A History of Man: Chapter Ten

Reference: A History of Man

This paper presents CHAPTER TEN from the book SCIENTOLOGY: A HISTORY OF MAN by L. RON HUBBARD. The contents are from the original publication of this book in 1952.

The paragraphs of the original material (in black) are accompanied by brief comments (in color) based on the present understanding.  Feedback on these comments is appreciated.

The heading below is linked to the original materials.



THE TRANSFER is the single most important phase of TECHNIQUE 88.

It is a circumstance rather than an incident. It is a specific action of the thetan with regard to a MEST body. It is the swing of the thetan from out of the body where he belongs into the body where he is thereafter in trouble. THE TRANSFER is the action of going into the MEST body.

THE TRANSFER is the action of going into the MEST body. Hubbard, later, called it INTERIORIZATION. Basically, it is the attention getting fixated on the body. This is taken up on the Int-Ext RD.

Except in deaths or severe accidents or operations you won’t find a transfer out. Your task in auditing is to find and run all the transfers into bodies in order to achieve a self-determined, fully alive transfer out.

To “transfer out” is to unfix the attention on the body. This may be extended to to unfixing attention on self (anything one is identifying oneself with).

WHERE is the thetan? Contrary to any past practice, his second-best place is just outside the MEST body monitoring it with direct contact on the MEST body’s motor controls on either side of the head. His very best place of course, is out of contact with the MEST body entirely and fully alive as “I.” His worst place is inside the MEST body.

With subject clearing, the definition of thetan becomes: “the sense of individuality associated with a body-mind system.” This sense of individuality (thetan) has a position on the Know-to-Mystery scale. A thetan may represent a center of considerations that may include a consideration about its own location.

The thetan, in most cases, is behind and above the MEST body. In many cases he shifts position rather often even in one incident. Now and then he is found to run the body from in front of it. This causes a direction reversal on the part of the person so that he doesn’t know right from left—people can teach him continually but he will still say his right is his left and his left is his right, and so it is, for “I” in this person is the thetan and the thetan is in front, facing the MEST body and right is the thetan’s right, of course.

Such consideration about the location may change due to confusion when running an incident.

There are cases where the thetan is barely or hardly ever in contact with the body. These cases can be considered quite aberrated, the thetan seeing the body from across the room or the street, convinced that he is the body but unable to do anything about it. There are cases where the thetan is inside the body continually, but this is to say that he isn’t a thetan at all but degenerated into an entity—and we find this is in those low-tone wide open cases, full on but raving psychotics or nearly so.

The basic aberration is that the person’s attention is fixed on the body and himself, and any effort to handle it is accompanied by a lot of confusion.

A thetan is pretty bad off if he thinks all he can do is run a MEST body. This alone is a half-transfer. He hasn’t gone into the body yet forever thereafter, perhaps, to be an entity, but he has achieved the level of degradation where he thinks the MEST body is more important than he is and that he IS the MEST body; he has become propitiative toward the body to a point where he is a servant, where it becomes him in his eyes.

A body is just the external form of the self. If a person is not interiorized, he doesn’t even think about himself, his location, etc.

A full transfer occurs many times in the span of a thetan, but it is not permanent until he enters the body to stay in there from there on.

Interiorization into self gradually becomes permanent interiorization into the body.

In doing a DED a thetan catches the sorrow waves of the body he is wronging, feels sorry for it and then, for one reason or another, merges into it. This is a temporary transfer. But after a few of these he will become obsessed with being the monitor of a MEST body and will devote all his time to it. Then he will suppose that his only method of perceiving is through MEST perceptics, his only method of emoting is through MEST emotions. And he comes way on down the scale, becomes a servant, feels so degraded that he is himself nothing and the MEST body everything and so tends it continually. Eventually he will merge with it in a permanent transfer and that is probably the end of the thetan, the genetic entity and company thereafter perhaps running from within, perhaps in the next life being picked up by a new thetan. Thetans are continually being pumped into the MEST line. They do not last very long. The “I” of the individual is the thetan.

“I” is the viewpoint of the individual body-mind system. It is not necessarily interiorized. It has a position somewhere on the Know-to-Mystery scale. “I” is completely analytical when it is at Know; and completely reactive when it is at Mystery. “I” is in complete mystery when it thinks it is a whole-track valence called thetan.

The foregoing paragraph contains steps which the auditor must know. This is the cycle he is trying to work out of the case.

Auditing will be fully successful only when “I” realizes that the thetan is just a whole-track valence.

You will find many conditions occurring in the TRANSFER. There is another type of transfer, the switch transfer wherein a thetan, to protect the body he has assumed changes in sudden moments his control to a person startling or attacking the thetan’s property. This can become very bad and very involved. It happens in families and amongst friends and when they part or somebody dies, the thetan is suddenly bereft of some of the property he was controlling and so carries on as if MEST was important.

The above TRANSFER is much later on the chain. The first TRANSFER occurs when “the thetan breaks off from the theta body.” This is the point of interiorization into self.

The CONTROL TRANSFER is a specialized kind of transfer wherein the thetan, having devoted himself to a MEST body now begins to control the environment and other people for his body much as he controls the body. Having forgotten his skills and having many brands of aberration, whereby he will transfer permanently, at least some of his control, he yet adventures to reach out energy-wise and start to control other people than his own body and also attempt to control MEST objects and motions. He is at first very capable in this but, having aberrations which cause him to stick on things, his control of the environment becomes too extended. When he loses some of the environment he conceives that he has lost some of his ability to control. We get then a dwindling of control along all the dynamics MEST body but only some small part of it. A thetan without aberration could safely enter into and control the whole environment, lose widely and reassume control. A thetan very aberrated will get restimulated when he loses some control of the environment and won’t thereafter try to control that type of thing or person again. These control transfers and their losses will be found widely in any case and are almost as important as auditing control of the first dynamic.

In a CONTROL TRANSFER, the thetan occupies the environment also, in addition to the body.

As you run facsimiles you will find that there are those seen by the preclear as though within himself and those seen by the preclear as though outside himself. Audit the latter to audit the thetan. Audit the former and you audit only entities.

A thetan is one, which sees things outside himself.

CONFUSION OF IDENTITY is a primary problem with preclears. Now that WHO the preclear is can be established and WHERE he is can be seen by the preclear as he runs facsimiles, this confusion can be resolved. But do not expect to solve it for the preclear rapidly. And do not expect to be right yourself the first time.

According to Hubbard, a person’s CONFUSION OF IDENTITY is resolved when he spots the thetan in the incidents.

TECHNIQUE 88 is an E-meter technique. It can be run without an E-meter, but this permits all manner of dodging and evading. And there are usually six or ten entirely different banks in any preclear beside his own—lots of places to dodge into. But SCIENTOLOGY 8-8008 solves all this for you.

The entities all have banks. Now these are either stolen banks (from some other thetan long ago as in BORROWING) or they are the identity of this entity. We aren’t much interested in auditing entities except when auditing one can reduce rapidly a physical somatic or physical ill— easily done for the entities hold these in present time and they will audit in present time. A thetan high enough to be outside the body to a normal control distance is not going to hold a facsimile in restimulation just to hurt or injure his body. Only an entity will do this or a thetan who has transferred all the way into the body—which makes him an entity and thereafter he will behave like one (no work, high ARC with groups in order to upset them covertly, etc., etc.)

Entity is a mid-level DNA program that is half-way between stimulus-response and intelligent.

You will find an understanding of your thetan’s goals a little helpful in making sure you are auditing the thetan. He was quite old when he first fixated on the idea of controlling MEST bodies. That was not too long ago if he is still operating just outside the body (about arm’s length). One of the reasons he fixated on a MEST body was because he was terribly bored.

There is a considerable liability to being a thetan from the standpoint that one is quite immortal. Even death cycles will look good to a thetan whose aberrations have reduced him down from the goals and hopes he once had. Now he begins to have hopes for a MEST body. This body will grow and die but at least it will change. Aberrations cut this thetan down to a point where he couldn’t see any change possible, could not see his own goals would ever be attained; so he fixated on a MEST body, became involved in the pure mechanics of operating and caring for one, became more aberrated by contagion from the entities in that body and the uncertainty of life in a mortal being, lost his goals as a MEST body, finally became pretty sordidly sick of the whole thing.

Now, magically, you uncover for this thetan six or eight banks full of seventy trillion years or less of incident. The thetan is a wizard at liking to act at being somebody else. That got him into believing he himself was a MEST body. Well, it will also get him into believing he is any one of the entity banks you uncover. And he will let you audit these things until doomsday. Vicarious existence, better than a motion picture.

But ask this thetan to confront the existence which he shudderingly forsook? Never! It was boring. He’s been through all that. He actually knows what happened to him, but it was bad enough to make him wish to forget it until he forgot it. He’ll say he’s this entity or that. He’ll be happy, in preference to facing his own past, to just go on and perish as a MEST body.

There are two remedies for this. The first is the E-meter. That is an unequaled remedy. You can find out the identity of every bank in the preclear and know that the thetan isn’t any one of them. You can find out the first to last transfers. You can discover the location of every incident the thetan should run.

Now in using the E-meter you will discover something strange with regard to the thetan. At first the meter will be much more active on the entities than on the thetan himself. For one thing, the thetan should be OUTSIDE the body. For another, the thetan would rather look over and shove into view incidents he himself has never before seen. He’ll help you audit these entities endlessly.

People who keep running incidents without any recourse to an E-meter will achieve much with the body, very little with the thetan— hence there is no rise in tone although the auditing hours continue to stretch out. In people who continually self-audit without direction, the thetan is just being very propitiative toward MEST bodies and is giving the entities a wonderful work-out. The body gets better sometimes. The thetan never gets better. And he is “I.”

Hubbard is pointing out the difficulties in finding the thetan and his bank.

The behavior of the thetan in the past was often copied after something he took from the entities. He found an entity role would restimulate, he became the actor and performed the role. He left his own bank alone and neglected although there were aberrations to dramatize there too. (And by the way, you will find the thetan occasionally trying to stop the body from dramatizing out of entity banks).

The thetan bank, the one you want, will give you less active needle response than the entity banks when you first start auditing. This is a sort of negative sorting. But you may have to audit an entity or two because of the way the entity has the body stuck on the track.

The point is to find the thetan bank and audit it. The conflict in this person derives from the ambitions of the thetan being balked by the laziness and stupidity and desire for death and destruction on the part of the entities. You can audit any side of this conflict you want. But by simply making the thetan sufficiently strong, the entities become cowed and won’t act up or even drop out and leave.

You don’t have to audit the entities. Just make the thetan strong.

The other answer is to clean up present life with attention to all transfers in it, all switch transfers, all control transfers. Audit the thetan handling the body until you have the current life well up.

From Subject Clearing approach, just audit and free up all the fixations. Fixations are flagged by anomalies.

You will find that you will have to start by giving the preclear a drill to locate where the thetan is. Simply run him up and down the track through various incidents, with good attention to attention unit running, each time locating the thetan outside the body and handling it. The preclear will get a dim concept of the handling but he will get a good concept of the location of the thetan. Now, in the current lifetime, locate the thetan being distracted from his task by noises or arguments in the environment.

Run the sympathy of the thetan for the body, the refusal of the thetan to feel sympathy at times. And run in particular antagonisms or angers from the body at other bodies, from the other bodies at the thetan’s body. Get all the DED-DEDEX computations out of the way and then audit the thetan entrance somewhere around the time of birth. It isn’t an entrance, it’s a possession of the motor controls.

This kind of auditing recommended by Hubbard, simply serves to fix the attention on body and the thetan. So, the person does not free himself from interiorization. This is a self-defeating approach. If you take the subject clearing approach of handling the anomalies, it keeps your attention free from interiorization.

When you have this thetan in good shape for this lifetime he will be strong enough, usually, to tackle NIPS, BLANKETINGS, BORROWINGS. But don’t be amazed when you run your first of these to find that the thetan has been using an entity bank. Any borrowing, however, is good to run. Any blanketing on the second dynamic shows your preclear once and for all that he IS a theta being without a body by showing him an incident to that effect.

Fixation on theta being is part of the problem of interiorization.

If the case is incapable of finding the thetan in current life, then take the youngest entity and audit it.

It generally is the thetan but transferred inside the body.

How long it will take you to audit a preclear to theta clear one cannot say. The route reaches high very quickly. Using this know-how and 80 you will attain a MEST clear in a very short time. Aside from inaccessible persons and psychotics in general, most cases should become MEST clear in a few weeks of hard auditing.

The anomaly is that the Mest clear and the Theta clear has not happened in a big way since this book was written 70 years ago in 1952.

NOTE: The History of Man auditing techniques became part of later Clearing Course and OT materials. So, these materials are very much part of current Scientology, one way or another.


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  • Chris Thompson  On March 15, 2022 at 1:03 PM

    If this were true, it would be some pretty smart stuff.

    Do you know of any examples of this being true?

  • Chris Thompson  On March 15, 2022 at 1:08 PM

    If this were to be true, then Hubbard seems to me as confused when describing the difference between “I” and “Thetan” as he seems to be confused about “valences.” Each of these seems to be smart ideas, but when the antecedents of the pronouns cannot easily be spotted, the writing of these concepts begins losing force.

    I would clay demo this, if I cared to monkey with my mellow. (I spent a lot of time coming to terms of peace with these concepts and rather not unnecessarily stir that pot.

  • vinaire  On March 15, 2022 at 1:54 PM

    The proof is in the pudding. Apply the subject clearing approach and see what happens, If you have any questions, ask me.

    The subject clearing approach is a combination of study tech and the Data Series. It is better than the E-meter approach. Hubbard’s biggest error was to use the E-meter reads to verify the “truth” of his speculations.

  • Chris Thompson  On March 15, 2022 at 3:02 PM

    You don’t have to audit the entities. Just make the thetan strong.
    . . .
    From Subject Clearing approach, just audit and free up all the fixations. Fixations are flagged by anomalies.

    I like your approach. “Strengthen the Thetan.”

    • vinaire  On March 15, 2022 at 3:16 PM

      Or, rather, strengthen the “I”. Don’t get fixated on the thetan of whole-track either.

  • Chris Thompson  On March 15, 2022 at 5:53 PM

    “Hubbard’s biggest error was to use the E-meter reads to verify the “truth” of his speculations.”

    You must be thinking of someone else, like Marildi. LOL.

    Hubbard was very clear about not positioning the e-meter alongside “lie detectors” or the use of e-meters as lie detectors. E-meters “detect” the anomalies that you have been asserting that are the source of problems within the mental matrix. It is not a guarantee of success, but an e-meter is a detector instrument in the same way that a metal detector is a detector instrument. See?

    • vinaire  On March 15, 2022 at 5:57 PM

      E-meter is a Wheatstone Bridge that measures changes in the resistance of the body. Relating it to the content of your thoughts is weird magic.

      • Chris Thompson  On March 16, 2022 at 8:11 PM

        Regarding the E-meter, for me it is a sensitive Wheatstone Bridge / Ohmmeter that monitors electrical resistance through the body. It seems to react, or possibly I should say that mental activity, possibly the nervous system alters the body’s electrical resistance, by the moment, as thoughts abound.

        This is also a principal of the common “lie detector,” (which Hubbard panned because he asserted that lie detectors do not detect “lies.”) Consequently I assert that neither does an E-meter detect “truth.” It DOES seem to react nicely to electrical conductivity of the body, which in turn seems conveniently affected by activity in the mental matrix.

        Where your “anomalies” get somehow in the road of this electrical conductivity within the mental matrix, it seems that when mentally contacted that these anomalies cause a rise in electrical resistance as measured in Ohms units. It also seems that when one of these anomalies has been directly contacted, revealed, viewed and seen as-it-is, that it becomes thoroughly assimilated into the mental matrix. That heretofore high resistance” suddenly disappears in what Scnsts call a “blowdown.”

        A mental matrix which is momentarily and/or partially freed of mental anomalies, again allows the 9 VDC (the test voltage of the E-meter) current to flow freely and consistently through the body and this is what is call a “floating needle” (referring to the needle reaction on the E-meter). I liken it to looking at rough and stormy seas which have calmed. I also liken it to “weather within the mental matrix.” Those are not very precise analogies, but from them one can get the idea.

        In summation, the E-meter is a detector of indications. The indications do not in themselves prove nor disprove anything, but rather point to mental matrix anomalies for further pursuit. Nevertheless, there definitively is physiology involved in these E-meter reactions, not magic. 🙂

        • vinaire  On March 17, 2022 at 5:01 AM

          I couldn’t have said it better. Bravo!

    • vinaire  On March 15, 2022 at 6:00 PM

      I have been locking horns with Marildi recently here:


  • vinaire  On March 17, 2022 at 5:04 AM

    I just wrote this post on SRI site. This is how I feel. This is also Bull-baiting. Let’s see how they do on it.

    E-Meter and Subject Clearing

    E-meter is a detector and not a truth teller. The E-meter reacts on the awareness and resolution of anomalies. You cannot determine the content of anomalies by asking “yes or no” type questions on the E-meter.

    Hubbard’s biggest error was to use the E-meter reads to verify the “truth” of his speculations.

    The subject clearing approach is a combination of study tech and the Data Series. It is better than the E-meter approach.


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