*Reference: Fundamentals of Physics*

In classical mechanics, substance is recognized by its mass. But since Einstein’s 1905 paper on “light quanta,” substance has taken a wider significance. Light has force and momentum, therefore, it is substantial. *Substance *is anything that is substantial enough to be sensed.

Since term “mass” is recognized only in the context of matter, we need a broader term equivalent to it in the context of substance. Such a term is “consistency.” For example, light does not have mass, but it has consistency.

MASS represents “atomic substance” only. CONSISTENCY represents both atomic and non-atomic substance. When consistency is very high, as in the nucleus of an atom, it is recognized as mass.

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## Consistency

The consistency of substance is defined as follows:

*Consistency* is the degree of substantiality of substance. It is recognized as density, firmness, or viscosity of the substance. For example, *“Honey has higher consistency than water.”* For radiant energy, consistency is measured per quanta, where quanta is determined by frequency. For matter, consistency is measured by the mass of its elementary particle, such as, proton or neutron, where the elementary particle is determined by its smallest discrete inertia. The quanta and the mass of elementary particle may be measured by the same unit. Thus, substance can have a gradient of consistencies.

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## Measure of Consistency

The consistency may be measured in terms of doubling of frequency as follows:

**Consistency (C) = log f / log 2**

We may calculate the consistency of electromagnetic substance from its frequency. This may be listed as follows:

We may assume the consistency of matter to be very close to 77.6.

The planets and stars may also have consistencies close to 77.6. But we may calculate their “relative consistency” based on their momentum as follows

De Broglie Equation, λ = h/p,

where h is Planck’s constant, and p is momentum of the object, which is made up of many particles.

Frequency: f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 10^{41} p

**Total Consistency: C_{tot} = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p**

Thus, knowing the mass and velocity of Earth, we may calculate its total consistency as follows,

M_{E} = 5.972 x 10^{24} kg, V_{E} = 3 x 10^{4} m/s, and p = M_{E} V_{E }= 1.79 x 10^{29}

** C_{tot} (Earth) = **138.4 + 3.322 log (1.79 x 10

^{29}) =

**235.6**

Similarly, we may calculate, **C _{tot}** (Sun) = 256.6

In terms of relative consistencies, we may say,

**C _{rel} (Earth) = 1**

**C _{rel} (Sun) = 1.089**

This means that the Sun is a bit more fixed in space than the Earth.

The Black holes may have much higher consistencies. Their absolute consistency (consistency per particle) may be higher than the consistency of the neutron. As a result they are much more fixed in space. We may, therefore, expect to find the Black holes at the center of the galaxies.

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