*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

.

The basic space is a field cycle of unit frequency that extends into infinity. This extension decreases and becomes more compact as frequency increases. Mass begins to form in the gamma range where the frequency is greater than 3 x 10^{19}. Using de Broglie’s hypothesis for mass-frequency equivalence we find that electrons appear at the beginning of the gamma range, and protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom appear at the upper end of the gamma range.

Frequency has a very large domain, which is a bit cumbersome to work with in units of Hertz. It becomes much better manageable if we use the doubling of frequency as our unit. We call this unit disturbance levels. A disturbance level (DL) is the number of times frequency has doubled.

**Disturbance Level (D) = log f / log 2**

Where **f** denotes frequency.

**If the disturbance level is ‘D’, the frequency (in hertz) = 2 ^{D}**

The disturbance level of the basic space at unit frequency is therefore 0. The disturbance level for light is in the range of 50. When we consider the disturbance level of 100, we are well into the material domain. The material domain most likely starts with the disturbance level of neutron of 77.6. The disturbance level of earth is about 235.6, and that of sun is about 256.6 (see the table above).

**The unit of disturbance level allows us to extend the electromagnetic spectrum into the material domain, and have a better perspective on all physical phenomena.**

.

## Calculation of Disturbance Level

We may calculate the disturbance level of a material particle from its momentum as follows.

De Broglie Equation, λ = h/p,

where h is Planck’s constant, and p is momentum

Frequency, f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 10^{41} p

**Disturbance level, D = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p**

Thus, knowing the mass and velocity of Earth, we may calculate its disturbance level of Earth as follows,

M_{E} = 5.972 x 10^{24} kg, V_{E} = 3 x 10^{4} m/s, and p = M_{E} V_{E }= 1.79 x 10^{29}

**D (earth) = **138.4 + 3.322 log (1.79 x 10^{29}) = **235.6**

The disturbance levels of difference substances have been calculated from the current estimates as shown above.

.