*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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When we switch the frame of reference from MRF (material reference frame) to SRF (space reference frame) [see * Frame of Reference & Einstein*], we find ourselves immediately in possession of new explanations for many fundamental concepts in theoretical physics.

The idea of velocity belongs to MRF. It refers to how fast or how slow an object is moving. The idea of frequency belongs to SRF. It refers to how fast or how slow a cycle is repeating. The common denominator of both velocity and frequency appears to be the perception of time.

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## Time is Absolute

The perception of time comes from the passing of instants. We may perceive the unit of time is an instant, which may be viewed as a “cycle”. No time elapses until an instant, or cycle, has passed.

Please note that a cycle may be subdivided into smaller cycles ad infinitum. It is, therefore, difficult to perceive of a single static cycle because it can always be subdivided. There are always going to be cycles, no matter how infinitesimal, that are accompanied by a frequency greater than zero. The concept of a static cycle or zero frequency shall always remain theoretical. However,

**The concept of zero frequency provides a reference point for absolute time.**

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## Space is Infinite Velocity

The space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum represents a theoretical single cycle of zero frequency. This is like having a permanent instant of time that never passes.

When this cycle of space is superimposed over some “material distance”, it represents the same instant throughout that material distance. Thus, no time shall pass in traversing of this “material distance” even when that distance is infinite. This would be infinite velocity in MRF.

**Space is a static instant that translates as infinite velocity in MRF.**

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## Frequency vs. Velocity

As frequency increases from the single static cycle of space, a sequence of instants start to appear; and we have passage of time.

As frequency increases, the instants (cycles) pass at increasing rates. When a higher frequency is superimposed over the same “material distance” considered for space, more instants must now pass in traversing that distance. This velocity shall be lower than the infinite velocity perceived for space from the perspective of MRF.

**As frequency increases in SRF, the velocity decreases in MRF.**

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## The Velocity of Light

As we go up in the electromagnetic spectrum, the frequency increases and the velocity decreases. The velocity of gamma radiation is expected to be smaller than the velocity of radio waves. There is already some indication of that (see ** High Energy Gamma Rays Go Slower than the Speed of Light?**).

Thus there is a range of velocities over the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the difference in these velocities is so small that it imperceptible compared to the difference between the velocity of light and matter. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is therefore represented by the single velocity of light ‘c’.

The value of ‘c’ is large but not infinite because the frequency of light has a value greater than 0.

**The velocity of light is large but finite because it has a non-zero frequency.**

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## Quantum Entanglement

Based on the explanation above, quantum entanglement may be explained as a phenomenon resulting from a frequency very close to zero.

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## Absolute Rest

In MRF, the velocity of matter is negligible compared to the velocity of light. Thus, matter seems to represent a near infinite frequency relative to the frequency of light.

Per Einstein, the mass-energy equivalence may be represented as “mass-frequency equivalence” as follows,

**E = hf = mc ^{2} ; ………………… hence f = (c^{2}/h) m**

Therefore, in MRF, the frequency is so large that it collapses into mass. This is evident in the atom, where frequency is rapidly increasing toward the center. At the center it collapses and produces the nucleus.

In MRF, the velocity shall continue to decrease as mass and its density increases; and this shall lead closer and closer to a position of absolute rest in space.

**A black hole of infinite mass shall be completely at rest in an absolute sense.**

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## Further Research

The SRF seems to clarify the concept of time. It also provides an absolute sense of velocity compared to the relative velocity in MRF.

It is now time to explore the fundamental concept of inertia advanced by Newton.

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