*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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The electromagnetic cycles are packed so closely in the nucleus of an atom that they may be considered to be “collapsed”. By “collapsed” we mean that that the electromagnetic cycles have become infinitesimal and they cannot be distinguished one from another. Therefore, these cycles form a continuum within the nucleus. This condition is identified as “mass”.

The Newtonian mechanics is applicable within the material domain where it treats space and time as absolute and independent of each other. This is possible because the continuum of mass provides constancy to space and time. Thus, arbitrary material units may be used to measure the distance between two points, and the time interval between two events.

Underlying the material domain is the domain of electromagnetic field. In this domain the frequencies are smaller and the variations in them are depicted as a spectrum (see ** The Spectrum of Substance** ). The cycles of these frequencies may be distinguished from one other and counted. In short, we do not have a continuum in the electromagnetic domain; and no constancy of space and time. The theory of relativity identifies this condition as “length contraction” and “time dilation” from the perspective of the material domain.

#### The quantum phenomenon arises in the electromagnetic domain due to the absence of continuum.

In the electromagnetic domain, length and time are determined by counting the number of cycles between two points. Thus, each electromagnetic cycle is a quantum entity, and length and time do not exist within the cycle.

#### The fundamental quantum entity is the electromagnetic cycle.

Since both length and time are “counted” by the number of cycles, they are not independent of each other. They are related by the universal constant “c” known as the speed of light.

This quantum characteristic of the electromagnetic cycle may also explain the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. At very low frequencies, one electromagnetic cycle may extend to hundreds of miles when it is superimposed on the material domain. Any action within the span of this cycle will appear as simultaneous and instantaneous from the perspective of material domain.

**Quantum entanglement will then be a phenomenon that will occur at very low frequencies. The lower is the frequency the farther will the effects be observed.**

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## Comments

The uncertainty principle arises only when we move away from the continuum of “material domain” into the quantization of the “field domain”. The characteristics of space and time change and become coarser as a result.

Space and time are extremely refined in the material domain. Here differentiation can be made in infinitesimal terms. This is not so for the space and time in the field domain. This difference is because of frequency.

The frequency is very high in the material domain. It is of the order of magnitude that applies to the nucleus of an atom. Here the individual cycles have become infinitesimal and cannot be distinguished from each other. They form a continuum in which we can measure space and time to extreme accuracy.

However, frequency is much lower in the field domain. It is of the order of magnitude that applies to the electronic region of the atom. Here the individual cycles can be distinguished and they have a finite value. Space and time cannot be determined with accuracy because their refinement is limited to the coarseness of the cycles.

The uncertainty principle arises only for the field domain because of the coarseness of cycles. This is the quantum phenomenon.

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