*Reference:** **Disturbance Theory*

.

The variations in the frequency of field cover the whole electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of this spectrum lies the EMPTINESS of zero frequency. At the top is the mass as seen in the nucleus of an atom. The layers of this spectrum build up in the following sequence.

- Emptiness (theoretical)
- Radio waves
- Microwave radiation
- Terahertz radiation
- Infrared radiation
- Visible radiation
- Ultraviolet radiation
- X-ray radiation
- Gamma radiation
- Mass

This whole spectrum of field may be seen in an atom from its outermost boundary to its center. The gamma rays are seen to be emitted by the nucleus, and X-rays from inner electrons.

The substance of field appears in emptiness in the form of disturbance at the beginning of this spectrum. The disturbance has a frequency. The frequency maintains itself and does not disappear. This property is recognized as inertia. In general, inertia is the resistance of physical substance to any change in its state of motion. Any effort to change frequency activates the restoring force of inertia. Thus, inertia “pins down” a phenomenon made up of frequencies, against the backdrop of emptiness.

As we move up the spectrum, the frequency increases and the field become denser in terms of its cycles. Each cycle has constant energy equal to the Planck’s constant ‘**h**‘. Therefore, energy of the field increases at a location in proportion to the frequency and becomes more focused in character. This leads to quantization at higher frequencies.

The wavelength to period ratio is also constant as represented by ‘**c**‘. Therefore, both wavelength and period shrink together inversely proportional to frequency. This is like extensions of the field consolidating themselves and gaining in endurance with increase in frequency. We see the extensions of the field as SPACE and their endurance as TIME.

The constants described above ensure the continuity of different regions of the field that are at different frequencies. These regions are bounded by smooth gradients of frequency. These gradients manifest as tension or force. These forces then become part of the field. We recognize these forces as gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, etc. These forces differ in their nature depending on the sharpness of the gradient as well as on their relative position on the spectrum.

As energy increases with frequency and forces become stronger, inertia also increases to balance them. If forces are represented by acceleration (increased motion relative to itself) then inertia is represented by “negative” acceleration (quantization). Basic inertia appears as permeability and permittivity. It balances the dynamic of conversion between electric (kinetic) and magnetic (potential) aspects of a cycle. This shows up in the constant rate of propagation of electromagnetic disturbance within the field.

With increasing frequency, inertia seems to develop into a structure of disturbance, which we may refer to as “quantization into mass”. Actual mass appears to be made up of high frequency of infinitesimal cycles that border into forming a continuum. The quantization into mass seems to start out like “eddies are forming in a flow”. We may identify these “eddies” as the multitudes of quantum particles. Thus the primary characteristic of quantization into mass appears to be rotational.

The rotational nature of mass tends to pin it down and reduce its linear motion. This also increases inertia. We may relate this inertia to natural speeds of quantum particles as we do so for the speed of light. The natural tendency for disturbance is to spread at infinite speed, but that tendency gets checked by intertia into a balanced finite speed. As inertia increases the “free speed” of the phenomenon reduces.

External force when impressed on a field increases its frequency, and thus becomes internalized as inertia. This may describe the conservation of force of Faraday.

The Newton’s Laws of motion apply to inertia at the level of matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum. At this level force manifests as acceleration of the “quantized” physical object, while inertia acts as “resistance to acceleration”. The balance of the two determines the “free speed” of the object.

Where the levels of inertia are far apart by many orders of magnitude, the vector addition is replaced by relativistic addition. A more exact algorithmn needs to be developed to find the resultant motion of phenomena of different inertia interacting together.

.

## SUMMARY

The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to the emptiness of background as frequency goes to zero. Emptiness has no substance, which is represented by zero inertia. We may use it as the reference point.

Substance seems to enter the picture with the disturbance of emptiness. We may look at the electromagnetic phenomenon whose substance is “disturbance”. The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of this substance represented by inertia.

As the disturbance increases in frequency, its complexity increases. This is manifested as increase in inertia. Toward the upper end of the spectrum, where the frequency is very high, the inertia starts to manifest itself as particles of mass.

This spectrum is visible from the outer boundary of the atom to the nucleus at the center of the atom, as increasing substance and inertia.

.