Matter & Void

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The first thing we observe about the concepts of matter and void is that there is assumed to be a sharp discontinuity at the interface between them. Since objectivity follows the law of continuity, we expect matter not to stop abruptly, but to thin out gradually, until there is complete absence of matter (void). We, therefore, need to examine the interface between matter and void more closely.

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Matter

We use a more general term “substance” for matter because, matter is substantial to us to the degree it impacts our senses. Basically, matter is a phenomenon that we sense through our five physical senses. Then we use the mental sense to combine the input from those physical senses to arrive at deeper understanding. This has led us to the discovery of the atomic nature of matter.

From solids to gases, matter has a lessening impact. That means matter thins out as it changes from a solid state to a gaseous state. This has the effect of matter reducing in density. The atomic theory explains it in terms of atoms moving farther apart. Therefore, in order to study the transition from matter to void, we need to take a closer look at atoms.

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Atoms

In ancient times atoms were visualized to be matter particles that were very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. Newton (1642–1727) theorized that such particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force. Therefore, a particle, such as, atom could be represented by a mathematical point called center of mass.

The modern atomic theory was born at the beginning of 19th century, and its first application was in the subject of Chemistry. Dalton (1766–1844) theorized that atoms of the same element are alike, but atoms of different elements are different; atoms of different elements combine in certain definite ratios. The idea of atoms being hard, solid and impenetrable particles, continued to be held.

However, some scientists disagreed. Boscovich (1711–1787) theorized that atoms cannot be hard, rigid, massive spheres because they cannot change their velocity instantaneously upon collision, as it violated the law of continuity. He visualized atoms as point particles enveloped by force.

Faraday (1791–1867) found that when he tried to explain electrical conduction using atoms as solid particles separated by space, it led to contradictions. The Boscovich model explained not only electrical conduction, but also “action at a distance” without using the postulate of aether. He saw atoms as “centers of force” from which “tubes of force” extended connecting one atom to another. Force was very concentrated at these centers, but it spread out and filled all space between the atoms. Faraday’s view of nature of matter is expressed in detail in this letter: “A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter”. We shall further explore this view below.

According to current atomic models, every atom is composed of a hard, point-like nucleus surrounded by clouds of electrons, which are 1800 times lighter. More than 99.94% of an atom’s mass is concentrated in the nucleus that occupies only 0.01% of the atomic volume.

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Electronic Substance

Physics treats electrons as particles. In truth, electrons do not have centers of mass, so they cannot be differentiated from one another as real particles. No boundary separates one electron from another, or from the void. It is just a particle-less, fluid-like continuum that fills the atom. The consideration of electrons as “particles” comes from a mathematical treatment of discrete sub-atomic reactions.

Even physics considers electrons to have a wave-like nature. It talks about “electron clouds” within the atom that fill over 99% of the atomic volume. This writer finds it more appropriate to consider the electron region to be filled with particle-less, fluid-like continuum made up of layers of different consistencies. To be more real, we shall use the term “electronic substance” in place of electrons.

From Faraday’s point of view, the electronic substance is pure force, and the nucleus of the atom is the “center of force”. The apparent solidity of the nucleus comes from the extreme concentration of the electronic substance at the center of the atom. This makes the nucleus appear 1800 times more dense than the region around it. But there is continuity from the nucleus to the surrounding electronic substance. There is no gap.

The above description does not contradict any experimental data. In this model, the “particles” described by the standard model of particle physics are viewed as “energy particles”. These energy particles are energies of sub-atomic reactions. They are not actual particles in space.

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Beyond the Atom

Atoms are centers from which matter spreads out into space around them. It loses its consistency very fast and appears as fluid-like electronic substance. This electronic substance, like Faraday’s force, extends out and connects to other atoms. Physics does not define hard boundary for atoms. Mathematically, the electron is a wave function that may extend out to any distance.

So, the space beyond the atom is not empty. Besides electronic substance, it is filled with cosmic microwave background, light and other forms of radiation. This radiation is a fast moving, extremely thin, fluid-like substance that has wave-like properties; and it is not a wave in some postulated substance called aether. Faraday anticipated this way before other scientists in his ideas expressed in this letter: “Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.”

Physics ascribes electromagnetic properties to this radiation and considers it to be made up of discrete particle-like quanta. The idea of quantum is based on the discovery that the energy of radiation is proportional to its frequency, as opposed to the energy of a wave that is proportional to the square of its amplitude. This confirms that radiation is a substance and that it is not a disturbance in an aethereal medium. A quantum is an “energy particle” similar to the electron and other particles, i.e., it is the energy of discrete interactions observed, as of light with metals in photoelectric phenomenon. In reality, radiation is a continuum in space.

According to Faraday’s proposal, radiation is also “force”. It is part of the same line of force that starts at an atom somewhere and spreads out into space to finally terminate at some other atom somewhere. In other words, the electronic substance ends up as radiation as it loses its consistency further by spreading out in space.

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Conclusion

We arrive at the following conclusions:

  • Matter appears hard, solid and permanent because of the concentration of its substance.
  • Matter thins out at first as electronic substance and then further as radiation.
  • Any discrete appearance of matter as material and energy particles is due to discrete interactions among itself and with our senses.
  • Where this thinning out of matter ends and void begins may only be speculated.

We may, thus, highlight the following:

(1) In reality, matter is a continuum of substance in space.

(2) This substance has variable consistency from matter to void.

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Comments

  • vinaire  On June 23, 2020 at 3:52 PM

    Previous version of this chapter:

    https://vinaire.me/2019/09/14/matter-void-and-space/

  • vinaire  On June 29, 2020 at 9:06 AM

    I have made a major update to the above paper.

  • vinaire  On July 4, 2020 at 3:45 PM

    I have updated this document again.

  • vinaire  On July 4, 2020 at 4:39 PM

    Reese Archer asked, “Would that mean the electron cloud of an atom stretches further than chemists have typically thought?”

    Well, mathematically, for physicists, electron wave function has always stretched to infinity. Chemists are more concerned with “charge” rather than with electron cloud. Looks like we have two different subjects here. Electron cloud is more of a substance. “Charge” may have to do with something more specific, such as, the sudden drop of mass density from nucleus to electronic region. It is a very sharp gradient that doesn’t exist anywhere else in the whole spectrum of substance.

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