The basic parts of ARITHMETIC are as follows.

**The word ARITHMETIC comes from [Greek, ARITHMOS number + TECHNE skill] **

Arithmetic helps find the answers to problems that involve numbers. Knowing the fundamentals of Arithmetic, problems with large numbers can easily be solved mentally.

For example: Find the sum of 297 and 562.

- Imagine two stacks of 297 and 562 pennies.
- Transfer 3 pennies from the 562-penny stack to 297-penny stack.
- You now have two stacks of 300 and 559 pennies.
- This can be added quickly as 859 pennies.

**ARITHMETIC, literally, means “skill with numbers.”**

**.**

**The first thing one learns in arithmetic is COUNTING. Counting helps one determine the number of things.**

- A
**UNIT**is what we count one at a time. - A
**NUMBER**is how many we have counted - Counting starts with
**ONE.** - Then we count one more each time as
**TWO, THREE, FOUR**, etc. **ZERO**is absence of count.- The abacus introduces grouping by
**PLACE VALUES.** - The abacus teaches counting numbers to
**BILLIONS**and more. - Numbers are made up of
**DIGITS**, just like words are made up of letters. - The digits in a number have place values of
**ONES, TENS, HUNDREDS,**etc. - The place values may be expanded to provide
**DECIMAL NUMBERS**.

.

**ADDITION is “counting together.”**

- Raise 3 fingers on hand and 2 fingers on the other. You count them together as 5 fingers. This is
**ADDITION**. - To add mentally one needs the knowledge of numbers and place values.
- The opposite of addition is
**SUBTRACTION**. If you get money, you add it to what you already have; when you give money away, then you subtract it from what you have. The two actions are opposite to each other. - A
**Number Line**helps display numbers relative to each other. It helps with mental addition and subtraction. - Skill in mental addition makes it easy to acquire skill in mental subtraction.
- With subtraction we get
**NEGATIVE****NUMBERS**. - With negative numbers we get a wider concept of numbers as
**INTEGERS**. - The integers appear on a number line on both sides of zero.

.

**Multiplication is “repeated addition.”**

- If you sell 5 books for $6 each, you receive $30. This is
**MULTIPLICATION**. - Skill with mental multiplication depends on the earlier skill with mental addition.
- The opposite of multiplication is
**DIVISION**. If you collect $6 each from 5 people, you get $30. If you distribute $30 equally among 5 people, then each person gets $6. The two actions are exactly opposite of each other. - Skill in mental multiplication makes it easy to acquire skill in mental division.
- Multiplication and Division are greatly assisted by the concept of
**FACTORS**. - With division we get
**FRACTIONS**.

.

**Multiplication has the priority when mixed with Addition.**

Multiplication and division are higher order operations compared to addition and subtraction.

.