*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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We measure “empty space” in our material domain as if matter is stored in it. But that “empty space” is actually filled with electromagnetic substance. Since space is the extension of substance we should measure space by its actual electromagnetic content.

We measure distance on the surface of earth by its material content. This is perfectly valid as long as that distance is being associated with the surface of earth. But when it comes to the measurement of distance in interstellar space, it seems that associating it with earth’s surface may not be valid.

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## The Material Space

The material space consists of atoms packed in it. The unit of distance in this space is the average distance between nuclei of atoms. This unit is so small that matter appears to form a continuum.

We may measure the distance over the surface of earth in arbitrary units of length, such as, a foot or a meter, but these units are ultimately based on the average distance between atomic nuclei.

**Our concept of distance is based on the average distance between atomic nuclei.**

In other words, we have been “counting” the distance in terms of the number of “atomic units” indirectly.

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## The Field Space

If we “count” the distance in “empty” space as the number of “electromagnetic wavelengths”, and if the wavelength unit is larger than the atomic unit, then the new number for the distance shall be smaller. That would lead to the perception of shrinking space. This is exactly what happens in Einstein’s theory of relativity. Faraday looked at distance in terms of lines of force, which used the flexible wavelength unit instead of the fixed atomic unit.

**When we think of distance in terms of Faraday’s lines of force then the distance shrinks considerably in the interstellar space.**

The distance in field space may be compared with the distance in material space by taking into account the “compactness” of cycles by looking at the wavelength unit. The gamma rays are 50,000 times more compact than visible light. Therefore, the distance is 50,000 times more compact in the gamma region compared to visible light region. it is logical to assume that the average distance between atoms, or the material distance, shall be still more compact. Let’s assume the material distance is about 60,000 times more compact than the distance in terms of the visible light cycles.

**The interstellar distance is likely to shrink at least 60,000 times when measured as material distance. **

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## The Theory of Relativity

The theory of relativity identifies this phenomena as “length contraction” as the speed of light is approached. The distance appears to shrink because we are looking at it from the perspective of the material distance.

The Newtonian mechanics uses the material frame of reference. The theory of relativity ventures beyond Newtonian mechanics into electromagnetic field, but it still uses the material frame of reference (MRF).

This has generated much confusion about the subject of spacetime. Resolution occurs when we use the space frame of reference (SRF)

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## Further Research

Einstein’s discovery of light quantum established field as a fundamental substance. It seems that field, at the upper limit of frequency, appears as matter. This observation is yet to be fully confirmed. But it is for certain that matter does not provide the only frame of reference.

**Further research is needed to investigate the implications of shifting the frame of reference away from matter (MRF) to field (SRF).**

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