## The Logic of Field

##### Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As shown in the chapter on The Logic of Substance, both matter and light are substance, which means they have mass. The range of mass density of matter is from 1.93 x 104 kg/m3 for Gold to 9.0 x 10-2 kg/mfor Hydrogen (at Standard Temperature and Pressure). Compared to this range, the mass density of light is so small that it is replaced by an equivalent “energy” value. The unfortunate result of this has been that light is no longer looked upon as a substance, but as energy.

When it comes to light and other non-atomic particles, mass density may be referred to as mass concentration.

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## Mass Concentration

Much of the differences in mass concentration, in the case of matter, come from differences in the concentration of atoms. Atoms are highly concentrated in solids and liquids, but not so concentrated in gases. Atoms themselves seem to have a much narrower range of mass concentrations.

When we look at the mass concentration within atoms, it is an average of the mass concentrations of the nucleus and surrounding electrons. The nucleus is made up of a discrete number of protons and neutrons, that have about the same mass concentration. We may say that that the mass concentration of all nuclei is just about constant. The nucleus occupies about 0.01% of the atomic volume. Electrons fill rest of the space of the atom around the nucleus. The masses of electron and proton are in the ratio 1:1840. So the mass concentration of the nucleus is very high—much higher than the mass concentration of matter.

The mass concentration of an atom is practically constant. The mass concentration of matter reduces as space between the atoms increases.

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## The Atom

The atom divides sharply into nuclear and electronic regions. The mass concentration declines suddenly from the nuclear to electronic region in the ratio 1840 to 1. The sharp gradient at the interface of the two regions is seen as CHARGE. More on this later.

The nuclear region is populated by “material particles” that have center of mass. The property of center of mass makes one particle distinct from another. This property underlies the discreteness of material particles.

When the center of mass is not there as in the fast moving electronic region, the “particles” cannot be perceived as discrete. The electrons, therefore, appear to form a fluid ring around the nucleus, much like the ring of the Saturn. The old “solar system” model of the atom has long been discarded.

The atom is like a point nucleus encircled by a large Saturnian ring made of rapidly moving electronic fluid.

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## The Field Concept

The large Saturnian ring of electronic fluid around the nucleus gives us the first realistic concept of the field. This field is not abstract. It is substantial with appreciable mass concentration. There are no centers of mass in field particles. So the field is a continuum of substance in motion, much like a flowing fluid.

The electronic field has substance of very low mass concentration compared to the nucleus. The substance of the nucleus is considered as matter, but the substance of electronic field is not. The electronic field is very thin, almost ephemeral, flowing around the nucleus.

The fundamental property of a field is that it is a fast moving fluid substance with no center of mass type particles.

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## Electron and Photon Fields

Electrons and photons are not excitations jumping out of their respective fields. They are rapidly moving fields of substance. There is no stationary field just like there is no stationary aether. The motion of field arises from its low mass concentration as explained later.

Light is the “photon field”. Its mass concentration is still less than that of electron field. Therefore, its velocity is much greater. Light is classified as an electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Its spread in space is much wider than that of electronic field.

The wavelengths of light are much larger than that of electron field. The impact of light is much lesser than that of electron field.

The rapid flow of field gives it wave-like properties. The mass concentration of field gives it quantum (particle-like) properties.

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## The Gravitational Field

As the field spreads wider its becomes thinner and it substance is recognized only because of its impact or force. The gravitational field is spread out over the whole universe. Its substance is so thinned out that we may conceive it simply as force. Thus, gravity may be thought of as a very rapidly flowing force.

The speed and wavelengths of the gravitational field are yet to be determined, but they are expected to be much greater than those of light. This logical view is very different from what is generally believed in quantum physics.

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