*Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics*

The word QUANTA is plural of QUANTUM which comes from Latin quantus how much.

In physics, quantum means a discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents. The quantum theory and quantum mechanics are concerned with the behavior of atomic particles.

But the above definition is from the macroscopic perspective of “particles in void”. From the microscopic perspective of “continuum of substance” we get a different picture. Radiation is not a vibrating aether, because there is no aether. Radiation is a vibrating substance in its own right. These vibrations are part of its makeup. They determine its substantial-ness or substantiality (see chapter 4).

**QUANTUM is the measure of substantiality of radiation just like inertia is a measure of substantiality of matter.**

Therefore, the quantum (substantiality) of radiation is proportional to its frequency.

** Q = hf **……..…

**where**

**is quantum,**

*Q***is Plank’s constant, and**

*h***is frequency.**

*f*Quantum is not discrete energy localized in space. Quantum is a continuous ray of radiation that is substantial. With increased substantiality radiation gains “ability to maintain form”. It does not necessarily acquire a “discrete shape in space”.

**A particle should be understood to mean “that which has ability to
maintain form”, and not “that which has a discrete shape”. **

A quantum is perceived to have properties both as a wave and as a particle. This is explained by a continuous ray of radiation that has acquired substantiality. In three-dimensions it would a force field that is continuous at every point, but contains areas of high substantiality. A “particle” could be a long “ray” of substantiality. The length of this “ray” may decrease with increasing substantiality, until it becomes globular.

Heavenly bodies of very high substantiality are surrounded by space

that has almost no substantiality. These bodies are continuous with the space around them because they are part of the same force field. Because of this continuity, very high gradients of substantiality exist at the interface between matter and space at atomic scales.

**Between matter and space there is continuity of substance.**

At lower frequencies the radiation is very flimsy. But as it increases in frequency it becomes increasingly substantial. This process may be called “quantization”. Wikipedia states,

One also speaks of field quantization, as in the “quantization of the electromagnetic field”, where one refers to photons as field “quanta” (for instance as light quanta). This procedure is basic to theories of particle physics, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, and quantum optics.

But this definition emphasizes discreteness rather than the ability to maintain form. In fact radiation becomes more substantial while maintaining continuity with its surroundings.

**QUANTIZATION is the phenomena of increasing substantiality of radiation with frequency, where substantiality means the ability to maintain form.**

Wikipedia also states,

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property may be “quantized” is referred to as “the hypothesis of quantization”. This means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.

For example, a photon is a single quantum of light (or of any other form of electromagnetic radiation), and can be referred to as a “light quantum”. Similarly, the energy of an electron bound within an atom is also quantized, and thus can only exist in certain discrete values. The fact that electrons can only exist at discrete energy levels in an atom causes atoms to be stable, and hence matter in general is stable.

But the hypothesis of quantization is a mathematical one. It refers to amounts involved in a reaction, or those, which are in equilibrium in a dynamic system, such as, an atom. Mathematical units are obviously discrete but they do not imply “discrete in shape”.

**In the macroscopic perspective of “particles in void” the void is
represented mathematically. This leads to mathematical discreteness to be
confused with spatial discreteness.**

The smallest particle of material-substance is an atom. When the atom is subdivided into smaller “particles” we enter into the realm of quantized radiation. Within the atom we have the interface between the “material” nucleus and the surrounding “electronic” radiation. The substances of nucleus and radiation interact and maintain equilibrium. The study of this interface is the truly the subject of Quantum Mechanics.

**QUANTUM MECHANICS is the
study of the interface between the material nucleus and the surrounding radiation
and its quantization.**

The spectrum of quantum parallels the spectrum of frequency. This spectrum forms the continuum of substance bateen space and matter.

For sake of simplicity, we define quantization levels arbitrarily as the doubling of frequency. A quantization level is then the number of times frequency has doubled. Inertia may then be expressed as a function of the quantization level in the material doman. This may be expressed mathematically as follows.

**Quantization Level (Q) = log f / log 2** ………………. where** f **is the frequency

**Frequency (f) = 2 ^{Q} **…………………………………… where

**Q**is quantization level

**Inertia (I) = function (Q)**

The following table describes the spectrum of quantized radiation and matter.

Space is the lowest level on this spectrum. We use it as our reference point of no quantization. Space extends into infinity but as frequency increases these extents reduce and becomes more compact. Mass begins to form in the gamma range where the frequency is greater than 3 x 10^{19}. Using de Broglie’s hypothesis for mass-frequency equivalence we find that electrons appear at the beginning of the gamma range, and protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom appear at the upper end of the gamma range.

We may calculate the quantization levels of material bodies from their momentum as follows.

De Broglie Equation, λ = h/p,

where h is Planck’s constant, and p is momentum

Frequency,
f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 10^{41} p

**Quantization level, Q = (log f) /
(log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p**

Thus, given the mass and velocity of Earth, we may calculate its quantization level as follows,

M_{E} = 5.972 x 10^{24} kg, V_{E} = 3
x 10^{4} m/s, and p = M_{E} V_{E }=
1.79 x 10^{29}

**Q (earth) = **138.4 + 3.322 log (1.79 x 10^{29}) = **235.6**

NOTE: The physical definitions of QUANTA, QUANTUM, QUANTIZATION and QUANTUM MECHANICS provided here are based on the microsopic “continuum of substance” perspective. They are different from their traditional mathematical definitions based on macroscopic “particles in void” framework.

## The mathematics of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein and Quantum Mechanics is hiding the reality of continuum of substance.

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