*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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Wikipedia article on Spacetime states,

*In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects such as why different observers perceive where and when events occur.*

So, spacetime is being perceived as a mathematical abstraction rather than as something real. But spacetime is something real as well.

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## The Reality of Spacetime

Material objects have extension in three dimensions. We call these extensions length, width and height for an object, such as, a box. Such extensions in three dimensions are the characteristic of space. The material object and its spatial dimensions are also persisting. Such persistence is the characteristic of time.

For a material object, the characteristics of space and time appear together. So, such characteristics may be called spacetime.

*All material objects are four-dimensional “spacetime” entities. *

But are these characteristics present in the absence of material objects?

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## “Empty” Space

There is space inside an empty box. But this space does not define the property of some visible material. Let’s say this box is filled with air. Can this space be defined as the spacetime characteristics of a material substance, such as, air? What happens to this space when we remove the box?

Air exists close to earth only. Beyond earth there is less and less material even as atoms of air, but space seems to acquire much greater extent. This raises doubt about spacetime being the characteristics of material objects or substance.

*How can there be “spacetime” empty of matter?*

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## The Mystery of Aether

Spacetime appears as the characteristics of matter. Descartes said that there is no such thing as empty space because space represents the extensions of substance. Then space, which is empty of matter, must provide the characteristics of some other substance.

Ancients speculated upon such substance, and called it “aether”. Newton speculated on the existence of aether in the Third Book of Opticks (1718):

*“Doth not this aethereal medium in passing out of water, glass, crystal, and other compact and dense bodies in empty spaces, grow denser and denser by degrees, and by that means refract the rays of light not in a point, but by bending them gradually in curve lines?”*

But no such substance could be found. What then is the spacetime empty of matter?

*Is spacetime (empty of matter) something mathematical only?*

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## Further Research

We shall examine the reality of spacetime from the viewpoint of The Postulates.

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## Comments

I am simplifying my research as much as possible so as to make it very consistent with reality.

Mathematics is very fine logic. It presents a matrix of logical relationships. One inputs data in this “matrix” and looks at the output. Here space itself is being looked upon as a matrix of logical relationships. Is that all there is to space?

I am simply posing the question, “Is spacetime (empty of matter) something mathematical only?” I hope to answer this question with some help from Faraday.

Quantum mechanics does not provide a straightforward visualization or a simple mechanical solution for superposition and the wave motion of particles (wave particle duality).

At least I understand Miles’ explanation of simultaneous spins given in the following document.

http://milesmathis.com/super.html

A particle cannot spin on two axes simultaneously when the axes intersect within the body. It is different when the axes intersect outside the body. The point of interaction traces a wave when the particle is moving in the third direction.

The Maxwell’s equations tell me the following:

Something called “charge” triggers the electromagnetic cycle. This cycle is an oscillation between electrical flow and magnetic rotation. The electrical flow winds up as magnetic rotation. The magnetic rotation then unwinds back as electrical flow.

Thus, there is an oscillation between electric flow and magnetic rotation that acquires increasing frequency as one moves up the electromagnetic spectrum.

https://vinaire.me/2018/01/13/the-problem-of-field/

I prefer Faraday’s lines of force containing oscillation between electric flow and magnetic rotation over Mile’s spinning photon.

Electromagnetic field is Maxwell’s version of Faraday’s lines of force, which is based on a mechanical model.

Electromagnetic substance is a non-mechanical reference to Faraday’s lines of force. It has its own laws above and beyond Newton’s laws of motion. The electromagnetic substance becomes quantized at higher frequencies and appears as sub-atomic particles. This is the “continuum of substance” framework of Faraday. Einstein was awarded Nobel prize for this discovery.