Subject Glossary

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

As you clear a subject, it is helpful to create your own glossary for that subject. You may have that Glossary arranged like a Key Word List or sequenced alphabetically. By putting that glossary on an Excel Worksheet, you can easily switch back and forth between these two arrangements. This will be your own glossary in which the key words are explained the way you understand them. This glossary is dynamic in the sense that you will be updating it continually as your understanding of the subject increases.

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Making the Glossary

The material for the glossary may be prepared during the general study as follows.

(1) Obtain the materials as an editable document on computer.
When you have the study material in an editable format on the computer, you can divide them into manageable paragraphs in each chapter.

(2) Check the paragraph for key words/ideas.
After studying and understanding a paragraph check it to see if contains a key word for that subject and defines it in some way.

(3) Note the key word/idea.
You may note that key word and idea in a different color right after that paragraph, along with any other comment you wish to record.

(4) Summarize all your notes and comments at the end of the chapter.
This keeps your data compact and to the point.

(5) Make a final summary at the end of the study of those materials.
Make this final summary in the form of a glossary on an Excel Worksheet.

(6) Build up the glossary on that subject.
As you study more materials on that subject, follow the procedure above to keep building up the glossary.

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Filling Holes

Set up a view of the glossary that arranges it from the earliest to the latest concepts in the subject. Review these concepts to see if they lead you logically from one to the next. The most important area is the fundamental concepts, where some starting postulates have to be made.

See if there are any gaping holes in the sequence of concepts.  Such a conceptual hole can hide behind an assumption. It can also be an “everybody knows” type consideration. If you find a hole, look for any research done in that area. If not, then there is an opportunity for you to make a discovery.

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Summary

A unique personal glossary is a valuable asset for life. It will grow as you grow. It will come handy in many different ways. It can even become a window into yourself.

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General Study

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

When you are studying a subject from a textbook or any other material, it is very important that you do not go by any word or symbol that you do not understand the meaning of. The moment there is confusion look back for a misunderstood word. A word behaves as a misunderstood when the right definition is not being used for it. You may think that you know the word, but you may not have the right definition. This is specially true for small words like ‘of,’ ‘in’ and ‘on’ because they are used in many different ways.

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Common Words

Here is the recommended procedure for handling common words that are misunderstood.

1. Read one paragraph at a time.
If the paragraph is too long, you may break it down into sub-paragraphs of reasonable size.  If the paragraph is too small, and the thought continues to the next paragraph then read the two paragraphs together. 

2. Take a pause to see if the paragraph is fully understood.
Summarize the paragraph to its main thought. If you can do it easily then you have understood it fully. If you can’t, then find the sentence in that paragraph that is a bit troublesome. Then locate the word in that sentence that doesn’t seem to fit quite right.

3. Look up misunderstood word or symbol if there are any.
A misunderstood word does not always stand out. It may be a familiar word for which you may be using the wrong definition. So, you check the word out.

4. Determine the broad concept of the word from its etymology.
You may google the etymology or look it up in a simple dictionary.

5. Check its definition in the present context.
A common word has many different definitions. Apply each of them in the present context to see which one fits the best. To do so, visualize each definition. You may use “google image” to visualize something concrete like “oak”. Or, you may make some real-life examples from your experience to visualize something abstract like “love”.

6. Familiarize yourself with that particular usage of the word.
Make some sentences of your own using the word in the same sense as used in the given context to become comfortable with that meaning.

Hopefully the above will resolve the difficulty with the sentence and the paragraph. If there are more such words, handle them in the same manner.

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Word Chains

Sometimes the definition of a word may contain words that are not fully understood. So you look up that word. The same thing may happen again and you may get in a long word chain. This usually happens when you are using a dictionary that is using big words. So a simpler dictionary may be the solution. But a dictionary that is too simple, may get you into circular definitions without clearly explaining the word.

Some word chains are simply not avoidable. When that happens, note down the words on a separate paper as you look them up. The word chain may branch out in many directions. You simply continue noting down the words. At some point, the words will start clearing up. When that happens you cross the word out of the word chain and work your way back. It is okay to look up the same word as many times as necessary. Each time you look up a word you may pick up a new dimension of its meaning.

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Clarity of Understanding

You will be amazed at the clarity a proper understanding can bring. After using word clearing for some time, your general vocabulary will increase by leaps and bounds and you will start making much faster progress in your studies.

It is the tendency of the mind to fill the missing definitions by preconceived notions. This leads to contradictions and conflicts in the mind. Therefore, it is very important to examine the definitions of the words in the context at hand. Correct definitions bring continuity, harmony and consistency to the understanding of the materials.

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Key Word Clearing

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

In today’s world the understanding of a subject depends on the words and symbols used to express its basic ideas. When there is confusion in a subject, the first thing to do is to create a list of its key concepts from the earliest to latest in the form of words. You not only clear up those word but also relate them to each other until you have a clear picture of the subject. You will need a good dictionary, a thesaurus, and a basic textbook for this purpose.

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Key Word List

Every subject has its own vocabulary. Knowing the purpose of the subject, one may easily arrange its key concepts from the earliest to the latest in the form of words. We know that if it takes ‘concept 1’ to understand ‘concept 2’ then ‘concept 1’ must precede ‘concept 2’ on the list. For example, the purpose of Mathematics is to learn about quantities in a systematic manner. Knowing that, we may arrange its key words as follows: Counting, Number, Digit, Place Values, Unit, Tens, Hundreds, Groups (in reading and writing numbers) , Addition, Addend, Carry over, Sum, and so on. 

As you become more aware of the key words, you may sometimes find that a different sequence provides a more consistent picture. It may even reveal some holes in the sequence. Therefore, there is need for dynamic sequencing of the Key Word list. An Excel worksheet may fulfill this requirement nicely. 

Keep building up the Key Word List, and clearing the words, as you study the subject.

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Clearing the Words

As the Key Word List comes into existence, we start clearing these words. It is important to clear the most fundamental concepts first. The steps to clear up a word are as follows.

  1. Determine the broad concept of the word from its etymology.
  2. Determine the most appropriate definition of the word from dictionary.
  3. Visualize that definition by means of “google image” and/or real-life examples.
  4. Contemplate on the word in relation to nearby key words.
  5. Meditate on the concept underlying the word in the context of your experience.

These steps lead you to deepening awareness of the ideas associated with a subject.

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THE BHAGAVAD GITA: Chapter 5

Reference: The Bhagavad Gita

अर्जुनउवाच
संन्यासंकर्मणांकृष्णपुनर्योगंचशंससि।यच्छ्रेयएतयोरेकंतन्मेब्रूहिसुनिश्िचतम्।।5.1।।

Arjuna said:
Thou praisest, O Krishna, the renunciation of actions (Sāńkhyayoga) and again their unselfish performance (Karmayoga). Tell me for certain which one of the two is decidedly conducive to my good. (V-1)

श्रीभगवानुवाच
संन्यासःकर्मयोगश्चनिःश्रेयसकरावुभौ।तयोस्तुकर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगोविशिष्यते।।5.2।।

The blessed Lord said:
’Samnyāsa’ (Discipline of Knowledge) and ‘Karmayoga’ (Discipline of Action) both lead to salvation. But of the two ‘Karmayoga’ is better than ’Sānkhyayoga’. (V-2)

ज्ञेयःनित्यसंन्यासीयोद्वेष्टिकाङ्क्षति।निर्द्वन्द्वोहिमहाबाहोसुखंबन्धात्प्रमुच्यते।।5.3।।

He who neither hates nor desires should be known as a Samnyāsī (renouncer); for, free from dualities (pairs of opposites) he is released easily from bondage, O mighty armed (Arjuna). (V-3)

सांख्ययोगौपृथग्बालाःप्रवदन्तिपण्डिताः।एकमप्यास्थितःसम्यगुभयोर्विन्दतेफलम्।।5.4।।

The ignorant, not the wise, speak of the Discipline of Knowledge (Sānkhyayoga), and Discipline of Action (Karmayoga) as different. He who is well established in one, gets the fruit of both. (V-4)

यत्सांख्यैःप्राप्यतेस्थानंतद्योगैरपिगम्यते।एकंसांख्यंयोगंयःपश्यतिपश्यति।।5.5।।

The supreme state which is attained by the Sānkhyayogī is reached by the Karmayogī also. He who sees the ways (as result) of Sānkhyayoga and Karmayoga are one, he sees (truly). (V-5)

संन्यासस्तुमहाबाहोदुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः।योगयुक्तोमुनिर्ब्रह्मनचिरेणाधिगच्छति।।5.6।।

But the Discipline of Knowledge, O mighty armed (Arjuna), is difficult to attain without the Discipline of Action; the sage who is earnest in Karmayoga (the Discipline of Action) quickly attains to the Absolute. (V-6)

Knowledge is gained from experience. Experience is gained from action.

योगयुक्तोविशुद्धात्माविजितात्माजितेन्द्रियः।सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्माकुर्वन्नपिलिप्यते।।5.7।।

The Karmayogī, whose mind is quite pure who has controlled his body who has subdued his senses and whose self is the self of all beings, is not tainted by the actions though he acts. (V-7)

“Whose self is the self of all beings” is the sense underlying the universal viewpoint.

नैवकिंचित्करोमीतियुक्तोमन्येततत्त्ववित्।पश्यन्श्रृणवन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नन्गच्छन्स्वपन्श्वसन्।।5.8।।प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि।इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषुवर्तन्तइतिधारयन्।।5.9।।

The man who is united with the Divine and knows the truth believes, even though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, walking, sleeping, breathing, speaking, emitting, grasping, opening and closing the eyes, that he does nothing; he holds that the senses move among the sense-objects. (V-8, 9)

The sense and sense-objects are actually one. Thought doesn’t exist by itself.

ब्रह्मण्याधायकर्माणिसङ्गंत्यक्त्वाकरोतियः।लिप्यतेपापेनपद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा।।5.10।।

He who performs actions, offering them to God and abandoning attachment, is not tainted by sin, just as a lotus-leaf is not tainted by water. (V-10)

कायेनमनसाबुद्ध्याकेवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि।योगिनःकर्मकुर्वन्तिसङ्गंत्यक्त्वाऽऽत्मशुद्धये।।5.11।।

The Yogīs (men of action), having abandoned attachment, perform actions merely with the body, mind, intellect or merely with the senses, for the purification of the self (heart). (V-11)

युक्तःकर्मफलंत्यक्त्वाशान्तिमाप्नोतिनैष्ठिकीम्।अयुक्तःकामकारेणफलेसक्तोनिबध्यते।।5.12।।

The earnest (devoted) soul attains to everlasting peace (God-realization), by abandoning attachment to the fruit of action; whereas he who works with a selfish motive, being attached to the fruit of action through desire, is bound. (V-12)

सर्वकर्माणिमनसासंन्यस्यास्तेसुखंवशी।नवद्वारेपुरेदेहीनैवकुर्वन्नकारयन्।।5.13।।

The embodied (soul) who has controlled his senses, having renounced the doership of all actions mentally by discrimination in the city of nine gates, neither acting nor causing others to act, rests happily in the self. (V-13)

कर्तृत्वंकर्माणिलोकस्यसृजतिप्रभुः।कर्मफलसंयोगंस्वभावस्तुप्रवर्तते।।5.14।।

Neither agency nor actions does the Lord create for the world, nor does He connect actions with their fruits. But it is personal nature alone that acts. (V-14)

नादत्तेकस्यचित्पापंचैवसुकृतंविभुः।अज्ञानेनावृतंज्ञानंतेनमुह्यन्तिजन्तवः।।5.15।।

The All-pervading Lord takes neither the sin nor the virtue of any; knowledge is enveloped by ignorance; therefore, beings are deluded. (V-15)

ज्ञानेनतुतदज्ञानंयेषांनाशितमात्मनः।तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानंप्रकाशयतितत्परम्।।5.16।।

But to those whose ignorance is destroyed by knowledge (discrimination) that knowledge lights up the supreme self like the sun. (V-16)

तद्बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः।गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिंज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः।।5.17।।

Those whose mind and intellect are wholly merged in God, who remain constantly established in identity with Him, and have finally become one with Him, their sins being wiped out by wisdom, reach the state from which there is no return. (V-17)

विद्याविनयसंपन्नेब्राह्मणेगविहस्तिनि।शुनिचैवश्वपाकेपण्डिताःसमदर्शिनः।।5.18।।

Sages see with an equal eye a learned and humble Brāhmana, a cow, an elephant or even a dog or pariah (outcaste) and have a vision of God in all of them. (V-18)

इहैवतैर्जितःसर्गोयेषांसाम्येस्थितंमनः।निर्दोषंहिसमंब्रह्मतस्माद्ब्रह्मणितेस्थिताः।।5.19।।

Even here the world is overcome by those whose minds are established in equality because God is flawless and equal. Therefore, they are established in God (Brahma). (V-19)

प्रहृष्येत्प्रियंप्राप्यनोद्विजेत्प्राप्यचाप्रियम्।स्थिरबुद्धिरसम्मूढोब्रह्मविद्ब्रह्मणिस्थितः।।5.20।।

He who neither rejoices in obtaining what is pleasant nor grieves on obtaining what is unpleasant and who is firm of understanding and unbewildered (undeluded), such a knower of God is established in God. (V-20)

बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्माविन्दत्यात्मनियत्सुखम्।ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मासुखमक्षयमश्नुते।।5.21।।

When the soul (self) is no longer attached to external contacts (objects) he finds happiness in the self. Having completely identified himself through meditation with Brahma (God) he enjoys eternal bliss. (V-21)

येहिसंस्पर्शजाभोगादुःखयोनयएवते।आद्यन्तवन्तःकौन्तेयतेषुरमतेबुधः।।5.22।।

The pleasures that are born of contacts (with objects) are only sources of pain, they have a beginning and an end, O son of Kuntī (Arjuna), no wise man delights in them. (V-22)

शक्नोतीहैवयःसोढुंप्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात्।कामक्रोधोद्भवंवेगंयुक्तःसुखीनरः।।5.23।।

He, who is able to resist the impulse (rush) born out of desire and anger, even here before he gives up his body, is a Yogī and he is a happy man. (V-23)

A higher state of understanding exists when there is no resistance even because there is no impure (born out of desire) impulse.

योऽन्तःसुखोऽन्तरारामस्तथान्तर्ज्योतिरेवयः।योगीब्रह्मनिर्वाणंब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति।।5.24।।

He who is happy within himself (God), who rejoices within himself, and who is illumined within himself, that Yogī (Sānkhyayogī) identified with Brahma attains to the beatitude of God (Brahma-nirvāna). (V-24)

लभन्तेब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृषयःक्षीणकल्मषाः।छिन्नद्वैधायतात्मानःसर्वभूतहितेरताः।।5.25।।

The holy men whose sins are destroyed, whose doubts (dualities) are cut asunder, whose minds are disciplined and who rejoice in doing good to all beings attain to the beatitude of God. (V-25)

कामक्रोधवियुक्तानांयतीनांयतचेतसाम्।अभितोब्रह्मनिर्वाणंवर्ततेविदितात्मनाम्।।5.26।।

To those austere souls (the wise) who are delivered from desire and anger, who have subdued their minds and who have realized the self, the beatitude of God (Brahmic bliss) exists on all sides. (V-26)

स्पर्शान्कृत्वाबहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरेभ्रुवोः।प्राणापानौसमौकृत्वानासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ।।5.27।।यतेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिर्मुनिर्मोक्षपरायणः।विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधोयःसदामुक्तएवसः।।5.28।।

Shutting out all external objects, fixing the vision between the eye-brows, making the inward and the outward breaths moving within the nostrils, the sage, who has controlled the senses, mind and intellect, who is intent on liberation, who has cast away desire, fear and anger, is ever liberated. (V-27, 28)

भोक्तारंयज्ञतपसांसर्वलोकमहेश्वरम्।सुहृदंसर्वभूतानांज्ञात्वामांशान्तिमृच्छति।।5.29।।

He having known Me, as the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities, the Great Lord of all the worlds and the disinterested friend of all beings, attains peace. (V-29)

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Studying a Subject

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

A subject is studied best on a gradient. In other words, you start studying a subject using simple materials that introduce you to the basic ideas in that subject; and then you gradually study more complex details. Trouble arises when you miss understanding the basic ideas in a subject, because they are fundamental to the understanding of all its details.

In subject clearing, when you have made a list of all the subjects that you had trouble with, it gives you an overview of your “mental tumor”. To start resolving that tumor, you start as close to the core of the tumor as possible. So you pick up the earliest subject  that you recall having trouble with. And then you focus on the fundamental ideas in that subject.

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The Earliest Subjects

Anything that influences a person becomes a part of his learning in some way. There is some evidence that a child’s learning starts from the perceptions reaching it in the womb. We are interested in clearing the perceptions that did not get assimilated. Such perceptions may be beyond the awareness of the person for now, but they will, ultimately, get assimilated during the process of subject clearing. 

We, therefore, start with the subject in which the person can recall having his earliest confusions.  These subjects may be identified as,

  1. The subject of expressing oneself (language), and
  2. The subject of thinking coherently (mathematics).

This boils down to learning different sounds and the meaning of different symbols.

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An Example of Clearing

As a math tutor, I get a kick out of asking my students, “What is the difference between a digit and a number?” Sometimes I ask this question to the parents too, in order to demonstrate how I am tutoring their child. There is hardly a more basic question in mathematics. It quickly reveals the depth of understanding a person has of fundamental concepts.

Most people fumble around for a precise answer. They have some inkling of the difference between a digit and a number but they can’t seem to put it exactly in words. Then I ask them, “Okay, can you tell me the difference between a letter and a word?” The response I get here has more certainty. Most people know that there are only 26 letters in English that are used to make the thousands of words that you find in a dictionary.

Then I point out that digits are like “letters” and numbers are like “words”. There are only ten digits in math that are used to write infinity of numbers. All of sudden I see bright smiles and shining faces. Some intractable confusion apparently got cleared, and got replaced by a certainty.

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Study

It is simple clearing of confusion as above, and new realizations about things, that keep a person motivated about learning. His curiosity is kept alive and he wants to study all kinds of things.

The word ‘study’ comes from Latin studium ‘zeal, painstaking application’. When a person is curious and motivated, he or she studies naturally in the real sense of the word.

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