Comments on Charge carrier

electric-field

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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Charge carrier – Wikipedia

In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors. Examples are electrons, ions and holes. In a conducting medium, an electric field can exert force on these free particles, causing a net motion of the particles through the medium; this is what constitutes an electric current.

A charge shall surround the particle that carries it. An electron is an eddy type configuration within the electromagnetic field. Ions are atoms or molecules that either hold extra charge, or have lost some charge. Holes are lower frequency regions (sinks) in the electromagnetic field. These “particles” are forced into motion by the difference in frequencies of the field. Such particles maintain their configuration and do not merge into surrounding field.

In different conducting media, different particles serve to carry charge:

  • In metals, the charge carriers are electrons. One or two of the valence electrons from each atom is able to move about freely within the crystal structure of the metal. The free electrons are referred to as conduction electrons, and the cloud of free electrons is called a Fermi gas.

In metals, the charges that generally belong to atoms, detach and move relatively freely within the lattice of atoms in the metal. These charges move like eddies at a higher frequency.

  • In electrolytes, such as salt water, the charge carriers are ions, which are atoms or molecules that have gained or lost electrons so they are electrically charged. Atoms that have gained electrons so they are negatively charged are called anions, atoms that have lost electrons so they are positively charged are called cations. Cations and anions of the dissociated liquid also serve as charge carriers in melted ionic solids (see e.g. the Hall–Héroult process for an example of electrolysis of a melted ionic solid). Proton conductors are electrolytic conductors employing positive hydrogen ions as carriers.

In electrolytes, parts of molecules become loose from each other and the frequency gradients become stretched. So the positive and negative charges appear far from each other and more visible.

  • In a plasma, an electrically charged gas which is found in electric arcs through air, neon signs, and the sun and stars, the electrons and cations of ionized gas act as charge carriers.

In plasma, the mechanism is the same as above except that the electromagnetic field is arranged on a different scale.

  • In a vacuum, free electrons can act as charge carriers. In the electronic component known as the vacuum tube (also called valve), the mobile electron cloud is generated by a heated metal cathode, by a process called thermionic emission. When an electric field is applied strong enough to draw the electrons into a beam, this may be referred to as a cathode ray, and is the basis of the cathode ray tube display widely used in televisions and computer monitors until the 2000’s.

The frequency modulation within a field can control the collection and motion of charge.

  • In semiconductors (the material used to make electronic components like transistors and integrated circuits), in addition to electrons, the travelling vacancies in the valence-band electron population (called “holes”), act as mobile positive charges and are treated as charge carriers. Electrons and holes are the charge carriers in semiconductors.

The “holes” are like low frequency sinks in the electromagnetic field. These charges may move like eddies at a lower frequency.

It can be seen that in some conductors, such as ionic solutions and plasmas, there are both positive and negative charge carriers, so an electric current in them consists of the two polarities of carrier moving in opposite directions. In other conductors, such as metals, there are only charge carriers of one polarity, so an electric current in them just consists of charge carriers moving in one direction.

The charge carrier basically carries a stable configuration of frequency gradient.

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