Quantization & the Atom



Reference: Disturbance Theory

Quantization was the subject of Einstein’s very first paper in 1905, On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creatidn and Conversion of Light for which he was awarded Nobel Prize. Einstein wrote:

The energy of a ponderable body cannot be split into arbitrarily many, arbitrarily small parts, while the energy of a light ray, emitted by a point source of light is according to Maxwell’s theory (or in general according to any wave theory) of light distributed continuously over an ever increasing volume.”
“In fact, it seems to me that the observations on “black-body radiation”, photoluminescence, the production of cathode rays by ultraviolet light and other phenomena involving the emission or conversion of light can be better understood on the assumption that the energy of light is distributed discontinuously in space.”

Basically, according to Einstein, there appears to be a limit to which an electromagnetic cycle could be divided into smaller bits of energy. Per the relationship, E = hv, an electromagnetic cycle cannot have energy less than h. This limits the “size” of light quanta. Therefore, light or electromagnetic energy is not a continuous function in space as postulated by Maxwell. The size of this light quantum increases with the frequency of light.


Field and Material Substances

This paper of Einstein has another deep significance. Just like there is a limit to which matter could be subdivided in terms of “mass”, there is also a limit to which electromagnetic phenomena could be subdivided in terms of “energy”. In some respect, the “pure energy” of the electromagnetic phenomena is equivalent to the “mass” of matter. In fact, Einstein derived this equivalence of energy and mass, as E= mc2 in his fifth paper, “Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy context” that he published in 1905.

This equivalence of energy and mass puts the electromagnetic phenomena in the same general category as matter. We may define this general category as “substance”. We may refer to the electromagnetic phenomena as “field-substance” and matter as “material-substance”. This categorization also helps us differentiate the “pure energy” aspect of electromagnetic phenomena from the kinetic and potential energy associated with matter.

The smallest particle of material-substance exists as an atom. When the atom is subdivided into smaller particles we enter into the realm of field-substance. The atom forms the interface between material and field substances. The study of this interface is the subject of Quantum Mechanics.


Substance, Emptiness and Space

Newtonian mechanics, as well as the Quantum mechanics, is based on a belief in “particles in void”. According to this viewpoint, space and time exist seperate and independent of substance.

Based purely on extensive experimentation with electricity and magnetism, Faraday favored the alternate belief of “continuum of substance”. According to this viewpoint, space and time are integral characteristics of substance. When there is no substance, there is no space, and no time either. There is only emptiness..

The current interpretation of quantum mechanics is mostly from the viewpoint of “particles in void”. This essay on quantization takes the viewpoint of “continuum of substance”.

The universe thus consists of field-substance, material-substance, and their characteristic space and time. Space is thus part of the universe. This universe is then surrounded by emptiness. This emptiness is not only devoid of all substance but it is also devoid of space and time.


The Wave-particle Duality

Since we define electromagnetic phenomena as field-substance, we may refer to the light-quantum, introduced by Einstein, as a “field-particle”. A particle is characterized by how discrete it is as opposed to being continuous.

According to “continuum of substance”, the background is made up of the same field-substance that makes up the field-particle. The field-particle, therefore, appears like a pulse in the background. This imparts wave characteristics to the field-particle. But the increasing frequency differential between the field-particle and the background then also imparts particle characteristic of “discrete-ness”.

Thus, the wave properties dominate at lower frequencies; whereas, the particle properties dominate at higher frequencies. In any case, the field-particle is imbued with both wave and particle characteristics. This wave-particle duality is supported better from the perspective of “continuum of substance.”


The Meaning of Quantization

At lower frequencies the field-substance is very flimsy. But as it increases in frequency it becomes increasingly substantial. This process may be called “quantization”. Besides increased substantial-ness of the field-substance, quantization also refers to increased discrete-ness of the field-particle.

The spectrum of quantization parallels the electromagnetic spectrum. At the upper end of this spectrum we have material-particles. The lower end of this spectrum gradually approaches pure emptiness that is devoid of field-substance.

Thus, not only the substantial-ness, but also the very existence of the field-substance depends on its frequency. If there is no frequency there is no field-substance, and consequently no space and time. There is only emptiness.

Emptiness is not arrived at right below the frequency of “one”. Since the unit of time on which the frequency is based is arbitrary, this frequency can be given any number with a smaller unit of time and reduced further. An infinite series of reduced cycles thus exists before emptiness can be arrived at.


Particle Physics

The smallest material-particle is the atom. It forms the interface between material and field substances. The moment we break the atom we get particles that are less substantial than the atom. The sub-atomic particles belong to the category of field particles. They exist in the gamma range of the electromagnetic spectrum as obvious from their de Broglie wave-lengths.

The following table is provided at The Disturbance Levels:

Disturbance Levels

The disturbance level expresses the frequency of electromagnetic radiation as a power of 2. It is calculated per the following formula.

Disturbance level,           D = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p

Where f is frequency in hertz
And p is momentum of material particles in S.I. Units.

The gamma range starts at the disturbance level of 64.7 (30 EHz). Electron appears at the beginning of the gamma range at a disturbance level of 66.7. The nucleons appear well into the gamma range at a disturbance level of 77.6.

The minimum disturbance level that applies to material particles is then 138.4. Below this level we are dealing with field-particles. Particle physics is then dealing with field-particles and not with material-particles. The mass associated with electrons and nucleons is not due to matter. It represents quantized field-substance.


Charge, Mass and Gravitation

Charge is a field property, whereas, mass is a material property. Both comply with the inverse square law. When we do a dimensional analysis, we find that both charge and mass have the same dimensions (L3 T -2). Thus, charge and mass belong to the same category, which we may identify as the force characteristic of substance Per Faraday. Mass as a force characteristic may be described as the “inertia” of the material particle. On the other hand, charge as a force characteristic may be described as the “quantization” of the field-particle.

The nuclear force among nucleons is much greater than the electromagnetic force among electrons around the nucleus because the quantization In the nucleus is much greater. At quantization lower than that for electromagnetic force the charge is much smaller and not obvious.

From its periphery to its nucleus, the atom consists of all levels of quantizations. The gravitational force represents the weighted average of all such quantization for the whole atom, as compared to the electromagnetic and nuclear forces that are limited to “local” parts within the atom. Therefore, the gravitational force is weaker in strength than the electromagnetic and nuclear forces, but it can act over a much greater range.


Quantization, Inertia and Velocity

Quantization of field-particles ends up with the formation of the atoms of the periodic table. Atoms are the beginning of the formation of material-particles. As these atoms combine and collect to form larger material-particles, their quantization is represented by “inertia” as defined by Newton.

If the inertia of a material-particle is infinite it would appear to be still because any attempt to move it will be resisted. But if the inertia is not infinite, the material particle shall exhibit a natural velocity that is the result of its motion balanced exactly by its inertia.

Thus, the lesser is the inertia or quantization of a particle, the greater would be its velocity. This explains why the speed of light is greater by many degrees of magnitude compared to a material body. The quantization associated with the photons of light is infinitesimal compared to the inertia of a material body, such as, earth.

Between two particles of different quantization and/or inertia there will naturally be a relative velocity between them. Two such particles shall attract each other as a result of the gravitational attraction between them, but their relative velocity shall keep them apart. They are then likely to form a system where they will revolve around each other.

Such is the behavior of material bodies that we observe in our cosmos. This confirms the model we have built so far based on the concept of quantization/inertia.


The Gravitational Force

As presented above, substance has force characteristics that we perceive as gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces. Faraday looked at force to be synonymous with substance. Please see Faraday: On the Conservation of Force.

Faraday visualized lines of forces extending out from centers of force. The center of force is the electronic region within the atom, when we look at the electromagnetic field. It is the nuclear region within the atom, when we look at the nuclear field. These forces have short ranges as they originate from within the atom.

But when it comes to the gravitational field, the center of force is the whole atom and not some part within it. Thus, the gravitational force applies more to the material-substance; and its range extends without limit.

These force fields interact through their lines of force. These lines of force are curved around their respective center of force. When they interact they try to line up with each other. This results in the centers of forces moving towards or away from each other.

In case of gravitation the lines of forces are around atoms or larger material-particles. Since these particles are clearly discrete, their lines of force always curve away from each other. When they interact, they try to curve toward each other. This generates a force of attraction between the material-particles.

By drawing the gravitational lines of force for two discrete material-particles, it is easy to see why the force of gravitation is always attractive.


Field-particle Spin

Beyond this universe of substance there is emptiness of no-substance. Due to the overall symmetry, the surface of the universe must be closed and curved. Any particle in this universe must follow a curved path to remain within the universe.

The lower is the quantization the lesser is the density of the field-substance, and larger is the radius of the curved path that a field-particle may follow. The higher is the quantization, the denser is the field-substance, and smaller is the radius of the curved path that a field-particle follows. We may liken these paths to those in a “whirlpool”. These paths are decreasing in radius and increasing in quantization as the center is approached. Ultimately, the path completely closes upon itself to produce a spinning particle at the center of the “whirlpool”.

All field-particles must have a spin to be able to exist in stand-alone form. A complex particle, such as, an atom, is likely to consist of increasing levels of quantization from its periphery to the center following the whirlpool model. The “electrons” near the nucleus shall have much higher quantization compared to the “electrons” near the periphery. This tells us that “electrons” within the atom are not the same as they appear in their stand-alone form.

The nucleus in an atom shall have a spin. This spin is likely to be discrete, just as the quantization is discrete. The higher is the average quantization, the greater shall be the spin of the nucleus, or a stand-alone field -particle.


A New Atomic Model

The “whirlpool” likeness seem to provide a new atomic model for the atom. This same likeness seems to apply to a galaxy. We may compare the spinning black hole at the center of the galaxy to the nucleus of the atom. The rest of the rotating galaxy may be compared to the rotating field-substance around the nucleus.

The field-substance thickens gradually from the periphery of the atom toward its center with decreasing radius and increasing rotation.

As the field-substance thickens, it starts to acquire a structure. This structure first appears as the nucleus. This essentially forms the atom. More complex structures come about with combining of atoms as molecules, and then with increasing number of atoms and molecules combining into gases, liquids, solids, crystals, etc.

This structure is the forming characteristic of the material-substance! which starts with atom. Inside the atom lies the field-substance of layered quantization. The peripheries of the atoms, molecules, etc., eventually extend up to the background and merge into it. Thus, the background of the structured material substance is formed of unstructured field-substance.

The field and material substances exist in equilibrium with each other. It is the flows and ebbs among the quantization and inertial levels of these substances that cause all phenomena.


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