*Reference: **Disturbance Theory*

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This paper follows the paper on **The Problem of “Empty Space”**.

Inertia has been the least understood concept. But since we have a reference point of zero inertia now, we can examine to see how the concept of inertia develops.

Zero inertia refers to **EMPTINESS **or no-substance. Since there is no substance, there are no characteristics of substance either. Thus, in emptiness, there is no extension, no changes and no activity. In other words, there is no space, no time and no energy. There is no disturbance or frequency of any kind. We are looking at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum. We are looking at absolute zero. Inertia enters this picture with the idea of substance.

**We become aware of substance only because of its inertia.**

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## Substance & Inertia

Newton defined inertia in his book *“Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica”*as follows:

*The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavors to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.*

In a basic sense inertia is a property that resists any change. That means, a disturbance comes about only after overcoming existing inertia. But once the disturbance is there, it becomes the new state, which then resists being changed. In this manner inertia helps build up the disturbance. This disturbance can be felt, and so there comes about awareness. This then is the genesis of substance.

**Substance comes about when disturbance builds itself up through inertia.**

This explains the postulate expressed in the paper, *The Spectrum of Substance**, *that there is a continuum of substance from emptiness to matter. The intervening spectrum consists of disturbance in the form of electromagnetic field. A cycle of electromagnetic field consists of interchanging electric and magnetic energies analogous to interchanging kinetic and potential energies of a pendulum.

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## Inertia & Acceleration

In the essay, **Relativity & Problem of Space**** **^{[1]}** , **Einstein interpreted Newton as follows,

*But in this [Newton’s] theory, acceleration can only denote “acceleration with respect to space”. Newton’s space must thus be thought of as “at rest”, or at least as “unaccelerated”, in order that one can consider the acceleration, which appears in the law of motion, as being a magnitude with any meaning.*

As covered in the paper, ** The Problem of “Empty Space”**, the “empty space” represents the extensions of the invisible electromagnetic field. A material body is, therefore, moving in an electromagnetic field that we see as “empty space”. Acceleration thus denotes “acceleration with respect to the surrounding electromagnetic field”.

In acceleration, the material body moves relative to the surrounding electromagnetic field. A uiformly moving body is at rest relative to the field. The resistance is felt in acceleration only, and not in uniform motion. This resistance is inertia.

**Inertia is felt during acceleration, which consists of relative motion between material body and the surrounding electromagnetic field. **

When there is no acceleration, the material body is simply drifting in the field at uniform velocity. This velocity depends on the inertia of the body. Therefore, bodies of different inertia drift at different velocities.

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## Inertia & Drift Velocity

A disturbance may naturally accelerate infinitely but it is restrained by inertia. This balance of “innate forces” results in uniform motion. Any change in this balance is perceived as acceleration. Acceleration implies presence of force.

The velocity of sound depends on the density and stiffness of its medium. These properties give a clue to the inertia of the medium. Similarly, the velocity of light depends on the resistance to the formation of its fields measured as permeability and permittivity. These values provide a clue to inertia as well.

The uniform drift velocity results naturally from the innate acceleration of disturbance balanced by its inertia. The higher is the inertia, the smaller is the velocity. Matter may be looked upon as a “disturbance” of large inertia. Therefore, black holes of very large inertial mass shall have almost negligible velocity. On the other hand, bodies with little inertial mass shall have higher velocities.

#### The uniform drift velocity of a body decresaes with increase in its inertia.

Theoretically, a body of zero inertia shall have infinite velocity. Therefore, when the velocity is finite it would indicate the presence of inertia.

#### The velocity of light is very large, but its finite value indicates that light has a small amount of inertia.

The Michelson-Morley’s experiment was simply unable to detect this inertia of light.

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## Summary

Inertia is the fundamental property of substance because it defines the very nature of substance. Zero inertia means complete absence of substance, which gives us the concept of emptiness.

Newtonian physics describes inertia as resistance to the acceleration of body. This acceleration denotes motion of the material body relative to the surrounding electromagnetic field. It also means change in the uniform drift velocity of the body. This drift velocity depends on the inertia of the body.

With the concept of emptiness of zero inertia, it is possible to determine the absolute value of inertia for both field and matter. With absolute value of inertia it is possible to obtain the absolute value of drift velocity.

#### The fact that the absolute value of inertia and velocity can be determined, then points to an inconsistency in Einstein’s theory of relativity.

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## Comments

I have never examined inertia from this point of view. It is very refreshing and exciting.

Yes, it is for me too. I am now looking at Einstein’s original paper on relativity.

Interesting perspective on this topic and Einstein’s ideas.