*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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A frame of reference is defined as the system that forms the basis of measurements of space and other dimensions. Newton’s frame of reference requires that Newton’s first law holds true. In this frame a free particle travels in a straight line at constant speed, or is at rest. Here all laws of physics take on their simplest form. These frames are related by simple Galilean transformations.

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## Material Reference Frame (MRF)

Newton’s frame of reference is based on matter. Space, even when it is empty is measured as if it is the “extension of matter”. Measurements of other dimensions are also based on the idea that matter is the fundamental substance.

This has been the frame of reference used by all scientists from antiquity until the present. Newton formalized it. Einstein made interesting modifications to it. We may call this frame of reference based on matter as the “material reference frame” (MRF).

**The MRF (material reference frame) is based on the properties of matter.**

Einstein retains the MRF in his theory of relativity; but he adds the condition that the speed of light must be constant for frames of references moving at different speeds. In Einstein’s frames of reference space moves at the same speed as the material object [see ** Relativity & Problem of Space (1952)**]. Mathematically, Einstein treats space as “extension of material object”.

**In the MRF of Einstein, space also moves with the object as its extension.**

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## Lorentz Transformations

In special theory of relativity, the “velocity of the observer” is, mathematically, the velocity of the space of the observational frame of reference. This velocity is measured relative to the “stationary” space of the sun. This velocity ‘v’ is then compared to the speed of light ‘c’, which is constant for all moving frames. The ratio ‘v/c’ then determines the transformation of space moving at velocity ‘v’.

The famous Lorentz transformations of the special theory of relativity provide the following relationships.

It is shown mathematically from these relationships that as velocity ‘v’ increases, the space contracts and becomes more durable.

**Space contracts and becomes more durable as its “velocity” increases.**

This is exactly what happens as frequency increases up the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of the spectrum is space made up of single field cycle [see ** The Problem of Space**]. With increasing frequency this cycle multiplies and becomes more compact and durable.

**The “velocity” of space is equivalent to space increasing in frequency as a field as one moves up the electromagnetic spectrum.**

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## Space Reference Frame (SRF)

The electromagnetic spectrum thus provides a “space reference frame” (SRF) that is referenced from space situated at the bottom of this spectrum.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents electromagnetic substance, which is also referred to as electromagnetic energy. Einstein’s discovery of light quanta [see ** Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)**], and his famous equation,

**E = mc**, indicates that electromagnetic energy is equivalent to mass at higher frequencies. It is, then, not far-fetched to assume that as frequency increases, the electromagnetic substance ultimately condenses into mass. This is evident from the presence of nucleus at the center of the atom.

^{2}**In other words, matter lies at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom end of the electromagnetic spectrum lies space.**

The MRF (material reference frame) uses matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point. The theory of relativity, however, points to an SRF (space reference frame) that uses space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point.

**The SRF (space reference frame) is based on the properties of space.**

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## Further Research

The conclusions of the special theory of relativity make more sense in the “space reference frame (SRF) than in the “material reference frame” (MRF). Therefore, the meaning of Einstein’s theory of relativity needs to be explored further in SRF.

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