## “Charge” in Quantum Mechanics

Reference: Fundamentals of Physics

Electric charge is created when amber rod is rubbed with fur. By convention, the charge on amber rod is considered positive and that on the fur is considered negative.Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms. Atoms are neutral because the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus equals the number of protons in the nucleus.Charge is measured in units of Coulomb (C). The magnitude of the charge of an electron (e) is 1.602 x 10-19 C.

Within the atom, the charge appears to be in equilibrium. This equilibrium occurs at the nucleus-electron interface, where the consistency of substance undergoes a  sudden change between the electron region and the nucleus. For the electron region, it is a sudden increase in frequency. For the nucleus, it is a sudden decrease in frequency. If we look at the electronic region as a vortex of substance, the charge lies at its center. It we look at the nucleus as a small vortex, the charge lies at its periphery. The small vortex of the nucleus attaches itself to the center of the vortex of the electronic region, and the two then form a single vortex. It is incorrect to view the whole electron as negative and the whole nucleus as positive.

The “attractive force” between electrons and the nucleus is better understood in terms of alignment of the frequency gradient.

It is easy to visualize this vortex-hypothesis in the case of a hydrogen atom made up of an electron and a proton. We may visualize more complex atoms as vortices too if we do not conceive of the electrons and protons as discrete particles WITHIN the atom. The number of electrons, protons and neutrons are quantum numbers that are merely a property of the atom concerned. The atom is a single vortex of decreasing radius and increasing frequency and consistency.

Free electrons, protons and neutrons exist as vortices of different types.

The ions are atoms in which the equilibrium of charge at the electron-nucleus interface does not exist. The lack of equilibrium is quantized. These atomic vortices are a bit out of shape due to the lack of balance where the frequency gradient is the sharpest. This unbalanced frequency gradient extends out as a force field.

These ionic vortices combine with other ionic vortices to form molecules. They are linked together by the forces generated by their unbalanced frequency gradients. Thus, they regain equilibrium at the molecular level.

Such molecules are complex configurations made up of vortices.

Any unbalanced charge seems to travel to the surface in a conductor. In non-conductors, it manifests as a stress inside the substance. This stress contributes to chemical reactions.

In case of an electromagnetic field field, force implies frequency gradient.  When a charged particle is placed within an electromagnetic field, an equilibrium is sought in terms of alignment of frequency gradients.

The shifts in frequency gradient is seen as the movement of the charge.

Quantization of electrical charge means that only the multiples of a basic frequency gradient are permitted as charge. The charge of an electron represents that basic frequency gradient.

The total amount of charge remains unchanged. If one starts with uncharged materials the initial charge present is zero. Then the total charge after it has been separated must still add to zero, requiring that there be equal amounts of positive and negative charge present.

The total amount of charge is conserved.

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