## The Nature of Space

Reference: The Universe and Physical Elements

An object is made of substance, and it has a form. The dimensions of that substance are energy and matter. The dimensions of that form are space and time.

The dimensions of that space are length, width and height. The dimension of time is change.

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## Space and Lines of Force

The space of a matter particle, therefore, is the volume of that particle. An example of a particle is the point-like nucleus of hydrogen atom. It is called a proton. Its volume is very, very small. This small space contains all the substance of the proton. It has the mass property of matter

Similarly, the space of an energy quantum is the volume of that quantum. An example of a quantum is the blob-like atom of hydrogen (excluding the nucleus). It is called an electron. Its substance may be considered to be “soft expanded mass.” Its space is about 1836 times larger than the space of a proton.

This space of electron seems to contain as much mass as that of a proton. That means, if the mass of a proton is loosened up 1836 times, it will become as large as an electron. The number 1836 is the mass ratio of proton to electron. Using the above equivalence we can calculate the diameter of the hydrogen atom. This may just be a random coincidence of numbers, but it highlights the insight of Faraday.

Mass is concentrated lines of force in atom. The normal lines of force describe the phenomena of electricity and magnetism. When spread out, these lines of force may describe the propagation of light.

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## Space and Density of Substance

We may, therefore, define space as the extents of substance. The substance can be matter, or energy, or even a cycle within the universe. The substance is most condensed in matter, and most spread out in case of light. Therefore, space is most concentrated in matter, and most spread out in light.

Space defines the extents of substance.

The concentration of lines of force seems to define the mass property of substance. The greater is the “mass density,” the lesser is space. The lesser is mass density, the more expanded is space. Space, therefore, seems to relate inversely to the density of mass. The space that we see around us has the least density of mass. Space is the opposite of matter.

Space is inversely proportional to “mass density” of substance.

We now have a new concept of “mass density” of substance that derives from the concentration of Faraday’s lines of force. It is different from the density of matter that derives from the concentrations of atoms. The character of space itself seems to be determined by “mass density” of substance. Einstein has earlier related the character of space to “speed of the observer.” Though, mathematically demonstrable, the explanation provided by Einstein is not as clear as the explanation of Faraday.

The space is most concentrated in the innermost cycles, and most expanded in the outermost cycles of the universe.

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## Space and Inertia

The nucleus of an atom resides within the volume of the quanta of electrons. There is no “empty space” in the atom, but two different concentration of substance. We may expect an exchange of substance between different concentrations. When the substance leaves the nucleon it expands to the mass density of electron. When the substance moves back to the nucleon, it shrinks to the mass density of nucleon. This gives us a dynamic atom, in which an equilibrium is being maintained between two different concentrations. But something is keeping these two concentrations separate.

In A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics, a vortex model of condensing substance is advanced. This model predicts that when the substance condenses its speed slows and the curvature of its path increases. This is what happens in a whirlpool. The curvature of the arms of galaxies is much larger than the curvature of light.

This confirms that the smaller cycles of more condensed substance lie within larger cycles of less condensed substance.

We are made of very concentrated material substance. Earlier cycles of the universe, therefore, appear as very large background of space to us. We are not moving in a void even even in the outer space between the planets. We are moving through a substance of extremely small mass density.

Matter replaces other matter, such as water or air, when it is placed in it because they all consist of atoms. But when matter is placed in outer space it may not replace the substance of space because there are no atoms. The substance of space may simply exchange with the high concentration of substance in matter. Therefore, matter may experience some resistance when accelerating through space. This may explain the phenomenon of inertia.

Inertia is due to interaction between substances of two very different mass densities.

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## Speed of Light

It appears that the inherent motion of substance is the result of a balance between its inertia and acceleration.  At the “speed of light” the acceleration of light is zero because it is balanced by its inertia. The reason the “speed of light” is not infinite because it has some inertia.

When you push a substance to go at a speed higher than it’s natural speed, it’s mass density is most likely reduces proportionally.

You cannot push a rocket to the speed of light without turning the rocket into light. Since the rocket must remain material, you may accelerate it only to the limit up to which matter still maintains  its integrity. One may say that there is a speed at which mass of the rocket appears to become infinite because it simply cannot be accelerated; but that speed is a small fraction of the speed of light.

This differs from the conclusions arrived at from Einstein’s postulates.

NOTE: The speed referred to above is different from the relative speed that we measure usually. This speed is related to mass density of matter. It is assumed that there is a range of mass density within which matter maintains the integrity of its form and properties.

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• vinaire  On September 14, 2022 at 12:08 PM

Einstein’s field equations provide a tool to develop views of the universe in which the scientific concepts of matter, energy, space and time are mathematically consistent.

The different cycles appear to be: nuclear, electronic, electromagnetic and thought. Each cycle is stable within itself. The interface between these cycles needs to be investigated.

• vinaire  On September 15, 2022 at 12:02 PM

The Higgs field is defined as a physical field that endows elementary particles with mass and that is mediated by the Higgs boson.

Based on the OP, when an elementary particle moves through space, its substance interacts with the substance of space. This produces resistance that shows up as inertia of the particle. This appears as if the elementary particle is being endowed with mass by the Higgs field in space.

Therefore, the Higgs field appears to be the infinitesimal mass density of the substance of space.

• vinaire  On September 15, 2022 at 4:08 PM

The universal impulse to evolve manifests, at first, as space. The whole space is imbibed with that spirit to evolve. Space is an active agent.

• vinaire  On September 15, 2022 at 4:21 PM

The space condenses into electromagnetic (EM) radiation as follows:

The duration of space is so small that its substance at any location appears and disappears very fast. This gives the impression of the substance of space moving at infinite speed. Any anomaly that occurs in space is immediately subject to Higgs mechanism, that immediately creates inertia and finite and constant speed. Thus, momentum is generated, because momentum is the product of inertia (mass) and constant velocity.

Momentum gives substance an ability to generate impact. The greater is a substance’s impact, the more substantial it is. This substantiality is expressed as consistency (a degree of density, firmness, viscosity, etc.) of substance. Variations in consistency generates a spectrum of substance. We are familiar with this spectrum as the “electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.” Thus, we have substance appearing as electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from radio waves to gamma rays. This consistency of EMR is measured in terms of “frequency.” The common example of EMR is Light.

Thus space is condensed as EMR through Higgs mechanism.

• Chris Thompson  On September 15, 2022 at 8:55 PM

This may explain the phenomenon of inertia.

I like the way you pave a road to take incremental mental leaps in logic to try and understand heretofore well documented, described, and measured yet unexplained phenomena such as inertia.

The existence of space as a substance of some category of quanta formerly aether, etc., has long been hypothesized and tested for but never found. .

The resistance to acceleration does seem like a friction, yet when the force creating the acceleration ceases, only the acceleration ceases but the relative velocity that has been achieved remains
without a friction to slow it. 🤔

You need to keep writing and rubbing my nose in these mysteries, and I need to come up with a counterintuitive point of view that helps allow any bit of this to reveal itself.

• Chris Thompson  On September 15, 2022 at 8:56 PM

It is a fun game.

• vinaire  On September 15, 2022 at 9:01 PM

Subject clearing is fun. 🙂 I could not have arrived at this logic in any other way.

• Chris Thompson  On September 16, 2022 at 6:15 PM

Subject clearing as I understand it is what you are doing to clean up data.

Using that cleaned up data reassembled to see the world without older bias but rather with new eyes is what I am encouraging.

Both seem to be needed.

• vinaire  On September 16, 2022 at 9:05 PM

Yes!