*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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Matter may now be considered as a type of substance. The other type of substance is the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is a more basic substance than matter.

An electromagnetic wave spreading in three dimensions forms an electromagnetic field (EMF). But the actual EMF is much more complex. It consists of electromagnetic waves, spread over the whole electromagnetic spectrum, which interfere and form standing waves of varied patterns. There is enough turbulence in space in the form of EMF to explain dark energy and dark matter. A strong disturbance in EMF appears as a distinct wave, such as, the light that we see.

The electromagnetic field (EMF) consists of back and forth interchanges of electric and magnetic energy that are similar to the back and forth interchanges of kinetic and potential energy of a pendulum. It is a dynamic field and not like the static force field associated with electricity and magnetism. The EMF exists within the atom where it converges toward the center, and ultimately condenses there becoming the nucleus of an atom. It is within the atom that we find a continuous interface between field and matter.

#### The disturbance theory postulates that there is a continuum of substance from emptiness to field to matter.

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## The Disturbance Levels

We seem to have a continuous spectrum of substance. At the bottom of this spectrum we have theoretical EMPTINESS. Emptiness is complete absence of substance. Therefore, there are no characteristics of substance either. In emptiness, there is no field, no matter, no space, no time, and no energy. Emptiness serves as the theoretical reference point for substance.

The substance is, essentially, a DISTURBANCE, which appears as the ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. This field has a structure over a large range of frequencies, which we know as the * Electromagnetic Spectrum ^{[2]}*.

The regions of very high frequency in the field ultimately collapse into mass, which appear as ATOMS. The ATOMS have configurations over a large range of atomic numbers. We arrange these configurations of increasing mass into a Periodic Table.

These atomic configurations combine in myriads of ways to produce molecules of the variety of matter that we are familiar with. Ultimately this matter collapses into denser matter that is found in neutron stars and black holes.

Thus there is a spectrum of substance that can be best described in terms of DISTURBANCE LEVELS that functions as a single parameter to express both frequency and mass of substance. The disturbance levels describe the doubling of disturbance (frequency). A disturbance level is a measure of how many times the disturbance has doubled.

The calculation of disturbance levels is described in the APPENDIX below.

#### The disturbance levels of difference substances may be described from the current estimates as follows.

#### We may approximate the disturbance level of 50 for light, which was used by Einstein as the basis for the theory of relativity .

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## APPENDIX

**If the frequency is ‘f’ then the disturbance level is “log f / log 2”.**

The frequency associated with a mass object is calculated as follows:

De Broglie Equation, λ = h/p,

where h is Plank’s constant, and p is momentum

Frequency, f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 10^{41} p

Disturbance level, DL = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p

**For earth,**

M_{E} = 5.972 x 10^{24} kg, and V_{E} = 3 x 10^{4} m/s

Hence, p = M_{E} V_{E }= 1.79 x 10^{29}

Therefore, DL (earth) = 235.6

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