*Reference:** **Disturbance Theory*

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## Wave function – Wikipedia

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of a system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters ψ or Ψ (lower-case and capital psi, respectively).

*A wave function describes the configuration of high frequency, compacted regions of the electromagnetic field. The probability amplitude measures the density of disturbance in that region. The disturbance is the back and forth oscillation of electric and magnetic energies.*

The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state.

*This is basically a Hamiltonian look at the interplay of forces and energies.*

For a given system, the choice of which commuting degrees of freedom to use is not unique, and correspondingly the domain of the wave function is also not unique. For instance it may be taken to be a function of all the position coordinates of the particles over position space, or the momenta of all the particles over momentum space; the two are related by a Fourier transform. Some particles, like electrons and photons, have nonzero spin, and the wave function for such particles includes spin as an intrinsic, discrete degree of freedom; other discrete variables can also be included, such as isospin. When a system has internal degrees of freedom, the wave function at each point in the continuous degrees of freedom (e.g., a point in space) assigns a complex number for each possible value of the discrete degrees of freedom (e.g., z-component of spin) — these values are often displayed in a column matrix (e.g., a 2 × 1 column vector for a non-relativistic electron with spin 1⁄2).

*The high disturbance densities of the field appear as “particles”. They are not discrete “particles” as they are continuous with the surrounding field. There is a gradient of frequencies between the dense region and surrounding field. Spin is the eddy-like rotation of disturbance at high frequency. Only certain values of spin are stable.*

According to the superposition principle of quantum mechanics, wave functions can be added together and multiplied by complex numbers to form new wave functions and form a Hilbert space. The inner product between two wave functions is a measure of the overlap between the corresponding physical states, and is used in the foundational probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, the Born rule, relating transition probabilities to inner products. The Schrödinger equation determines how wave functions evolve over time, and a wave function behaves qualitatively like other waves, such as water waves or waves on a string, because the Schrödinger equation is mathematically a type of wave equation. This explains the name “wave function,” and gives rise to wave–particle duality. However, the wave function in quantum mechanics describes a kind of physical phenomenon, still open to different interpretations, which fundamentally differs from that of classic mechanical waves.

*The quantum “particles” are high frequency, compact disturbances that have curved upon themselves like eddies. Only certain configurations of such disturbances are stable.*

In Born’s statistical interpretation in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the squared modulus of the wave function, |ψ|^{2}, is a real number interpreted as the probability density of measuring a particle’s being detected at a given place – or having a given momentum – at a given time, and possibly having definite values for discrete degrees of freedom. The integral of this quantity, over all the system’s degrees of freedom, must be 1 in accordance with the probability interpretation. This general requirement that a wave function must satisfy is called the normalization condition. Since the wave function is complex valued, only its relative phase and relative magnitude can be measured—its value does not, in isolation, tell anything about the magnitudes or directions of measurable observables; one has to apply quantum operators, whose eigenvalues correspond to sets of possible results of measurements, to the wave function ψ and calculate the statistical distributions for measurable quantities.

*There is no particle to be detected at any position. There are no probability densities. There are only disturbance densities and frequency gradients. They take care of relativistic considerations. Absolute values of these frequency gradients and disturbance densities in terms of inertia are measurable against the background of emptiness of zero inertia. This gives us a different interpretation of the quantum phenomena than the current one. *

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