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Reference: Disturbance Theory


Matter – Wikipedia

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. This includes atoms and anything made up of these, but not other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound. More generally, however, in (modern) physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because a universal definition of it is elusive; for example, the elementary constituents of atoms may be point particles, each having no volume individually.

Matter represents substance. Substance is something that can be felt and experienced. It is the essential aspect of any interaction. Without substance there can be no interaction, feeling and experience. Matter is one aspect of substance. The other aspect is field. An interface occurs between field and matter within an atom. In the atom we observe the field increasing in frequency toward the center, where it ends up as matter with mass.

Space is a manifestation of the extension property of field and matter. Without field and matter there is no space. The gaps between material objects are filled with gaseous matter and field. A vacuum is not entirely empty even when there are no atoms and molecules of gaseous material in it. There is still field in that vacuum for space to appear.

The idea that the fundamental constituents of atoms may be point particles is a mathematical conjecture. In reality, matter in atom reduces to field. The “volume” of matter reduces to cycles of field.

All the everyday objects that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are ultimately composed of atoms. This ordinary atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons. Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles, such as photons, are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume. However, not all particles with rest mass have a classical volume, since fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (sometimes equated with matter) are considered “point particles” with no effective size or volume. Nevertheless, quarks and leptons together make up “ordinary matter”, and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite particles that make up ordinary matter.

Matter has shaped science’s viewpoint of reality. Even when field is discovered as a more basic substance, Science still uses matter as its reference point. This has led to considerable confusion in theoretical physics, which is now taken over by increasingly compartmentalized mathematical theories of Newton, Einstein and Quantum Mechanics.

Atom is not made up of point particles, but of field that is increasing in frequency toward the center of the atom. The “point particles” are high frequency regions of the field. The cycles of very high frequencies get compacted and appear as mass. Thus we have protons and neutron as regions of very high frequency and compactness at the core of the atom. The electrons are regions of relatively lower frequency and compactness that surround the nucleus of the atom.

Rest Mass is best understood as the inertia of a “particle”. Volume is best understood in terms of the cycles that make up the “particle”. Photons may be massless, but they are not inertia-less. They may not be matter but they are made up of cycles, which is the substance of field. Science, with its fixation on matter tries to evaluate field properties in terms of classical material properties of mass and volume. It refuses to go for a deeper understanding in terms of inertia and cycles. “Particles” such as quarks and leptons are mathematical conjectures that have not been encountered in reality.

Matter exists in states (or phases): the classical solid, liquid, and gas; as well as the more exotic plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

These states of matter are essentially hybrids of field and matter.

For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter. The idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus (~470–380 BC).

Matter has been contemplated upon since the beginning of human consciousness.


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