयोगेनकर्मयोगेनचापरे।।13.25।।

13.25 Some by meditation behold the Self in the self by the self, others by the Yoga of knowledge, and still others by the Yoga of action.

अन्येत्वेवमजानन्तःश्रुत्वाऽन्येभ्यउपासते।
तेऽपिचातितरन्त्येवमृत्युंश्रुतिपरायणाः।।13.26।।

13.26 Others also, not knowing thus, worship, having heard of It from others; they, too, cross beyond death, regarding what they have heard as the Supreme refuge.

यावत्सञ्जायतेकिञ्चित्सत्त्वंस्थावरजङ्गमम्।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धिभरतर्षभ।।13.27।।

13.27 Wherever a being is born, whether unmoving or moving, know thou, O best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), that it is from the union between the field and its knower.

समंसर्वेषुभूतेषुतिष्ठन्तंपरमेश्वरम्।
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तंयःपश्यतिसपश्यति।।13.28।।

13.28 He sees, who sees the Supreme Lord, existing really in all beings, the unperishing within the perishing.

समंपश्यन्हिसर्वत्रसमवस्थितमीश्वरम्।
नहिनस्त्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानंततोयातिपरांगतिम्।।13.29।।

13.29 Because he who sees the same Lord eally dwelling everywhere does not destroy the Self by the self; he goes to the highest goal.

प्रकृत्यैवचकर्माणिक्रियमाणानिसर्वशः।
यःपश्यतितथाऽऽत्मानमकर्तारंसपश्यति।।13.30।।

13.30 He sees, who sees that all actions are performed by Nature alone and that the Self is actionless.

यदाभूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति।
ततएवचविस्तारंब्रह्मसम्पद्यतेतदा।।13.31।।

13.31 When a man sees the whole variety of beings as resting in the One, and spreading forth from That alone, he then becomes Brahman.

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः।
शरीरस्थोऽपिकौन्तेयनकरोतिनलिप्यते।।13.32।।

13.32 Being without beginning and being devoid of (any) alities, the Supreme Self, imperishable, though dwelling in the body, O Arjuna, neither acts nor is tainted.

यथासर्वगतंसौक्ष्म्यादाकाशंनोपलिप्यते।
सर्वत्रावस्थितोदेहेतथाऽऽत्मानोपलिप्यते।।13.33।।

13.33 As the all-pervading ether is not tainted, because of its subtlety, so the Self seated everywhere in the body is not tainted.

यथाप्रकाशयत्येकःकृत्स्नंलोकमिमंरविः।
क्षेत्रंक्षेत्रीतथाकृत्स्नंप्रकाशयतिभारत।।13.34।।

13.34 Just as the one sun illumines the whole world, so also the Lord of the field (Supreme Self) illumines the whole field, O Arjuna.

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरंज्ञानचक्षुषा।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षंचयेविदुर्यान्तितेपरम्।।13.35।।

13.35 They who, by the eye of knowledge, perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation from the Nature of being, go to the Supreme.

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 12

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Sivananda with my comments in color.

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 12

अर्जुनउवाच
एवंसततयुक्तायेभक्तास्त्वांपर्युपासते।
येचाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तंतेषांकेयोगवित्तमाः।।12.1।।

Arjuna said:
Those devotees who, ever steadfast, thus worship Thee (God with attributes) and those again who worship the Imperishable and the Unmanifested, which of them are better versed in Yoga? (XII-1)

श्रीभगवानुवाच
मय्यावेश्यमनोयेमांनित्ययुक्ताउपासते।
श्रद्धयापरयोपेतास्तेमेयुक्ततमामताः।।12.2।।

The Blessed Lord said:
Those who, fixing their mind on Me, worship Me ever steadfast and endowed with supreme faith, are the most perfect in Yoga in my opinion. (XII-2)

येत्वक्षरमनिर्देश्यमव्यक्तंपर्युपासते।
सर्वत्रगमचिन्त्यंचकूटस्थमचलंध्रुवम्।।12.3।।
संनियम्येन्द्रियग्रामंसर्वत्रसमबुद्धयः।
तेप्राप्नुवन्तिमामेवसर्वभूतहितेरताः।।12.4।।

But those who worship the Imperishable, the Undefinable, the Unmanifest, the Omnipresent, the Unthinkable, the Unchanging and the Immobile, the constant, by restraining all the senses, being even-minded everywhere, engrossed in the welfare of all beings, also come to Me. (XII-3, 4)

The difference between worshipping a God with attributes and a God without attributes is simply in the degree of abstraction of those attributes. The attributes are always there.

क्लेशोऽधिकतरस्तेषामव्यक्तासक्तचेतसाम्।
अव्यक्ताहिगतिर्दुःखंदेहवद्भिरवाप्यते।।12.5।।

The difficulty of those whose minds are attached to the Unmanifested is greater, for the goal of Unmanifested is hard to reach by the body conscious beings. (XII-5)

येतुसर्वाणिकर्माणिमयिसंन्यस्यमत्पराः।
अनन्येनैवयोगेनमांध्यायन्तउपासते।।12.6।।

But those who worship Me, surrendering all actions to Me, regarding Me as the supreme goal, meditating on Me, with single-minded devotion. (XII-6)

The goal through Unmanifested is more difficult because one is consciously tracing every connection from concrete to the ultimate abstraction quite overtly. On the other hand it is much simpler to just follow the discipline of natural laws (dharma), and let go of any anxiety and curiosity about things. In the latter approach, the connections sort themselves out in the background over time; though this may take a lot longer. The optimum approach may lie somewhere in between.

Please note that in SUBJECT CLEARING we use the first approach of consciously tracing every connection from concrete to the ultimate abstraction quite overtly. But while doing that we also make use of the second approach to speed up the process where much complexity exists.

तेषामहंसमुद्धर्तामृत्युसंसारसागरात्।
भवामिनचिरात्पार्थमय्यावेशितचेतसाम्।।12.7।।

To those whose mind is set on Me, I straight-way deliver from the ocean of death-bound existence, O Partha (Arjuna). (XII-7)

मय्येवमनआधत्स्वमयिबुद्धिंनिवेशय।
निवसिष्यसिमय्येवअतऊर्ध्वंनसंशयः।।12.8।।

Fix thy mind on Me alone, fix thy intellect on Me alone; thereafter thou shalt live in Me alone. There is no doubt about it. (XII-8)

अथचित्तंसमाधातुंनशक्नोषिमयिस्थिरम्।
अभ्यासयोगेनततोमामिच्छाप्तुंधनञ्जय।।12.9।।

If thou art unable to fix thy mind steadily on me, then seek to reach Me by the constant practice of concentration, O winner of wealth (Arjuna). (XII-9)

Freedom comes from the resolution of all anomalies. The best approach is to follow the discipline of natural laws (dharma), and simply let go of all anxieties. The anomalies will resolve themselves in the background over time. If you cannot do that just focus on the resolution of one anomaly at a time.

अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसिमत्कर्मपरमोभव।
मदर्थमपिकर्माणिकुर्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि।।12.10।।

If you are unable to practice concentration, be thou intent on performing actions for Me; even by performing actions for My sake, thou shalt attain perfection. (XII-10) 

अथैतदप्यशक्तोऽसिकर्तुंमद्योगमाश्रितः।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागंततःकुरुयतात्मवान्।।12.11।।

If thou art unable to do even this then subduing your mind, senses and intellect etc., resorting to Yoga (equanimity) renounce the fruit of all actions. (XII-11)

If you can’t focus on resolving anomalies one at a time, then simply perform actions for their naturally intended purpose. If you can’t even do this then simply act with an equanimity of mind without thinking of the results.

श्रेयोहिज्ञानमभ्यासाज्ज्ञानाद्ध्यानंविशिष्यते।
ध्यानात्कर्मफलत्यागस्त्यागाच्छान्तिरनन्तरम्।।12.12।।

Better indeed is knowledge than the practice (of concentration); better than knowledge is meditation; better than meditation is the renunciation of the fruit of action; Supreme Peace immediately follows renunciation. (XII-12)

Here Lord Krishna summarizes what has been said above.

अद्वेष्टासर्वभूतानांमैत्रःकरुणएवच।
निर्ममोनिरहङ्कारःसमदुःखसुखःक्षमी।।12.13।।
सन्तुष्टःसततंयोगीयतात्मादृढनिश्चयः।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्योमद्भक्तःसमेप्रियः।।12.14।।

He who has no ill-will to any being, who is friendly and compassionate to all, who is free from mineness and egoism, even-minded in pleasure and pain, forgiving, ever content, self-controlled, unshakable in determination, with mind and intellect dedicated to Me—the Yogi, My devotee, is dear to Me. (XII-13, 14)

यस्मान्नोद्विजतेलोकोलोकान्नोद्विजतेचयः।
हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तोयःसचमेप्रियः।।12.15।।

He by whom the world is not agitated and who is not agitated by the world, and who is free from joy, anger (envy), fear and agitation, he is dear to Me. (XII-15)

The translation above pretty much says it. A Yogi is somebody who simply stands apart from the world of judgment.

अनपेक्षःशुचिर्दक्षउदासीनोगतव्यथः।
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागीयोमद्भक्तःसमेप्रियः।।12.16।।

He who has no expectation, is pure, skillful in action, unconcerned and untroubled, renouncing all initiative (in action), he, my devotee is dear to Me. (XII-16)

योनहृष्यतिनद्वेष्टिनशोचतिनकाङ्क्षति।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागीभक्ितमान्यःसमेप्रियः।।12.17।।

He who neither rejoices nor hates, neither grieves nor desires, and who has renounced good and evil, he who is thus devoted, is dear to Me. (XII-17)

This is self explanatory. This can be achieved little by little. It is all that is worthy.

समःशत्रौचमित्रेचतथामानापमानयोः।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषुसमःसङ्गविवर्जितः।।12.18।।
तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनीसन्तुष्टोयेनकेनचित्।
अनिकेतःस्थिरमतिर्भक्ितमान्मेप्रियोनरः।।12.19।।

He who is alike to foe and friend, also in honor and dishonor, who is alike in cold and heat, in pleasures and pain, who is free from attachment, who holds blame and praise equal, who is thoughtful, content with any thing, who has no fixed abode and is firm in mind, that man full of devotion is dear to me. (XII-18, 19)

येतुधर्म्यामृतमिदंयथोक्तंपर्युपासते।
श्रद्दधानामत्परमाभक्तास्तेऽतीवमेप्रियाः।।12.20।।

Those who with faith, holding Me as their supreme goal, follow this nectar of wisdom (law or doctrine), those devotees are exceedingly dear to Me. (XII-20)

The above is self-evident. It must be understood that ‘Me’ stands for the core of the universe from which all natural laws spring forth and form the universe.

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Final Comment

Underlying this infinite attributes of this universe we encounter fewer but broader attributes as we dive deeper into the abstraction of the natural laws. That is the direction of approaching the Unmanifested, the “Me” of the Bhagavad Gita.

The Unmanifested may be approached in various ways. The most difficult method of approaching the Unmanifested is through the knowledge of the natural laws. Less difficult is to simply meditate to gradually resolve anomalies by simply concentrating on dharma. Still simpler is to perform actions with an equanimity of mind without thinking of the results. With such renunciation Supreme Peace follows.

A Yogi is one who simply stands apart from the world of judgment. He approaches this state gradually with great perseverance.

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 11

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Sivananda with my comments in color.

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 11

अर्जुनउवाच
मदनुग्रहायपरमंगुह्यमध्यात्मसंज्ञितम्।
यत्त्वयोक्तंवचस्तेनमोहोऽयंविगतोमम।।11.1।।

Arjuna said:
By this profound discourse concerning the self (spiritual wisdom) which you have delivered out of compassion for me, my delusion has been dispelled. (XI-1)

भवाप्ययौहिभूतानांश्रुतौविस्तरशोमया।
त्वत्तःकमलपत्राक्षमाहात्म्यमपिचाव्ययम्।।11.2।।

From you, O lotus-eyed, I have heard in detail an account of the origin and dissolution of beings and also your immortal glory. (XI-2)

एवमेतद्यथात्थत्वमात्मानंपरमेश्वर।
द्रष्टुमिच्छामितेरूपमैश्वरंपुरुषोत्तम।।11.3।।

O Lord Supreme, You are precisely what You have declared Yourself to be. But I long to see your divine form, O best of persons. (XI-3)

मन्यसेयदितच्छक्यंमयाद्रष्टुमितिप्रभो।
योगेश्वरततोमेत्वंदर्शयाऽत्मानमव्ययम्।।11.4।।

If You, O Lord, think that this Cosmic Form can be seen by me, then, O Lord of Yoga, reveal to me Your imperishable form. (XI-4)

Understanding leads to experience. After really understanding that everything comes into being and also dissolves back into non-being per the laws of nature, Arjuna was ready to experience the Yoga (union) with Cosmic energy. Now that he felt extreme devotion to Yoga, Arjuna was desperately longing for this experience.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
पश्यमेपार्थरूपाणिशतशोऽथसहस्रशः।
नानाविधानिदिव्यानिनानावर्णाकृतीनिच।।11.5।।

Behold My forms. O Partha (Arjuna), by hundreds and thousands, multifarious and divine, of various colors and shapes. (XI-5)

पश्यादित्यान्वसून्रुद्रानश्िवनौमरुतस्तथा।
बहून्यदृष्टपूर्वाणिपश्याऽश्चर्याणिभारत।।11.6।।

Behold in Me, O Bharata, the twelve sons of Aditi, the eight Vasus the eleven Rudras (gods of destruction), the two Ashvinikumaras (the twin born physicians of gods) and the forty-nine Maruts (wind gods) and see many more marvels never seen before. (XI-6)

इहैकस्थंजगत्कृत्स्नंपश्याद्यसचराचरम्।
ममदेहेगुडाकेशयच्चान्यद्द्रष्टुमिच्छसि।।11.7।।

O Gudakesa (Arjuna), now behold within this body of Mine the entire creation consisting of both animate and inanimate beings and whatever else you wish to see. (XI-7)

नतुमांशक्यसेद्रष्टुमनेनैवस्वचक्षुषा।
दिव्यंददामितेचक्षुःपश्यमेयोगमैश्वरम्।।11.8।।

But you cannot see Me with these human eyes of yours; therefore I give you the divine eye. With this behold My divine power of Yoga. (XI-8)

With his understanding and extreme devotion to Yoga, Arjuna was suddenly able to experience the union with cosmic energy that he was desperately longing for. He saw the universal forms in infinite shapes and dazzling colors. In those universal forms, Arjuna could see all the gods and their attendants that were worshipped by his ancestors and his clan. He also saw other marvels never seen before. Arjuna could actually see the entire creation consisting of both animate and inanimate beings. This was not something that human eyes could see. It was the visualization with intuitive sense that came from his understanding and extreme devotion to Yoga.

सञ्जयउवाच
एवमुक्त्वाततोराजन्महायोगेश्वरोहरिः।
दर्शयामासपार्थायपरमंरूपमैश्वरम्।।11.9।।

Sanjay said:
O King, having spoken thus, the Supreme Lord of Yoga, Hari (Krishna) showed to Partha (Arjuna) His supreme divine form. (XI-9)

अनेकवक्त्रनयनमनेकाद्भुतदर्शनम्।
अनेकदिव्याभरणंदिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम्।।11.10।।
दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरंदिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम्।
सर्वाश्चर्यमयंदेवमनन्तंविश्वतोमुखम्।।11.11।।

The Supreme Deity possessed many mouths and eyes presenting many a wonderful sight, decked with many divine ornaments, wielding many uplifted divine weapons, wearing divine garlands and clothes, besmeared all over with divine perfumes, all wonderful, infinite with faces on all sides. Such divine cosmic form, the Lord revealed to Arjuna. (XI-10, 11)

दिविसूर्यसहस्रस्यभवेद्युगपदुत्थिता।
यदिभाःसदृशीसास्याद्भासस्तस्यमहात्मनः।।11.12।।

If there were the effulgence of a thousand suns blazing forth all at once in the sky that would hardly be like the splendor of the mighty Lord. (XI-12)

तत्रैकस्थंजगत्कृत्स्नंप्रविभक्तमनेकधा।
अपश्यद्देवदेवस्यशरीरेपाण्डवस्तदा।।11.13।।

Then Arjuna, concentrated at one place, in the person of that Supreme Deity, saw the whole universe with its many fold divisions. (XI-13)

ततःसविस्मयाविष्टोहृष्टरोमाधनञ्जयः।
प्रणम्यशिरसादेवंकृताञ्जलिरभाषत।।11.14।।

Then Dhananjaya, struck with wonder, his hair standing on end, bowed his head to the divine Lord and with joined palms addressed Him thus. (XI-14)

Sanjay is able to describe what Arjuna saw of the universal divine form. That means Sanjay was an accomplished Yogi himself. This was an intuitive sight of the whole Cosmos. One could be seeing the stars and galaxies and interpreting them this way. In any case, it would have been a magnificent but overwhelming sight because it is like the ground slipping away from underneath one’s feet. No wonder Arjuna’s hair stood on end. The only stability he must have felt was his guru, Krishna, standing by his side.

अर्जुनउवाच
पश्यामिदेवांस्तवदेवदेहेसर्वांस्तथाभूतविशेषसङ्घान्।
ब्रह्माणमीशंकमलासनस्थमृषींश्चसर्वानुरगांश्चदिव्यान्।।11.15।।

Arjuna said:
O Lord, I see in Your body all the gods and multitude of different beings; Brahma seated on his lotus-seat, Shiva, all the sages and celestial serpents. (XI-15)

अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रंपश्यामित्वांसर्वतोऽनन्तरूपम्।
नान्तंनमध्यंनपुनस्तवादिंपश्यामिविश्वेश्वरविश्वरूप।।11.16।।

O Lord of the universe, I behold You, infinite in forms on all sides with numerous arms, bellies, faces, and eyes. O Universal Form, I see neither Your beginning nor middle nor end. (XI-16)

किरीटिनंगदिनंचक्रिणंचतेजोराशिंसर्वतोदीप्तिमन्तम्।
पश्यामित्वांदुर्निरीक्ष्यंसमन्ताद्दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिमप्रमेयम्।।11.17।।

I see You with diadem, club and discus; a mass of splendor shining all round, having a brilliance like that of blazing fire and sun, dazzling and immeasurable on all sides. (XI-17)

Here is a concept senior to the concept of all the different gods that Aryans ever had over the centuries. This is an evolution in religious thinking that rises above all symbols and mythologies. It is difficult to put it into words. There is simply a feeling of great awe at the immensity of the experience.

त्वमक्षरंपरमंवेदितव्यंत्वमस्यविश्वस्यपरंनिधानम्।
त्वमव्ययःशाश्वतधर्मगोप्तासनातनस्त्वंपुरुषोमतोमे।।11.18।।

You are the Imperishable, the Supreme Being to be realized; You are the ultimate resort of this universe; You are the protector of the eternal Dharma (Duty and Righteousness) and You are the eternal imperishable Being—I deem. (XI-18)

अनादिमध्यान्तमनन्तवीर्यमनन्तबाहुंशशिसूर्यनेत्रम्।
पश्यामित्वांदीप्तहुताशवक्त्रम्स्वतेजसाविश्वमिदंतपन्तम्।।11.19।।

I see You without beginning, middle or end, infinite in power, of infinite arms, the sun and the moon being Your eyes, the blazing fire Your mouth; scorching the universe with Your radiance. (XI-19)

द्यावापृथिव्योरिदमन्तरंहिव्याप्तंत्वयैकेनदिशश्चसर्वाः।
दृष्ट्वाऽद्भुतंरूपमुग्रंतवेदंलोकत्रयंप्रव्यथितंमहात्मन्।।11.20।।

The space between heaven and earth and all the quarters are filled by You alone. Seeing this marvelous and terrible form of Yours, O Great-Soul, the three worlds feel greatly alarmed. (XI-20)

The ultimate realization is that of the natural order in the universe. Underlying all the chaos in the universe there is a natural order. This natural order extends to both physical and metaphysical realms. This order defines the very being of this infinite universe. It is manifested everywhere. This awakens the awe everywhere because of its oneness.

अमीहित्वांसुरसङ्घाःविशन्तिकेचिद्भीताःप्राञ्जलयोगृणन्ति।
स्वस्तीत्युक्त्वामहर्षिसिद्धसङ्घाःस्तुवन्तित्वांस्तुतिभिःपुष्कलाभिः।।11.21।।

Those hosts of gods are entering You; some in awe with palms joined are chanting Your names and glories; bands of great sages and Siddhas (Emancipated Souls) pronounce “May it be well” and praise You with excellent hymns. (XI-21)

रुद्रादित्यावसवोयेचसाध्याविश्वेऽश्िवनौमरुतश्चोष्मपाश्च।
गन्धर्वयक्षासुरसिद्धसङ्घावीक्षन्तेत्वांविस्मिताश्चैवसर्वे।।11.22।।

The eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, twelve Sadhyas, ten Vishvedevas, two Ashvinikumaras, forty-nine Maruts, manes, hosts of Gandharvas, Yakshas, Asuras and Siddhas—they are all gazing at You in amazement. (XI-22)

रूपंमहत्तेबहुवक्त्रनेत्रंमहाबाहोबहुबाहूरुपादम्।
बहूदरंबहुदंष्ट्राकरालंदृष्ट्वालोकाःप्रव्यथितास्तथाऽहम्।।11.23।।

O Mighty-Armed, seeing Your immeasurable and dreadful form with numerous mouths, eyes, arms, thighs, feet, bellies and terrible fangs, the worlds are terror-struck, and so am I. (XI-23)

The reality of oneness supersedes all other realities of gods, sages and siddhas. All beings and things are just different aspects of this oneness. It is indeed terrifying to realize this.

नभःस्पृशंदीप्तमनेकवर्णंव्यात्ताननंदीप्तविशालनेत्रम्।
दृष्ट्वाहित्वांप्रव्यथितान्तरात्माधृतिंनविन्दामिशमंचविष्णो।।11.24।।

When I see Your form touching the sky, effulgent with many colors, with mouth wide open, with large shining eyes, my heart trembles with fear, I lose courage and find no peace, O Vishnu. (XI-24)

दंष्ट्राकरालानिचतेमुखानिदृष्ट्वैवकालानलसन्निभानि।
दिशोनजानेनलभेचशर्मप्रसीददेवेशजगन्निवास।।11.25।।

Seeing Your mouth terrible with tusks, resembling the raging fire at the time of universal destruction, I know not the four quarters, nor do I find peace. Therefore be kind to me, O Lord of the gods and Abode of the universe. (XI-25)

अमीचत्वांधृतराष्ट्रस्यपुत्राःसर्वेसहैवावनिपालसङ्घैः।
भीष्मोद्रोणःसूतपुत्रस्तथाऽसौसहास्मदीयैरपियोधमुख्यैः।।11.26।।
वक्त्राणितेत्वरमाणाविशन्तिदंष्ट्राकरालानिभयानकानि।
केचिद्विलग्नादशनान्तरेषुसंदृश्यन्तेचूर्णितैरुत्तमाङ्गैः।।11.27।।

All the sons of Dhritrashtra with hosts of kings of the earth, Bhisma, Drona, Karna, with the chief warriors on our side as well are rushing headlong into Your mouths, terrible with tusks and fearful to look at. Some are seen sticking in the gaps between the teeth with their heads crushed. (XI-26, 27)

The intimate view of the overall universe takes you by surprise beyond all that is familiar. All of a sudden you become aware of the destruction that is inevitable. It is so real and terrifying.

यथानदीनांबहवोऽम्बुवेगाःसमुद्रमेवाभिमुखाःद्रवन्ति।
तथातवामीनरलोकवीराविशन्तिवक्त्राण्यभिविज्वलन्ति।।11.28।।

As diverse torrents of rivers rush towards the ocean, so do these warriors of the mortal world enter Your blazing mouths. (XI-28)

यथाप्रदीप्तंज्वलनंपतङ्गाविशन्तिनाशायसमृद्धवेगाः।
तथैवनाशायविशन्तिलोकास्तवापिवक्त्राणिसमृद्धवेगाः।।11.29।।

As moths rush headlong into the blazing fire for destruction, so do these people hurriedly speed  into Your mouths for their destruction. (XI-29)

लेलिह्यसेग्रसमानःसमन्ताल्लोकान्समग्रान्वदनैर्ज्वलद्भिः।
तेजोभिरापूर्यजगत्समग्रंभासस्तवोग्राःप्रतपन्तिविष्णो।।11.30।।

Devouring all the worlds with Your flaming mouths, You are licking them on all sides. Your fiery rays filling the whole world with radiance, are burning it, O Vishnu. (XI-30)

आख्याहिमेकोभवानुग्ररूपोनमोऽस्तुतेदेववरप्रसीद।
विज्ञातुमिच्छामिभवन्तमाद्यंनहिप्रजानामितवप्रवृत्तिम्।।11.31।।

Tell me who You are, so fierce in form. I bow down to You, O Supreme Deity, be kind. I wish to know You, the Primal One, in essence; for I know not Your purpose. (XI-31)

Looking at the battle field, Arjuna realizes that all these warriors were rushing toward their deaths and that their destruction was inevitable. This included his own destruction as well. Arjuna feels totally helplessness and horrified about it. He starts to question the very purpose of life.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
कालोऽस्मिलोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धोलोकान्समाहर्तुमिहप्रवृत्तः।
ऋतेऽपित्वांनभविष्यन्तिसर्वेयेऽवस्थिताःप्रत्यनीकेषुयोधाः।।11.32।।

The Blessed Lord said:
I am the mighty world-destroying Time now engaged in wiping out the world. Even without you the warriors arrayed in the hostile army will not survive. (XI-32)

तस्मात्त्वमुत्तिष्ठयशोलभस्वजित्वाशत्रून्भुङ्क्ष्वराज्यंसमृद्धम्।
मयैवैतेनिहताःपूर्वमेवनिमित्तमात्रंभवसव्यसाचिन्।।11.33।।

You, therefore, arise and win glory and conquering foes, enjoy the affluent kingdom. These warriors stand already slain by me; be you merely an instrument, O Savyasacin (One who can shoot arrows with the left hand also). (XI-33)

द्रोणंचभीष्मंचजयद्रथंचकर्णंतथाऽन्यानपियोधवीरान्।
मयाहतांस्त्वंजहिमाव्यथिष्ठायुध्यस्वजेतासिरणेसपत्नान्।।11.34।।

Slay Drona, Bhisma, Jayadratha, Karna and other brave warriors who stand already killed by Me. Be not distressed with fear. Fight, you will conquer your enemies in battle. (XI-34)

Time is the all devouring reality. There is constant change. Nothing survives forever regardless of your contribution to the survival or destruction. So, you simply win glory exercising the skills you have to bring the needed harmony, continuity and consistency.

सञ्जयउवाच
एतच्छ्रुत्वावचनंकेशवस्यकृताञ्जलिर्वेपमानःकिरीटी।
नमस्कृत्वाभूयएवाहकृष्णंसगद्गदंभीतभीतःप्रणम्य।।11.35।।

Sanjay said:
Having heard these words of Lord Kesava, the crowned one (Arjuna) with joined palms, trembling, prostrating himself again addressed Lord Krishna, in a choked voice bowing down, overwhelmed with fear. (XI-35)

अर्जुनउवाच
स्थानेहृषीकेशतवप्रकीर्त्याजगत्प्रहृष्यत्यनुरज्यतेच
रक्षांसिभीतानिदिशोद्रवन्तिसर्वेनमस्यन्तिचसिद्धसङ्घाः।।11.36।।

Arjuna said:
O Lord, it is befitting that the universe exults and is filled with love by chanting Your names and glory; terrified demons are fleeing in all directions and all the hosts of siddhas (perfected souls) are bowing to you. (XI-36)

कस्माच्चतेननमेरन्महात्मन्गरीयसेब्रह्मणोऽप्यादिकर्त्रे।
अनन्तदेवेशजगन्निवासत्वमक्षरंसदसत्तत्परंयत्।।11.37।।

O great souled one, why should they not bow to You, the greatest of all, the progenitor even of Brahma? O Infinite Being, O Lord of the gods, O Abode of the universe, You are the Imperishable. You are the being (real) the non-being (unreal) and also that which is beyond both being and non-being viz., the Imperishable Brahma. (XI-37)

Arjuna was shaken by the revelation of the nature of Time and from the knowledge that he must slay those in the opposing army even when he had revered them all his life. He saw that Time was awe-inspiring and that it was loved and feared at the same time. He realized that Time was the ultimate attribute that operated beyond all other attributes of reality.

त्वमादिदेवःपुरुषःपुराणस्त्वमस्यविश्वस्यपरंनिधानम्।
वेत्तासिवेद्यंचपरंचधामत्वयाततंविश्वमनन्तरूप।।11.38।।

You are the Primal Deity, the most ancient person; You are the ultimate Resort of the universe; You are the knower, the knowable and the Supreme Abode. This universe is pervaded by You, O Being of infinite forms. (XI-38)

वायुर्यमोऽग्निर्वरुणःशशाङ्कःप्रजापतिस्त्वंप्रपितामहश्च।
नमोनमस्तेऽस्तुसहस्रकृत्वःपुनश्चभूयोऽपिनमोनमस्ते।।11.39।।

You are Wind-god, God of death, Fire-god, God of water, Moon-god, Prajapati, Father of Brahma, and Great-grand-father of beings. Salutation, salutation to you a thousand times, and again and again salutation to you.(XI-39)

नमःपुरस्तादथपृष्ठतस्तेनमोऽस्तुतेसर्वतएवसर्व।
अनन्तवीर्यामितविक्रमस्त्वंसर्वंसमाप्नोषिततोऽसिसर्वः।।11.40।।

O Lord of infinite prowess, my salutations to You from before, from behind and from all sides. O All! You who possess limitless might, pervade all; therefore You are all. (XI-40)

We are looking at the very essence of the universe in God. God underlies not only the phenomena of physical nature but also of life and human nature. God pervades everything. To behold this underlying unity of nature is simply marvelous.

सखेतिमत्वाप्रसभंयदुक्तंहेकृष्णहेयादवहेसखेति।
अजानतामहिमानंतवेदंमयाप्रमादात्प्रणयेनवापि।।11.41।।
यच्चावहासार्थमसत्कृतोऽसिविहारशय्यासनभोजनेषु।
एकोऽथवाप्यच्युततत्समक्षंतत्क्षामयेत्वामहमप्रमेयम्।।11.42।।

Whatever I have rashly said due to carelessness or love, addressing You as “O Krishna, O Yadava, O Friend,” thinking You only a friend, ignorant of Your greatness; and the way in which You have been slighted by me in jest while playing, reposing, sitting or dining either alone or in company—I crave forgiveness from YouWho are infinite, O infallible Lord. (XI-41, 42)

पितासिलोकस्यचराचरस्यत्वमस्यपूज्यश्चगुरुर्गरीयान्।
नत्वत्समोऽस्त्यभ्यधिकःकुतोऽन्योलोकत्रयेऽप्यप्रतिमप्रभाव।।11.43।।

You are the Father, also the Great Teacher of this animate and inanimate creation and supremely adorable. O Lord, possessing incomparable glory, in the three worlds, there is no one even equal to You; who can excel You? (XI-43)

This view of ultimate reality is beyond any other experience. We see with extreme wonder the things that appeared to be trivial in the past.

तस्मात्प्रणम्यप्रणिधायकायंप्रसादयेत्वामहमीशमीड्यम्।
पितेवपुत्रस्यसखेवसख्युःप्रियःप्रियायार्हसिदेवसोढुम्।।11.44।।

Therefore, O adorable Lord, bowing down, prostrating my body I implore You to forgive me. Bear with me, O Lord as a father with a son, as a friend with a friend, as a lover with his beloved. (XI-44)

अदृष्टपूर्वंहृषितोऽस्मिदृष्ट्वाभयेनचप्रव्यथितंमनोमे।
तदेवमेदर्शयदेवरूपंप्रसीददेवेशजगन्निवास।।11.45।।

I rejoice that I have seen what was never seen before but my mind is confounded with fear. Reveal to me that divine form (the placid form of Vishnu), O Lord of the gods, O Abode of the universe, be gracious. (XI-45)

किरीटिनंगदिनंचक्रहस्तमिच्छामित्वांद्रष्टुमहंतथैव।
तेनैवरूपेणचतुर्भुजेनसहस्रबाहोभवविश्वमूर्ते।।11.46।।

I wish to see You as before, crowned, holding a mace and a discus in two of Your hands, in Your former form only, having four arms, O thousand-armed, O Universal Form. (XI-46)

That extreme view of ultimate reality is hard to sustain, but it is what it is. The attention is much easier to focus in the direction of evolution.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
मयाप्रसन्नेनतवार्जुनेदंरूपंपरंदर्शितमात्मयोगात्।
तेजोमयंविश्वमनन्तमाद्यंयन्मेत्वदन्येननदृष्टपूर्वम्।।11.47।।

The Blessed Lord said:
Arjuna, being pleased with you, I have shown you through  My own power of Yoga, this supreme, shining, primal and infinite Universal Form, which none but you has ever seen. (XI-47)

नवेदयज्ञाध्ययनैर्नदानैर्नचक्रियाभिर्नतपोभिरुग्रैः।
एवंरूपःशक्यअहंनृलोकेद्रष्टुंत्वदन्येनकुरुप्रवीर।।11.48।।

Arjuna, in this mortal world I cannot be seen in this form by anyone else than you, either by the study of the Vedas or of rituals or by gifts, sacrifices or austere penances. (XI-48)

मातेव्यथामाचविमूढभावोदृष्ट्वारूपंघोरमीदृङ्ममेदम्।
व्यपेतभीःप्रीतमनाःपुनस्त्वंतदेवमेरूपमिदंप्रपश्य।।11.49।।

Seeing such a dreadful form of Mine, be neither afraid nor bewildered; with a fearless and complacent mind, behold once again the same four-armed form of Mine. (XI-49)

You are graced only when you flow with nature. None of the studies, rituals or penances matter otherwise. Reality is what it is. Just be there and confront.

सञ्जयउवाच
इत्यर्जुनंवासुदेवस्तथोक्त्वास्वकंरूपंदर्शयामासभूयः।
आश्वासयामासचभीतमेनंभूत्वापुनःसौम्यवपुर्महात्मा।।11.50।।

Sanjay said:
Having thus spoken to Arjuna, Lord Vasudeva showed again His own four-armed form and then assuming a gentle appearance, the great souled One consoled Arjuna who was frightened. (XI-50)

अर्जुनउवाच
दृष्ट्वेदंमानुषंरूपंतवसौम्यंजनार्दन।
इदानीमस्मिसंवृत्तःसचेताःप्रकृतिंगतः।।11.51।।

Arjuna said:
Having seen this gentle human form of Yours, I am now composed and am restored to my own nature. (XI-51)

श्रीभगवानुवाच
सुदुर्दर्शमिदंरूपंदृष्टवानसियन्मम।
देवाअप्यस्यरूपस्यनित्यंदर्शनकाङ्क्षिणः।।11.52।।

The Blessed Lord said:
It is exceedingly difficult to see this form of Mine which you have seen. Even the gods are always eager to behold this form. (XI-52)

Human appearance is very gentle compared to the stark view of this universe. It takes a lot of courage to view the universe as it is.

नाहंवेदैर्नतपसानदानेननचेज्यया।
शक्यएवंविधोद्रष्टुंदृष्टवानसिमांयथा।।11.53।।

Neither by the study of the Vedas, nor by penance, nor by charity, nor by ritual can I be seen in this form as you have seen me. (XI-53)

भक्त्यात्वनन्ययाशक्यमहमेवंविधोऽर्जुन।
ज्ञातुंदृष्टुंचतत्त्वेनप्रवेष्टुंचपरंतप।।11.54।।

By unswerving devotion I can be seen in this form (with four-arms) and known in essence and even entered into, O scorcher of foes. (XI-54)

मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमोमद्भक्तःसङ्गवर्जितः।
निर्वैरःसर्वभूतेषुयःसमामेतिपाण्डव।।11.55।।

O Pandava (Arjuna), he who works for My sake, depends on Me, is devoted to Me, has no attachment and is free from malice towards all beings, reaches Me. (XI-55)

The whole reason why one studies, does penance, participates in charity, or follows rituals, is to really understand nature and get in tune with it. One may do so directly by unswerving devotion and being immersed in natural actions. One has to let go of everything–all attachments and prejudices. Just be there and confront.

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Final Comment

God refers to the core of the universe from which all natural laws spring forth and form the universe. Extreme devotion of Yoga may take the Yogi to this rare experience of God, but that experience is totally different from any intellectual projection.

It takes a lot of courage to view the universe as it is. It may feel like the ground slipping away from underneath one’s feet. There is no way that the yogi can be prepared for this experience. It can be so real that it is terrifying and utterly overwhelming.

There is simply a feeling of great awe at the immensity of this experience. Here is something senior to all the different gods that Aryans ever had over the centuries. Time is the all devouring reality. Destruction is inevitable. There is constant change. You are graced only when you flow with nature.

THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 10

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Sivananda with my comments in color.

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 10

श्रीभगवानुवाच
भूयएवमहाबाहोश्रृणुमेपरमंवचः।
यत्तेऽहंप्रीयमाणायवक्ष्यामिहितकाम्यया।।10.1।।

The blessed Lord said:
Once again, O mighty-armed, listen to My supreme word, which I shall speak to you, who are so loving, out of solicitude for your welfare. (X-1)

नमेविदुःसुरगणाःप्रभवंनमहर्षयः।
अहमादिर्हिदेवानांमहर्षीणांचसर्वशः।।10.2।।

Neither gods nor the great sages know the secret of My origin; for I am the prime cause in all respects of gods as well as the great sages. (X-2)

योमामजमनादिंचवेत्तिलोकमहेश्वरम्।
असम्मूढःसमर्त्येषुसर्वपापैःप्रमुच्यते।।10.3।।

He who knows Me as unborn and beginningless, as the Great Lord of the world, he, undecided among men, is purged of all sins. (X-3)

Where the Laws of nature originate from is not known. But one, who knows that these Laws are overarching and follows them, is purged of all sins.

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहःक्षमासत्यंदमःशमः।
सुखंदुःखंभवोऽभावोभयंचाभयमेवच।।10.4।।
अहिंसासमतातुष्टिस्तपोदानंयशोऽयशः।
भवन्तिभावाभूतानांमत्तएवपृथग्विधाः।।10.5।।

Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint (control over the mind and the senses), joy (pleasure), and sorrow (pain), evolution and dissolution, fear and fearlessness, non-violence, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and disrepute—these diverse feelings of creatures emanate from Me alone. (X-4,5)

The Laws of nature evolve the following metaphysical characteristics as part of awareness:

(1) बुद्धि (intellect): the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions, intelligence, reason, intellect, mind, discernment, judgement etc.

The sense organs convert the interaction with external (physical) energy of Akasha into electro-chemical signals, which are then converted into internal (metaphysical) energy by the cells of the body. The mental matrix then assimilates the incoming signals with stored internal energy to generate perceptions in real time. This assimilation also leads to the formation of concepts and general notions that are retained to speed up subsequent assimilations. This is the intellect functioning.

(2) ज्ञान (wisdom): knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge, (especially) the higher knowledge (derived from meditation on the one Universal Spirit) etc.

This is the understanding resulting from the assimilation of all mental matrices in the universe. It makes up the Attention field. These ultimate considerations are continuous, harmonious and consistent like the universe they are reflecting.

(3) असंमोह (non-delusion): (noun) calmness, composure, deliberateness, (adjective) not-confused.

Self is composed of the attention field, mental matrix and the body. Attention field forms a continuum, but the mental matrices and bodies are discrete condensations within it. Together the mental matrix and body form an identity, which is like a covering for self. A person generally confuses identity with self. In asammohah, one is aware of the difference between self and identity and the relationship between the two.

(4) क्षमा (forgiveness): patience, forbearance, indulgence etc.

Forgiveness is actually the patience needed to sort out the anomalies (discontinuities, disharmonies and inconsistencies) and not rushing and making mistakes. The mental matrix sorts out the anomalies naturally, and directs the body in its actions appropriately when data is missing. It requires patience to let the mental matrix do its job.

(5) सत्यं (truth): true, real, actual, genuine, sincere, honest, truthful, faithful, pure, virtuous, good, successful, effectual, valid etc.

Truth is the state achieved when all anomalies have been resolved. Truth is the state of continuity, harmony and consistency.

(6) दम (self-restraint): self-command, self-restraint, self-control
सम (self-restraint): equable, neutral, indifferent

Effort may be required in following the rules for self-restraint (morals), when anomalies exist in the mental matrix. But as these anomalies are resolved one no longer needs to put out effort to achieve self-restraint.

(7) सुख (joy): originally “having a good axle-hole” possibly running swiftly or easily (applied to chariots);
दुःख (sorrow): uneasiness, pain, trouble, difficulty.

Such conditions arise due to anomalies and during the process of resolving them.

(8) भव (evolution): coming into existence, birth, production, origin
अभाव (dissolution): non-existence, nullity, absence

Everything is cyclical. The universe, the identities perceiving it, the anomalies, etc., come into existence and then resolve again and again.

(9) भय (fear): alarm, dread, apprehension
अभय (fearlessness): fearless, undaunted

Such conditions also arise due to anomalies and during the process of resolving them, especially where the survival of identity itself is concerned.

(10) अहिम्सा (non-violence): harmlessness, not injuring anything, safeness, security

अहिम्सा is neither harming the body nor the mind. The body can be harmed by injuring any of its parts. The mind can be harmed by actions that make it unable to assimilate its contents and coordinate the functions of the body.

(11) समता (equanimity): equality, sameness, identity with, fairness, impartiality towards, equableness, equanimity.

समता is the ability of the mind to keep functioning normally despite being under tension.

(12) तुष्टि (contentment): satisfaction, contentment

One settles in contentment as anomalies in the mental matrix are routinely getting resolved without much difficulty.

(13) तप (austerity): “consuming by heat”, “causing pain or trouble, distressing”, heat, warmth, the hot season, religious austerity

When overcoming anomalies in the mental matrix becomes difficult it may require some discipline.

(14) दान (charity): the act of giving, communicating, imparting, teaching, paying back, restoring, donation, gift

दान is participating in a sphere wider than one’s own mental matrix. It is contributing to the assimilation of social mental matrix. Bodies must also be taken care of before mental matrix can be properly assimilated.

(15) यशस् (fame): beautiful appearance, beauty, splendour, worth, honour, glory, fame, renown
अयशस् (disrepute): infamy, devoid of fame, disgraced

यशस् is the outcome of actions that resolve anomalies and bring good alignment. अयशस् is just the opposite.

महर्षयःसप्तपूर्वेचत्वारोमनवस्तथा।
मद्भावामानसाजातायेषांलोकइमाःप्रजाः।।10.6।।

The seven great seers, the more ancient four Sanaka etc., and fourteen Manus, who are all devoted to Me, are born of My mind and all these creatures in the world have come forth from them. (X-6)

Saptarishis are regarded as knowers and annotators of Vedas and the patriarchs of the Vedic religion. They are recognized as representations of creators, preservers and destroyers. From them come the lineages of all the brahmins. Their names are identified with the seven stars of Ursa Major.

The four Kumaras are regarded as born of the mind of Brahma. Their names mean “Ancient,” “Eternal,” “Ever Joyful” and “Ever Young.” They roam the universe together as children without any desire but with purpose to teach. They have studied Vedas and are enlightened.

Manu is the title or name of fourteen mystical Kshatriya rulers of earth, or alternatively as the head of mythical dynasties that begin with each cyclic kalpa (aeon) when the universe is born anew.

These twenty-five mythical figures are the progenitors of mankind who are devoted to the Laws of Nature. The Laws of Nature are more ancient as they preceded mankind, and the mankind evolved out of them.

एतांविभूतिंयोगंचममयोवेत्तितत्त्वतः।
सोऽविकम्पेनयोगेनयुज्यतेनात्रसंशयः।।10.7।।

He who knows in reality this divine glory and power of Mine is endowed with unfaltering Yoga of devotion; of this there is no doubt. (X-7)

अहंसर्वस्यप्रभवोमत्तःसर्वंप्रवर्तते।
इतिमत्वाभजन्तेमांबुधाभावसमन्विताः।।10.8।।

I am the origin of the whole creation; from Me all things move. The wise knowing this, full of devotion, worship Me. (X-8)

मच्चित्तामद्गतप्राणाबोधयन्तःपरस्परम्।
कथयन्तश्चमांनित्यंतुष्यन्तिचरमन्तिच।।10.9।।

With their minds fixed on Me, with their lives surrendered to Me, enlightening each other about My greatness and ever speaking of Me, they ever remain contented and delighted. (X-9)

A Yogi who has realized the role of the Laws of nature has no more doubt of his understanding of their power, and he is completely devoted to this understanding. These Laws provide the clue to the origin of this whole creation. This brings about the stability of contentment and delight.

तेषांसततयुक्तानांभजतांप्रीतिपूर्वकम्।
ददामिबुद्धियोगंतंयेनमामुपयान्तिते।।10.10।।

To them, ever devout, worshipping me with love, I confer that Yoga of Wisdom (equanimity) by which they attain Me. (X-10)

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजंतमः।
नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थोज्ञानदीपेनभास्वता।।10.11।।

In order to shower my grace on them, I, dwelling in their self (heart), destroy the ignorance—born darkness by the luminous lamp of wisdom. (X-11)

Wisdom lies in the harmony of all knowledge. It requires assimilation of all knowledge. It is attained by those who are devout and loving in their study, meditations and observations. With the attainment of wisdom all ignorance is removed.

अर्जुनउवाच
परंब्रह्मपरंधामपवित्रंपरमंभवान्।
पुरुषंशाश्वतंदिव्यमादिदेवमजंविभुम्।।10.12।।
आहुस्त्वामृषयःसर्वेदेवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा।
असितोदेवलोव्यासःस्वयंचैवब्रवीषिमे।।10.13।।

Arjuna said:
You are the Supreme Brahma (Eternal) (Pure Consciousness), the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Divine Person, the Prime Deity, the Unborn, the Omnipresent. Likewise all the sages have acclaimed You, as also celestial sage Narada, so also Asita, Devala and Vyasa; and You Yourself also proclaim this to me. (X-12,13)

सर्वमेतदृतंमन्येयन्मांवदसिकेशव।
नहितेभगवन्व्यक्ितंविदुर्देवानदानवाः।।10.14।।

I hold as true all that You tell me, O Kesava. Neither the gods nor the demons, O blessed Lord, know Your manifestation. (X-14)

स्वयमेवात्मनाऽत्मानंवेत्थत्वंपुरुषोत्तम।
भूतभावनभूतेशदेवदेवजगत्पते।।10.15।।

You alone know Yourself by Yourself, O Supreme Person, O Creator of beings, O Lord of beings,  O God of gods, O Lord of the Universe. (X-15)

Krishna represents the ultimate in wisdom. He practiced that wisdom to such an extent that he became the example for it. He is credited for bringing wisdom to others and was adored for it. He was comparable to all other renowned sages of the past. Arjuna esteemed him greatly and trusted him fully. He considered himself very fortunate to know Krishna, who was boundless in his wisdom.

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेणदिव्याह्यात्मविभूतयः।
याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वंव्याप्यतिष्ठसि।।10.16।।

You alone can describe in full Your divine glories, by which You remain pervading these worlds. (X-16)

कथंविद्यामहंयोगिंस्त्वांसदापरिचिन्तयन्।
केषुकेषुचभावेषुचिन्त्योऽसिभगवन्मया।।10.17।।

How may I know You, O Master of Yoga, by constant meditation? In what various aspects are You, O blessed Lord, to be meditated upon by me? (X-17)

विस्तरेणात्मनोयोगंविभूतिंचजनार्दन।
भूयःकथयतृप्तिर्हिश्रृण्वतोनास्तिमेऽमृतम्।।10.18।।

Tell me again in detail, O Janardana, Your power of Yoga and Your glories; for I know no satiety in hearing Your nectarean words. (X-18)

Krishna was the master of Yoga. Arjuna was amazed at what he was hearing about Yoga. He felt that Krishna knew him better than anybody. He wanted Krishna’s direction on how he should start his Yoga meditation.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
हन्ततेकथयिष्यामिदिव्याह्यात्मविभूतयः।
प्राधान्यतःकुरुश्रेष्ठनास्त्यन्तोविस्तरस्यमे।।10.19।।

The blessed Lord said:
Now I shall tell you My divine glories in brief, O best of the Kurus, for there is no end to the details of My manifestation. (X-19)

अहमात्मागुडाकेशसर्वभूताशयस्थितः।
अहमादिश्चमध्यंचभूतानामन्तएवच।।10.20।।

In the self, O Gudakesa, seated in the hearts of all beings I am the beginning, the middle and also the end of all beings. (X-20)

There is no end to the manifestations of the Laws of nature. The beginning, middle and the end of all beings (elements) occurs according to the same laws.

आदित्यानामहंविष्णुर्ज्योतिषांरविरंशुमान्।
मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मिनक्षत्राणामहंशशी।।10.21।।

I am Visnu among the twelve sons of Aditi; and the bright rayed sun among the luminaries; I am the glory of the Maruts and the moon among stars. (X-21)

Aditi means “boundless” or “innocence”. It is the personification of the infinite. Vishnu means “the pervader”. It represents the self-actuated energy that pervades the infinite. Marut means “wind”. It represents the disturbances that accompany the evolution of the universe from energy.

वेदानांसामवेदोऽस्मिदेवानामस्मिवासवः।
इन्द्रियाणांमनश्चास्मिभूतानामस्मिचेतना।।10.22।।

Of the Vedas I am the Sāmveda; I am Vāsva (Indra) among the gods; of the senses I am the mind and among living being I am consciousness. (X-22)

Sāmveda (from sāman “song” and veda “knowledge”): Samaveda is the Veda of melodies and chants. It has the root of music and dance tradition of this planet. It deals with the importance of speech, language, song and chants to man’s quest for knowledge and salvation, to metaphysical premises and questions, as well as to rituals.

Vāsva (Indra): Indra is the king of the highest heaven. He represents the power that destroys evil and brings prosperity and happiness.

The mind is viewed here as a sense organ that integrates all other senses. Consciousness is viewed as the highest characteristic of self-awareness of life.

रुद्राणांशङ्करश्चास्मिवित्तेशोयक्षरक्षसाम्।
वसूनांपावकश्चास्मिमेरुःशिखरिणामहम्।।10.23।।

Among the Rudras I am Sankara; among the Yaksas (Genies) and Rakshasas (Demons) I am Kubera. Among the Vasus (a class of the gods) I am the god of fire, and of the mountains I am the Meru. (X-23)

Rudra appears to be the personification of violent and forceful phenomena. An angry emotion can be an appropriate response to a situation or it could be totally inappropriate reaction. Sankara represents a forceful but appropriate response to a situation.

The yaksha and rakshas seem to personify the passions in man from benign to most destructive. Of course, there are people and races that represent the predominance of such passions. These passions have the power to overcome the rational thinking in men when triggered. So they are considered to have magical powers of illusion. Kubera represents the control of these earthly passions while attached to them.

The Vasus seem to personify the physical elements of the universe. Fundamental to all these elements is “energy”. Meru seems to signify the central structure of the ancient cosmology.

पुरोधसांचमुख्यंमांविद्धिपार्थबृहस्पतिम्।
सेनानीनामहंस्कन्दःसरसामस्मिसागरः।।10.24।।

Among priests, O Partha, know me to their chief Brhsapati; among generals I am Skanda; among the seats of water, I am the ocean. (X-24)

The ancient sages of Vedas seems to have been elevated to the status of deities and gods. Brhsapati is recognized as the chief offerer of prayers and sacrifices, for his wisdom and eloquence, and as a teacher. Skanda is recognized as a philosopher-warrior, who destroys evil and teaches the pursuit of ethical life as a celibate yogi.

महर्षीणांभृगुरहंगिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम्।
यज्ञानांजपयज्ञोऽस्मिस्थावराणांहिमालयः।।10.25।।

Among the great seers I am Bhrgu, of the words I am monosyllable ‘Om’; of sacrifices, I am the sacrifice of the constant repetition of the Lord’s name; and of the immovables, Himalaya. (X-25)

In ancient India, the scientific research was focused on the perception of reality, and the sages were the great scientists. Maharishi Bhṛgu was one of the seven great sages, the first compiler of predictive astrology, and also the author of Bhrigu Samhita, the astrological (Jyotish) classic. Oṃ, ॐ, is a sacred sound and a spiritual symbol that signifies the essence of the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atman.

अश्वत्थःसर्ववृक्षाणांदेवर्षीणांचनारदः।
गन्धर्वाणांचित्ररथःसिद्धानांकपिलोमुनिः।।10.26।।

Of all trees I am Asvattha (the holy fig tree); among the celestial sages, Narada; among the Gandharvas (celestial monsters), Citraratha; among the siddhas (the Perfect), the sage Kapila. (X-26)

Here the most significant attributes of reality are being acknowledged. 

The Asvattha (peepal tree) has great scientific importance. It emanates a great amount of oxygen and possess a good amount of medicinal properties. Its leaves, wood, roots, and bark are the source of remedy for many diseases. 

Narada is a wise sage that represents a penetrating intellect. He perceives anomalies and devotes himself to resolving them. He promotes knowledge worldwide. 

Gandharvas represent artists among whom Chitraratha is the most prominent. He was a friend of Arjuna and Arjuna learned music from him.

Siddha means “one who is accomplished”. Siddhas are those who practice Sadhana. Sage Kapila was a siddha who founded tha Samkhya school of philosophy. His philosophy had an influence on Buddha.

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानांविद्धिमाममृतोद्भवम्।
ऐरावतंगजेन्द्राणांनराणांचनराधिपम्।।10.27।।

Among horses, know Me to be Uccaihsrava begotten of the churning of the ocean along with nectar; of lordly elephants Airavata (Indra’s elephant); among men, the king. (X-27)

The myth of samudra manthan (churning of the ocean) could refer to the effect of “drinking soma” which led to intense meditation. Such meditation brought up deep anomalies in the mind for their resolution. This created a lot of churning of the mind that resulted in effects both daring as well as ecstatic. Overcoming of such effects led to enlightenment. The product of nectar from samudra manthan may refer to realizations and ecstasies resulting from intense meditation.

Uchchaihshravas (Sanskrit: उच्चैःश्रवस् Uccaiḥśravas or उच्चैःश्रवा Uccaiḥśravā, “long-ears” or “neighing aloud”) is a seven-headed flying horse, created during the churning of the milk ocean. It is considered the best of horses, prototype and king of horses. Uchchaihshravas is often described as a vahana (“vehicle”) of Indra (the king of gods), but is also recorded to be the horse of Bali, the king of Asuras (demons). Uchchaihshravas is said to be snow white in colour.

Airavata (Sanskrit: ऐरावत “belonging to Iravati”) is a white elephant who carries the deity Indra. It is also called ‘abhra-Matanga’, meaning “elephant of the clouds”; ‘Naga-malla’, meaning “the fighting elephant”; and ‘Arkasodara’, meaning “brother of the sun”. Airaavatha has ten tusks and five trunks and is spotless white. Airaavatha is also the third son of Iravati.

The king is regarded the best among men because he fosters, preserves and rules over the subjects.

आयुधानामहंवज्रंधेनूनामस्मिकामधुक्।
प्रजनश्चास्मिकन्दर्पःसर्पाणामस्मिवासुकिः।।10.28।।

Of weapons, I am the thunderbolt; of cows, I am the celestial cow Kamadhenu. I am the sexual desire which is attended by procreation; of servants, I am Vasuki. (X-28)

A vajra is a ritual weapon symbolizing the properties of a diamond (indestructibility) and a thunderbolt (irresistible force). According to the Indian mythology, vajra is considered as one of the most powerful weapons in the universe. It is wielded by Indra.

Kamadhenu is a miraculous “cow of plenty” who provides her owner whatever he desires and is often portrayed as the mother of other cattle. She is honored by the veneration of cows in general throughout the observant Hindu population.

Progeny is possible because of the sexual urge practiced according to proper discipline.

Vāsuki is a serpent king described as having a gem called Nagamani on his head. He is famous for coiling around Lord Shiva’s neck, who blessed and wore him as an ornament. Vāsuki took part in the incident of Samudra manthana by allowing both the devas and the asuras to bind him to Mount Mandara, so that they could use him as their churning rope to extract the Amrita from the ocean of milk.

अनन्तश्चास्मिनागानांवरुणोयादसामहम्।
पितृ़णामर्यमाचास्मियमःसंयमतामहम्।।10.29।।

Of the Nagas (serpents) I am ananta (the serpent-god); of aquatic creatures and water-gods, I am Varuna; among the manes I am Aryama; and among rulers I am Yama, the god of death. (X-29)

Ananta (also Sheshanaga) is the nagaraja or King of all Nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation. Vishnu is often depicted as resting on Shesha. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to constantly sing the glories of the God Vishnu from all his mouths. It is said that when Shesha uncoils, time moves forward and creation takes place; when he coils back, the universe ceases to exist. “Shesha” in Sanskrit texts, especially those relating to mathematical calculation, implies the “remainder”—that which remains when all else ceases to exist.

Varuna is a Vedic deity associated initially with the sky, later also with the seas as well as Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth). In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara (crocodile) and his weapon is a Pasha (noose, rope loop). In Hindu tradition, Váruṇa (Devanagari: वरुण) is described as a derivation from the verbal root vṛ (“to surround, to cover” or “to restrain, bind”) for an interpretation of the name as “he who covers or binds”, in reference to the cosmological ocean or river encircling the world, but also in reference to the “binding” by universal law or Ṛta.

Aryaman (Sanskrit: अर्यमन्‌) is one of the early Vedic Hindu deities. His name signifies “Life-Partner”, “close friend”, “Partner”, “play-fellow” or “companion”. He is the third son of Aditi, and is depicted as the mid-morning sun disk. He is the deity of customs of hospitality, and rules over the customs that rule the various Vedic tribes and peoples.

According to the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, and is called “Lord of the Pitrs”. In Hinduism, Yama is the lokapala (“Guardian of the Directions”) of the south and the son of Surya. In Puranas, Yama is described as having four arms, protruding fangs, and complexion of storm clouds with a wrathful expression; surrounded by a garland of flames; dressed in red, yellow, or blue garments; holding a noose and a mace or sword; and riding a water-buffalo. He wields a noose with which he seizes the lives of people who are about to die.

NOTE: This chapter basically describes “divine glories” which are universal phenomena—both physical and metaphysical. The mythologies are the complex “mathematical equations” of “the science of metaphysics”.

प्रह्लादश्चास्मिदैत्यानांकालःकलयतामहम्।
मृगाणांचमृगेन्द्रोऽहंवैनतेयश्चपक्षिणाम्।।10.30।।

Among the demons I am Prahalada; among reckoners I am Time; among beasts I am the Lion; and among birds, Garuda (the vehicle of Lord Vishnu). (X-30)

The Daityas seem to just another clan of the aryans, same as the Devas. Both clans worshipped the same deities, but were opposed to each other. Daityas were apparently more aggressive. Prahlada was from the clan of Daityas but he was not so aggressive and was favored by the Devas.

Garuda is a legendary bird that is the vehicle mount (vahana) of the Hindu god Vishnu. He is described as the king of birds and a kite-like figure. Garuda is generally a protector with the power to swiftly go anywhere, ever watchful and an enemy of the serpent.

पवनःपवतामस्मिरामःशस्त्रभृतामहम्।
झषाणांमकरश्चास्मिस्रोतसामस्मिजाह्नवी।।10.31।।

Among purifiers, I am the wind; among welders of weapon I am Rāma. Among fishes I am alligator; and among rivers I am the Ganges. (X-31)

These verses of Chapter 10 seem to be highlighting positive qualities as opposed to negative qualities. Thus, they are pointing towards an ideal scene.

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्चमध्यंचैवाहमर्जुन।
अध्यात्मविद्याविद्यानांवादःप्रवदतामहम्।।10.32।।

Arjuna, I am the beginning, the end and also the middle of all creations. Of sciences, I am the science of the self (soul); in debates I am the reason. (X-32)

There is beginning, middle and end of all things, and underlying all phenomena there is reason and essence. It is such reason and rationality that is desirable in all research and discussions.

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मिद्वन्द्वःसामासिकस्यच।
अहमेवाक्षयःकालोधाताऽहंविश्वतोमुखः।।10.33।।

Of letters I am ‘A’; of word-compounds I am the dual (Dvandva). I am verily the endless Time; I am the sustainer of all, having My face on all sides. (X-33)

‘A’ is the first letter of alphabet. It occupies an important place in both vowels and consonants. The consonants cannot be pronounced without this letter. A dvandva (‘pair’ in Sanskrit) is a linguistic compound in which multiple individual nouns are concatenated. For instance, the individual words ‘brother’ and ‘sister’ may in some languages be agglomerated to ‘brothersister’ to express “siblings”. In a ‘dvandva’ each word retains equal importance.

मृत्युःसर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्चभविष्यताम्।
कीर्तिःश्रीर्वाक्चनारीणांस्मृतिर्मेधाधृतिःक्षमा।।10.34।।

I am the all devouring Death. I am the source of future beings. Of females I am Kirti, Sri, Vāk, Smrti, Medha, Dhrti and Ksamā (the goddesses) presiding over the qualities Fame, Prosperity (Fortune), Speech, Memory, Intelligence, Steadfastness and Forgiveness respectively. (X-34)

It is thought that the soul survives the death of the body; but the truth is that, upon death, both body and soul disintegrate into atoms and monads, which get recycled into new bodies and souls. Neither the same soul, nor the same body regenerates after death. The unresolved karma, however, gets manifested again and again until resolved. The goddesses referred to here are personifications of fame, fortune, speech. memory, intelligence, steadfastness and forgiveness. These qualities are positive manifestations of life.

बृहत्सामतथासाम्नांगायत्रीछन्दसामहम्।
मासानांमार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनांकुसुमाकरः।।10.35।।

Of the Sāma hymns I am Brhatsama; of Vedic verses, I am Gayatri. Of the twelve months of the Hindu calendar I am Margasirsa and of seasons I am the flowery spring. (X-35)

The Sāma Veda is rich with beautiful songs played by the various demigods. One of these songs is the Bṛhat-sāma, which has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight. The Gayatri is the most important of all the metres contained in the Vedas. It consists of the trio of God–His form, His prayer and meditation on Him. The crop which supplies food to the people is harvested in the month of Margasirsa. In the spring season the life of plant kingdom gets reanimated with fresh leaves and flowers even without water. These are the glories of nature.

द्यूतंछलयतामस्मितेजस्तेजस्विनामहम्।
जयोऽस्मिव्यवसायोऽस्मिसत्त्वंसत्त्ववतामहम्।।10.36।।

I am gambling of the deceitful practices; I am the glory of the glorious. I am the victory of the victorious, the resolution of the resolute; the goodness of the good. (X-36)

These all are activities of life regardless of the significance attached to them. The life itself is the play of natural laws.

वृष्णीनांवासुदेवोऽस्मिपाण्डवानांधनंजयः।
मुनीनामप्यहंव्यासःकवीनामुशनाकविः।।10.37।।

Among the members of the Vrsni clan, I am Krsa; among the Pandavas, Dhananjaya; among the sages I am Vyasa and among the seers I am the sage Sukra. (X-37)

This is most succinct verse. Natural laws are most clearly expressed through identities such as Krishna, Dhananjaya (Arjuna), Vyasa and Sukra, but the natural laws themselves have no identity. The identities above represent the activities of life, the skills displayed, knowledge and the clarity of vision respectively. The essence of natural laws is expressed through them.

दण्डोदमयतामस्मिनीतिरस्मिजिगीषताम्।
मौनंचैवास्मिगुह्यानांज्ञानंज्ञानवतामहम्।।10.38।।

I am the ruling-power (punishment) in rulers; I am righteousness in those who seek victory. Of secrets I am silence and I am wisdom of the wise. (X-38)

The essence of ruling-power is the discipline it imposes on those ruled. This is the ruling-power we impose on ourselves. The very essence of victory is righteousness. Wherever there is righteousness there is victory. The essence of secrets is silence. Wherever there is silence there is a secret to be discovered. And the essence of the wise is the wisdom.

यच्चापिसर्वभूतानांबीजंतदहमर्जुन।
नतदस्तिविनायत्स्यान्मयाभूतंचराचरम्।।10.39।।

O Arjuna, I am the seed of all beings. There is no creature animate or inanimate that can exist without Me. (X-39)

नान्तोऽस्तिममदिव्यानांविभूतीनांपरंतप।
एषतूद्देशतःप्रोक्तोविभूतेर्विस्तरोमया।।10.40।।

O harasser of foes, there is no end of My divine glories; this is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My glories. (X-40)

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वंश्रीमदूर्जितमेववा।
तत्तदेवावगच्छत्वंममतेजोंऽशसंभवम्।।10.41।।

Every such thing as is glorious, brilliant or powerful, know that to be a manifestation of a spark of My splendor. (X-41)

अथवाबहुनैतेनकिंज्ञातेनतवार्जुन।
विष्टभ्याहमिदंकृत्स्नमेकांशेनस्थितोजगत्।।10.42।।

Or, what need is there, O Arjuna, for the detailed knowledge? I stand supporting the whole universe with a single fragment of Myself. (X-42)

These natural laws underlie everything animate or inanimate. There may even be a source to these natural laws. There is no end to what is manifested. It is all the display of the natural laws. There is no need for detailed knowledge. Just see things as they are. They all are amazing.

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 9

Reference: Course on The Bhagavad Gita

English Translation By Swami Sivananda with my comments in color.

NOTE: The following translation of the Sanskrit verses into English is obtained from Srimad Bhagavad Gita, SADHAKA SANJIVANI by Swami Ramsukhdas, published by Govind Bhawan Karyalaya, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, INDIA. For original comments please consult the above book. Abbreviated comments in color are provided by Vinaire.]

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Chapter 9

श्रीभगवानुवाच
इदंतुतेगुह्यतमंप्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे।
ज्ञानंविज्ञानसहितंयज्ज्ञात्वामोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात्।।9.1।।

The Blessed Lord said:
To you who do not cavil, I shall now unfold the most profound Knowledge (Jñāna), along with Realization (Vijñāna), knowing which you will be released from evil i.e., evil of worldly birth and death. (IX-1)

राजविद्याराजगुह्यंपवित्रमिदमुत्तमम्।
प्रत्यक्षावगमंधर्म्यंसुसुखंकर्तुमव्ययम्।।9.2।।

This knowledge with realization is the sovereign science, the sovereign secret, supremely holy, the most excellent, directly realizable, attended with virtue, very easy to practice and Imperishable. (IX-2)

अश्रद्दधानाःपुरुषाधर्मस्यास्यपरन्तप।
अप्राप्यमांनिवर्तन्तेमृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि।।9.3।।

People devoid of faith in the Dharma, failing to reach Me, O oppressor of the foes, revolve in the path of the mortal world. (IX-3)

Here the worldly birth and death is looked upon as an evil because it means that one’s evolution is not yet complete. The knowledge revealed here will bring about that remaining evolution. This knowledge is the icing on the cake. People who fail to evolve completely lack faith in the laws of nature, and so they keep cycling through the mortal world.

मयाततमिदंसर्वंजगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना।
मत्स्थानिसर्वभूतानिनचाहंतेष्ववस्थितः।।9.4।।
नचमत्स्थानिभूतानिपश्यमेयोगमैश्वरम्।
भूतभृन्नचभूतस्थोममात्माभूतभावनः।।9.5।।

All this universe is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form. All beings abide in Me, but I don’t abide in them. Nor do the beings dwell in Me; look at My divine Yoga (power). Being the creator and sustainer of beings, Myself does not dwell in them. (IX-4, 5)

यथाऽऽकाशस्थितोनित्यंवायुःसर्वत्रगोमहान्।
तथासर्वाणिभूतानिमत्स्थानीत्युपधारय।।9.6।।

As the mighty wind moving everywhere ever rest in ether, likewise know that all beings rest in Me. (IX-6)

“Me” seems to stand for the Laws of Nature. These laws guide the evolution from raw impulse/energy to the electromagnetic configuration of matter and chemicals, which further evolve into self-animation of life, and finally, to self-awareness of humans. Thus, this whole universe is pervaded by the laws of Nature. The self-awareness is the product of these laws of Nature. The laws of Nature are not a product of self-awareness. All beings rest in the Laws of Nature.

सर्वभूतानिकौन्तेयप्रकृतिंयान्तिमामिकाम्।
कल्पक्षयेपुनस्तानिकल्पादौविसृजाम्यहम्।।9.7।।

All beings, O Kaunteya, go into my Prakrti (the Prime cause) at the end of a Kalpa (Brahmā’s day) and I generate them again at the beginning of the next Kalpa. (IX-7)

प्रकृतिंस्वामवष्टभ्यविसृजामिपुनःपुनः।
भूतग्राममिमंकृत्स्नमवशंप्रकृतेर्वशात्।।9.8।।

Laying hold of My Nature, I bring forth, again and again this whole multitude of beings, subject to the influence of their own nature. (IX-8)

नचमांतानिकर्माणिनिबध्नन्तिधनञ्जय।
उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तंतेषुकर्मसु।।9.9।।

O Dhananjya (Arjuna), those actions, however, don’t bind Me, Who remain like one unconcerned, unattached to those actions. (IX-9)

All beings reduce to their basic potential, and then regenerate, as the universe goes through cycles according to its nature. The laws of Nature regenerate totally afresh together with the beings, so the evolution can be unique in each cycle. The beings are obviously subject to the influence of their own nature. The laws of nature, however, are totally independent of the universal cycle.

मयाऽध्यक्षेणप्रकृतिःसूयतेसचराचरम्।
हेतुनाऽनेनकौन्तेयजगद्विपरिवर्तते।।9.10।।

O Son of Kunti, with Me as the supervisor, Nature brings forth the whole creation, both animate and inanimate; the world, therefore, revolves. (IX-10)

अवजानन्तिमांमूढामानुषींतनुमाश्रितम्।
परंभावमजानन्तोममभूतमहेश्वरम्।।9.11।।

Fools disregard Me as one putting on the human body, not knowing My supreme nature as the Great Lord of beings. (IX-11)

मोघाशामोघकर्माणोमोघज्ञानाविचेतसः।
राक्षसीमासुरींचैवप्रकृतिंमोहिनींश्रिताः।।9.12।।

Those fools with vain hopes, vain actions and vain knowledge have embraced a nature which is fiendish, demoniacal and delusive. (IX-12)

Under the supervision of the Ultimate Law of Nature, the whole creation, both animate and inanimate, comes forth at the beginning of the universal cycle. This continues till the end of the universal cycle. Some are aware of this; others are not. Those who are not aware attempt to act vainly in conflict with the Laws of Nature hoping for different outcomes.

NOTE: Postulates that may be able to describe the Laws of Nature are being worked out here: Course on the Universe

महात्मानस्तुमांपार्थदैवींप्रकृतिमाश्रिताः।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसोज्ञात्वाभूतादिमव्ययम्।।9.13।।

But great souls, who possess a divine nature, knowing Me as the prime cause of creation; and imperishable, worship Me constantly with undivided mind. (IX-13)

सततंकीर्तयन्तोमांयतन्तश्चदृढव्रताः।
नमस्यन्तश्चमांभक्त्यानित्ययुक्ताउपासते।।9.14।।

Constantly chanting My names and glories, striving firm in vows, prostrating before Me, they worship Me with devotion, ever stead fast. (IX-14)

ज्ञानयज्ञेनचाप्यन्येयजन्तोमामुपासते।
एकत्वेनपृथक्त्वेनबहुधाविश्वतोमुखम्।।9.15।।

Others worship Me (as the One, Undivided Pure Consciousness) through their offering of Knowledge; while still others worship Me in My Universal Form, taking Me to be diverse in diverse celestial forms. (IX-15)

These verses describe the core of Jnana (knowledge) Yoga, Bhakti (devotional) Yoga, and Karma (Action oriented) Yoga.

अहंक्रतुरहंयज्ञःस्वधाऽहमहमौषधम्।
मंत्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहंहुतम्।।9.16।।
पिताऽहमस्यजगतोमाताधातापितामहः।
वेद्यंपवित्रमोंकारऋक्सामयजुरेवच।।9.17।।
गतिर्भर्ताप्रभुःसाक्षीनिवासःशरणंसुहृत्।
प्रभवःप्रलयःस्थानंनिधानंबीजमव्ययम्।।9.18।।

I am the Vaidika ritual, I am the sacrifice, I am the offering to the departed, I am the medical herb, I am the sacred formula, I am the clarified butter, I am the sacred fire and I am the act of offering oblation into the fire. I am the knowable, the purifier, the sacred syllable Om and the three Vedas—Rk, Sāma and Yajus. I am the father, sustainer, mother, grand-father, goal, supporter, Lord, witness abode, refuge, disinterested friend, origin, end, resting place, store-house and the imperishable seed of this universe. (IX-16, 17, 18)

POSTULATE # 6: The cycle of the universe starts as a universal field of raw impulse and energy called Akasha.
COROLLARY: All forms in the universe evolve from condensation due to innate attractive attributes of Akasha.
In Hinduism, Akasha means the basis and essence of all things in the material world; the first element created. The cycle of the universe starts with Akasha, a continuum of raw impulse and energy. Akasha has inherent attributes of attraction, and, therefore, impulse and energy attract each other. They integrate and condense as a result. From this condensation emerges everything in this universe.

तपाम्यहमहंवर्षंनिगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामिच।
अमृतंचैवमृत्युश्चसदसच्चाहमर्जुन।।9.19।।

Arjuna, I as the sun, radiate heat,  withhold and send forth rain, I am immorality as well as death; I am being and non-being both. (IX-19)

त्रैविद्यामांसोमपाःपूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वास्वर्गतिंप्रार्थयन्ते।
तेपुण्यमासाद्यसुरेन्द्रलोक मश्नन्तिदिव्यान्दिविदेवभोगान्।।9.20।।

Those who perform actions with some interested motive as laid down in the three Vedas and drink the sap of soma plant, and thus purged of sin, worshipping Me as Indra, by sacrifices, pray to seek access to heaven, attaining Indra’s paradise as the result of their good deeds, enjoy the celestial pleasures of the gods. (IX-20)

तेतंभुक्त्वास्वर्गलोकंविशालं क्षीणेपुण्येमर्त्यलोकंविशन्ति।
एवत्रयीधर्ममनुप्रपन्ना गतागतंकामकामालभन्ते।।9.21।।

Having enjoyed the extensive heavenly world, they return to the world of mortals on the exhaustion of their merits. Thus taking recourse to action with interested motive enjoined by the three vedas and seeking worldly enjoyments they repeatedly go and come. (IX-21)

The Laws of Nature have existed even before the life organisms acquired the ability to be aware of life and death. Such awareness is also the outcome of the Laws of Nature. In this world, actions, motivated along the lines of the knowledge from Vedas, and accompanied by sacrifices, do lead to fulfillment. But such fulfillments are narrow in their scope and the cycle of such actions continues.

अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तोमांयेजनाःपर्युपासते।
तेषांनित्याभियुक्तानांयोगक्षेमंवहाम्यहम्।।9.22।।

To those men who worship Me alone, thinking of no one else, who are ever-devout, I provide gain and security. (IX-22)

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्तायजन्तेश्रद्धयाऽन्विताः।
तेऽपिमामेवकौन्तेययजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम्।।9.23।।

Even those devotees who, endowed with faith, worship other gods, worship Me alone, O son of Kunti, though not in accordance with rules. (IX-23)

अहंहिसर्वयज्ञानांभोक्ताचप्रभुरेवच।
नतुमामभिजानन्तितत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्तिते।।9.24।।

I am verily the enjoyer of all sacrifices and I am the Lord. But they don’t know Me in reality; hence they fall. (IX-24)

Those who perceive the Laws of nature in everything are very secure in themselves. Even those who do not perceive the Laws of nature, do so by the Laws of nature. The Laws of nature always prevail. Those who are unaware of these laws suffer.

यान्तिदेवव्रतादेवान्पितृ़न्यान्तिपितृव्रताः।
भूतानियान्तिभूतेज्यायान्तिमद्याजिनोऽपिमाम्।।9.25।।

Those who worship the gods with self-interest, go to the gods after death, those who worship the manes reach the manes, those who adore the evil spirits, reach the evil spirits. But those who worship Me attainMe alone. (IX-25)

पत्रंपुष्पंफलंतोयंयोमेभक्त्याप्रयच्छति।
तदहंभक्त्युपहृतमश्नामिप्रयतात्मनः।।9.26।।

Whoever offers Me with devotion a leaf,  a flower, a fruit or even water, I accept the pious offering offered by him with love. (IX-26)

यत्करोषियदश्नासियज्जुहोषिददासियत्।
यत्तपस्यसिकौन्तेयतत्कुरुष्वमदर्पणम्।।9.27।।

O son of Kunti, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifice, whatever you bestow as gift, whatever you do by way of penance, offer it all to Me. (IX-27)

You go where you direct your attention. If your attention is directed at the Laws of nature, you will attain the understanding of the Laws of nature. Let whatever you do be accompanied by the intention to seek out the Laws of nature.

शुभाशुभफलैरेवंमोक्ष्यसेकर्मबन्धनैः।
संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्माविमुक्तोमामुपैष्यसि।।9.28।।

With your mind firmly set in the Yoga of renunciation I.e., by offering all actions to Me, you will be free from the bondage of action yielding good and bad results; and freed from them, you shall attain Me. (IX-28)

समोऽहंसर्वभूतेषुनमेद्वेष्योऽस्तिनप्रियः।
येभजन्तितुमांभक्त्यामयितेतेषुचाप्यहम्।।9.29।।

I am the same to all beings; to Me there is none hateful, none dear.But those who worship Me with devotion are in Me and I am also in them. (IX-29)

अपिचेत्सुदुराचारोभजतेमामनन्यभाक्।
साधुरेवसमन्तव्यःसम्यग्व्यवसितोहिसः।।9.30।।

Even if the vilest sinner worships Me with exclusive devotion, he should be considered a saint, for he has rightly resolved. (IX-30)

When the focus is on assimilating the mental matrix, one is reducing “karma” and minimizing new “karma”. In this direction lies the total freedom from knowing the Laws of nature. The Laws of nature are the same for everyone. Anyone, who is devoted to seeking out the Laws of nature, can attain total freedom regardless of their background.

क्षिप्रंभवतिधर्मात्माशश्वच्छान्तिंनिगच्छति।
कौन्तेयप्रतिजानीहिनमेभक्तःप्रणश्यति।।9.31।।

Speedily he becomes virtuous and secures lasting peace. O Kaunteya, you vow for certain that My devotee never falls. (IX-31)

मांहिपार्थव्यपाश्रित्ययेऽपिस्युःपापयोनयः।
स्त्रियोवैश्यास्तथाशूद्रास्तेऽपियान्तिपरांगतिम्।।9.32।।

O Partha, women-folk, Vaisyas, Sūdras, and even those that are born of the womb of sin (such as the pariah) taking refuge in Me attain the Supreme God. (IX-32)

किंपुनर्ब्राह्मणाःपुण्याभक्ताराजर्षयस्तथा।
अनित्यमसुखंलोकमिमंप्राप्यभजस्वमाम्।।9.33।।

What wonder then that the holy Brahmanas and devout royal saints should attain Him. Therefore, having obtained this transient and joyless body, do worship Me. (IX-33)

मन्मनाभवमद्भक्तोमद्याजीमांनमस्कुरु।
मामेवैष्यसियुक्त्वैवमात्मानंमत्परायणः।।9.34।।

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, adore Me, bow down to Me, thus making yourself steadfast in Me and entirely depending on Me, you will come to Me. (IX-34)

A person who is seeking out the Laws of nature, cannot help but become part of Nature. This is virtue. This is peace. Caste and sins are no barriers. Privileges are no wonders. This transient and joyless body is not everything. Knowing and living naturally without pretensions is everything.

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