Reference:Disturbance Theory

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The fundamental principles that Maxwell helped isolate are:

2.    A changing magnetic field produces an electric field of force

The next step is to generate a model based on these principles that we may visualize through Faraday’s lines of force.

When a current flows in a wire the magnetic lines of force loop around it. Similarly, when a magnet is moved through a wire loop, a current is generated in that loop. This gives us a basic structure as follows:

The electrical and magnetic lines of force may be visualized as two circular loops at right angles to each other, such that each loop passes through the center of the other loop.

If we model an atom based on Faraday’s lines of force, the entire atom shall consist of electrical and magnetic lines of forces coupled as above. There would be no sub-atomic particles. Such coupling can get quite complex as atoms grows in complexity.

Since the nucleus of an atom is positive, the electric lines of force in the atom would be mostly radial, and the magnetic lines of force would be mostly circumferential.

The atom is overall neutral. A neutral configuration shall consist of coupled electric and magnetic loops that are symmetrical. Symmetrical loops shall be circular. An asymmetric configuration shall consist of elongated loops resulting in charged or magnetized atom.

Under electrical induction, the electrical loop shall elongate producing positive and negative charge displacement. Under magnetic induction, the magnetic loop shall elongate producing North and South polarization.

When atoms are aligned in the plane of elongated electrical loops we shall have storage of electrical energy as in a capacitor. When atoms are aligned in the plane of elongated magnetic loops we shall have storage of magnetic energy as in a magnet.

It would be easy to distinguish between electric and magnetic lines of force.

When the opposite charges or poles exist in two separate objects situated close to each other, the elongated loop must pass through space from one to the other object. Here we have lines of forces that venture out in space but they always originate from and end in material atoms.  The displacement or polarization occurs in the atoms and not out in the space.

The “space medium” does not act like a dielectric as Maxwell assumed.

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The electromagnetic phenomenon, such as light, may exist in space by itself as follows.

1. The lines of forces are traveling through space as pulses.
2. They exist as simple loops without atomic configuration.
3. The electric and magnetic loops are symmetrical.

A free charged particle, such as a free electron shall be one end of the stretched loop of electric line of force. The other end of this loop may be attached to an atom (a positive ion) or simply extended into infinity.

The atom as a neutral particle is not really isolated. The lines of force extend from the atom into surrounding space to other atoms.

The atoms may appear discrete but they are never isolated unto themselves. They all connected as a continuum of lines of force.

Please note that this is only a working model of “Faraday atom”. The electrical and magnetic lines are always transforming into each other at a certain frequency.

All lines of forces are dynamic.

The nucleus of the atom is also made up of lines of force. These are extensions of the electromagnetic lines of force, but they have much higher frequency.

The nuclear lines of force have characteristics different from electromagnetic lines of force.

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