“Force” in Quantum Mechanics

Reference: Fundamentals of Physics

Quantum mechanics started with the study of black body radiation. It is, therefore, the mechanics of radiative energy. It not only applies to the radiative energy inside the atom, but also to the radiative energy out in the broad universe. Quantum mechanics’ object of study is much wider than the classical study of matter. 

As we have already established, the concept of force is more basic than the concept of energy. This concept originated in the context of matter. We now want to understand force in the context of the universe. 

Force comes about when there is a change in momentum, as in slowing, curving or reflecting of motion. This requires the universe to have a boundary where motion is slowed, curved or reflected. The universe is, therefore, finite with a boundary. We have explained elsewhere that the universe implies awareness. Beyond the universe there is non-awareness.

When motion slows, curves or reflects, it means that the motion is cyclic. The cycles have a frequency. The frequency could be extremely slow or extremely high.

Force gets its meaning from cyclic motion, as in E = hf, where E has the sense of force with substance.

Thus, more basic than force is the concept of cyclic motion, which has the property of frequency.

Force comes about when there is a change in motion, such as in the case of an impact. Change in motion occurs in terms of change in the frequency of cycles. This is seen as acceleration or deceleration in classical mechanics.

Force comes about in an impact because motion has the property of “centeredness” and it resists being changed. That means motion has a tendency to maintain its frequency. This tendency is referred to as inertia in classical mechanics.



Force is the manifestation of acceleration or deceleration in motion caused by a change in frequency. This is sensed in our very being. It underlies all our physical senses. All our perception is based on force. Any sense of substantialness comes from impacts on our sense organs. The impact is always in the form of force. This is what defines any substance. 

This was Faraday’s view of force. Maxwell defined it mathematically as “the tendency of a body to pass from one place to another,” that depended upon “the amount of change of tension which that passage would produce.” Unlike Faraday, Maxwell did not relate force directly to the nature of substance.

Inertia is the tendency of the motion to continue in its course. Any effort to change that course is met with resistance. Inertia is caused by the cyclic nature of motion. The cycles make the motion centered and finite. As the cycles increase in frequency, the motion becomes more centered and finite. This increases the inertia of motion. In fact, inertia may be measured in terms of frequency of motion.

Inertia is manifested only when the course of motion changes, as during an impact. There is an acceleration or deceleration of motion. This phenomena of inertia underlies the sense of touch. It also underlies during any contact, such as, between the eye and light. 


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