*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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We measure “empty space” in our material domain as if matter is stored in it. But that “empty space” is actually filled with field. Since space is the extension of substance we should measure space by its actual content.

We measure distance on the surface of earth by its material content. This is perfectly valid as long as that distance is being associated with the surface of earth. But when it comes to the measurement of distance in interstellar space, it seems that associating it with earth’s surface may not be totally valid.

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## The Material Space

The electromagnetic cycles are packed so closely in the nucleus of an atom that we may consider them to be “collapsed”. In other words, the electromagnetic substance within the nucleus appears as a continuum instead of being made up of discrete cycles. We call this continuum “mass”.

We may measure the distance over the surface of earth by counting the number of “collapsed” electromagnetic cycles. Instead we use arbitrary units of length, such as, a foot or a meter, because that is more convenient.

But the point is,

**A distance may be determined by counting the number of cycles.**

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## The Field Space

The distance in field space may be compared with the distance in material space by taking into account the “compactness” of cycles by looking at frequency. The gamma rays are 50,000 times more compact than visible light. Therefore, the distance is 50,000 times more compact in the gamma region compared to visible light region. it is logical to assume that the average distance within the atom, or the material distance, shall be still more compact. Let’s assume the material distance to be about 60,000 times more compact than the distance in terms of the visible light cycles.

**In other words, the distance in terms of light cycles shall shrink 60,000 times when measured in terms of material cycles. **

So the field space out there is really not that large when measured on the basis of material space. Light travels at the speed of 3 x 10^{8} meters per second in “light space”. If we look at that speed in terms of “material space” it would be about 5000 meters/second, or 11,185 miles per hour. This may give us some idea of “light cycle distance” when converted to “material cycle distance”. This is a very conservative estimate. The earth distance could be still more compact.

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## The Theory of Relativity

The theory of relativity identifies this phenomena as “length contraction” as the speed of light is approached. The distance appears to shrink because we are looking at it from the perspective of the material domain.

The Newtonian mechanics uses the material frame of reference. The theory of relativity ventures beyond Newtonian mechanics into electromagnetic field, but it still uses the material frame of reference.

This has generated much confusion about the subject of time.

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## Further Research

Einstein’s discovery of light quantum established field as a fundamental substance. It seems that field, at the upper limit of frequency, appears as matter. This observation is yet to be fully confirmed. But it is for certain that matter does not provide the only frame of reference.

**Further research is needed to investigate the implications of shifting the frame of reference away from matter to field.**

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