*Reference: Fundamentals of Physics*

In Classical Mechanics, we are looking at the motion of objects that have a precise center of mass (CM). Therefore, their position can be represented by a dimensionless point in space. Their speed can be measured by the relative motion of this dimensionless point. We are familiar with this as Galilean relativity.

But in Quantum Mechanics, we are looking at the motion of particles with no CM. An electron or photon cannot be pinpointed with accuracy because it has no CM. They cannot be treated as dimensionless points. The concept of motion is very different for such particles; and it cannot be visualized like the motion of material particles.

**Electron and photons are built of cycles of motion. Their size and speed as a particle is determined by the frequency of their cycles.**

The idea of mass comes from particles that make up the nucleus of an atom, such as, neutrons and protons. These particles are extremely small and made up of an extremely high frequency of cycles. They represent “mass.” The largest stable nucleus of an atom consists of 83 protons and 126 neutrons. But the size of this nucleus is still so small that it can be approximated as a point.

**Mass may be looked upon as extremely high frequency of cycles packed in an extremely small size. **

We may say that an atom has its nucleus as its CM. When the atoms are arranged in a fixed configuration in a solid object, then that object has a CM. Even liquid and gaseous objects made of atoms will have a CM that can be determined statistically. This is classical mechanics. But in Quantum mechanics the situation is quite different.

An electron is 1836 times loosely packed with “mass” as a proton. We may visualize that proton to be embedded at the center of the electron in a hydrogen atom. This makes an electron to be roughly of the size of the hydrogen atom. We may not be able to measure sizes accurately at atomic level; but we can say with certainty that the size of an electron is much bigger than the size of a proton.

**The size of an electron is roughly thousands of time bigger than the size of a proton.**

The relative sizes of quantum particles may be estimated by the ratios of their wavelengths. Since the speed of light is a universal constant, this ratio will be inverse of the ratio of their frequencies. Therefore, the smaller is the frequency the larger would be the size of a quantum particle. Using the data from **The Spectrum of Substance**, we may say that

**An electron is 2000 times bigger than a proton.**

**A photon of visible light is more than 200,000 times bigger than an electron.**

A proton appears as a point in classical space. The electron may appear as a point in a classical space expanded 2000 times. Similarly, the photon may appear as a point in classical space expanded 400,000,000 times.

A particle’s speed is zero relative to itself in its own space. Therefore, an electron’s speed will be zero relative to itself in “electron space”. Similarly, the speed of a photon will be zero relative to itself in “photon space”.

All this adds up to “absolute speeds” of particles being in a ratio that is inverse of the ratio of their frequencies. The higher is the frequency the lower will be the absolute speed. This appears to be valid when we calculate the ratio of the frequency of the proton to the frequency of the photon.

The desired ratio = 2^{77.6} / 2^{49} = 2^{28.6} = 4 x 10^{8}

This is of the same order as the speed of light in the inertial frame of matter. This value is higher because the frequency of neutron is slightly higher than the average frequency of matter.

**We may say that the “absolute speed” of a particle is inversely proportional to its frequency.**

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## Definitions

**MOTION***Motion* is self-actuated and inherently free aliveness as observed in the motion of light and the electrons. It is infinite when it is free. Motion becomes bounded and finite when it is cyclic. With the increase of cycles, the motion becomes increasingly centered. It then takes force to move it away from that centeredness. That resistance of motion to being changed is called inertia. Pure motion is an absence of cycles and inertia.

**PARTICLE**

A *particle* is a unit of substance whose size is proportional to its wavelength. Electron as a particle is 2000 times bigger than a proton. Photon as a particle is more than 200,000 times bigger than an electron. The boundary of a particle is determined by the cycles of motion of which it is constructed. A particle has the property of centeredness, which is proportional to its frequency. This centeredness is manifested as inertia when attempt is made to change its inherent motion.

**SPEED**

The concept of *speed* applies to a particle. The measure of absolute speed of a particle is inverse of its centeredness. Since the “particle” of gravity is least centered, its speed is infinite. This means that the particle of gravity is manifested instantly at any location in the universe. Thus, speed has the sense of the rapidity with which a particle is manifested at a location in the universe after being manifested at another location.

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## Comments

How relatively small would you say is your particle of gravity?

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To me there is only one particle of gravity, and that covers the whole universe. It is the background we know as space.

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